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Migration, land use change and resilience within swidden landscapes in Indonesia, Laos and Vietnam


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Presented by Indah Waty Bong, from the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), at the Resilience 2017 conference in Stockholm (Sweden), August 20-23, 2017.

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Migration, land use change and resilience within swidden landscapes in Indonesia, Laos and Vietnam

  1. 1. Migration, land use change and resilience within swidden landscapes in Indonesia, Laos and Vietnam Indah Waty Bong, Moira Moeliono, Grace Wong, Maria Brockhaus, Pham Thu Thuy, Cynthia Maharani, Rob Cole Resilience 2017 – Resilience Frontiers for Global Sustainability Stockhlom, 20-23 August 2017
  2. 2. Background - ASEAN-Swiss Partnership on Social Forestry and Climate Change (ASFCC) 2013-now. - Ph 1: focus on social network of swidden communities. Migration is important fabric in swidden landscape. - Ph 2: How does migration affect the ways people manage forest and agricultural lands in rural areas?
  3. 3. Migration and land use change in swidden context Migration 3 aspects of migration: - Remittance - Labor loss - Knowledge/technology exchange (Adger et al 2002, Chen et al 2014, Davis 2015, Lambin et all 2001, Curran 2002, Etwisle et all 1998, Taylor et al 2006, Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011) Agricultural intensification/ shortened fallow Agricultural expansion Prolonged fallow/ forest re-growth/ agroforest system
  4. 4. Research sites and methods  4 villages in Kapuas Hulu, Indonesia  3 villages in Con Cuong and Van Ho, Vietnam  3 villages in Vienthong and Hiam, Laos Phase 2: - 30 gender and age disaggregated FGDs - 369 social network and household surveys Swidden agriculture is dominant. Proximity to or presence of industrial agriculture (oil palm, rubber, maize, acacia) and/or protected area Con Cuong Nghe An Van Ho Son LaVienthong and Hiam Huaphan Kapuas Hulu West Kalimantan ASFCC Project Sites Ph 1: 2013-2015 Ph 2: 2015-2016 Ph 3: 2017-now
  5. 5. Early findings: some figures and stories
  6. 6. Households migration history Sites Indonesia - Keluin - Bunut Lalau - Benua Tengah Hilir - Sungai Telian Laos - Sa Kok - Houay Moey - Muang Kao Vietnam - Que - Lay - Muong An % HH interviewed who are not of village origin (migrated- in) % HH interviewed whose one or more members have left the village (migrated- out) 10 41 26 24 84 60 30 44 93 26 100 60 79 67 69 63 95 44 58 54
  7. 7. Story 1: Keluin, Indonesia Migration enables agricultural intensification Indonesia Laos Vietnam Percentage of HH Benua tengah (n=38) Bunut Lalau (n=37) Keluin (n=10) Sung. Telian (n=25) Huay Moey (n=40) Moeng Kau (n=40) Sakok (n=45) Lay (n=43) Muong An (n=50) Que (n=41) Received remittance? 36.8 13.5 90 16 20 42.5 40 2.3 12 31.7 Depend on remittance as important part of livelihood/income (yes) 21.1 10.8 80 8 2.5 7.5 15.6 2.3 8 17.1 Rely on remittance for farming? 21.1 18.9 90 8 7.5 20 26.7 8 9.8 Remittance allow investment in farming assets and inputs 21.1 18.9 90 12 2.5 13.3 6 4.9 Land use and agriculture or forest practices changed as a result? 18.4 13.5 90 2.5 13.3 2.4 - All households had/have member(s) who left/migrated out of village (100%) - 90% of these migrants sent remittance home - All remittance receiving HHs relied on remittance for farming. - Remittance allows intensification through purchase of herbicides and compensates loss labor through hiring people to work on the field. How this affects swidden resilience?
  8. 8. Allow forest re-growth (far) Pressure on close-to-settlement land? • Shortened fallow, • Intensive use of herbicides and chemical fertilizers Vulnerable? • Swidden mainly for subsistence • Crop disease and pests was mentioned as the most often and severe shock experienced by hhs in 2015-2016. • Tenure security? When land is left ‘unused’, they might loose their claim (as state claims it as national park)
  9. 9. Story 2: Houay Moey, Laos - Resettlement was part of gov. program to eliminate swidden and poppy, and rural development. - 60% of households were not of village origin (Resettled from several uphill villages) - In the new location, gov. promoted permanent agriculture. But land was insufficient (each hh received 0.2ha) and yield was low. - Most hhs experienced food shortage. Hhs returned to the upland to do swidden. Resettlement leads to dual localities
  10. 10. Resettlement to re-store upland forests? Dual localities: coping strategies and pathway to agricultural intensification and expansion - HHs travel back and forth between upland and the new village, creating and maintaining dual- localities. - Opened access to market and opportunities (esp.neighboring Vietnam) - Increased connectivity to the old village (self-initiated). This allows introduction of agricultural technology (e.g. tractor) and easier mobility between both localities as well as transportation of harvest.  Intensification, particularly seeds for cash crop production (maize)  Fallow and forest were converted to cash crops. Improved livelihoods? - Vulnerable to market change - Policy change?
  11. 11. Rural-rural migration  agriculture expansion and intensification Story 3: Lay, Vietnam - 92% of households were not of village origin. They came from another district mainly in search of arable land for swidden. - Started with few hhs in early 1980’s  network for the movement of later settlers 0 20 40 60 80 Keluin Bunut Lalau Benua Tengah Sungai Telian Sa Kok Houay Muay Muang Kao Que Lay Muong An Indonesia Laos Vietnam Why respondent moved to the village (% of responses) Work-related School/studies Marriage Other family reason Better service/housing Land availability Government policy/resettlement Other
  12. 12. - In the past: after land was exhausted, people left it fallow and moved to a new place. - National part established. Swidden is prohibited. Land allocation program in other places but not in Lay. - Unsuccessful attempts of resettlement by gov. (the targeted area is less fertile). - Land conversion and intensification of cash crops (esp.maize). Sale of crops is the main income for 91% of hhs). - Swidden to terraced permanent farm
  13. 13. Conclusion Immediate outcomes on land use might be similar, But… Overarching impacts on resilience and how migrations affects land use within swidden landscape are different from one place to other and involves multiple processes. - Land availability (physically and ‘legally’) - Social and culture - Policy - Market
  14. 14. Thank you