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The ASFN 6th Conference
2 June, 2015, 16:15-17:30
Parallel 3: Management and Governance
of Dynamic Forest Landscape
Mappin...
Swidden farming is found throughout the mountains of
mainland Southeast Asia; however, there is a current
preference for o...
Khmu village,
Viangkham district,
Louang Phabang province,
Lao PDR
Karen village, Toungoo district,
the Bago division, Mya...
YANGON
•MYANMAR
the Bago mountains
Bago Yoma, Swidden Farming and Karen Area
•After the colonization of Lower
Burma in 185...
•YANGON
•MYANMAR
•Karen areas were demarcated
where they have been allowed to
freely practice swidden farming.
Bago Yoma, ...
•Cutting the field January - March •Burning the field April
•Taungya in rainy season July •Harvest of upland rice November...
8Livelihood: remoteness and self-sufficiency
•Swidden farming and livelihood
•9
10
Bambusa polymorpha
(ChataungWa)
11
12
①2002 ②2003 ③2004 ④2005 ⑤2006
⑥2007 ⑦2008 ⑧2009 ⑨2010 ⑩2011
relocation of the village
bamboo flowering
15Total area of
swidden plots (ha)
Number of
swidden plots
Average plot
size(ha)
Average fallow
periods (years)
①2002 161....
Current year taungya, young fallow and old fallow
Nyein Chan et.al., 2013. Forest Ecology and Management,304
 Above-ground biomass accumulation
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
1...
Above-ground biomass accumulation
Ln (y) = 2.439+0.629 Ln (x)
(R2 = 0.721, P<0.001)
- c.35-years to natural
teak-bearing f...
Transition in swidden land use
Transition of indigenous uses
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
%oftotalHHs
...
Community forest ?
November 2014
Teak regeneration in swidden field
Research Site
•S village in Luang Prabang
Province
•Khmu people
•84 household opened 96 fields
in 2005
•82 household opene...
隣村
借地
焼畑
地
Swidden farming 2005-2011
•Maize Vietnam Thailand
Young fallow with Ya Khi Lo
‘the end of cheap food’
(The Economist 6 December 2007)
High food pric...
Dec 2012, new road was constructed !
Myanmar
Karen swidden cultivation
(2002~2011 10 years)
Laos
Khmu swidden cultivation
(2005~2011 7 years)
Village area 4,97...
Consequences of Myanmar’s reintegration
into the world……
Swidden agriculture has experienced drastic
transformation in to ...
A case study in Matupi, southern Chin State, Myanmar.
(Nyein Chan & Shinya TAKEDA. 2015. Can Wa-U (Amorphophallus spp.) cu...
Swidden transformations and rural livelihoods
Cash crops have often improved livelihoods but
complete specialization for t...
Swidden + Paddy Fields
Small Scale Forest Management
vs
Large Scale Reforestation / Deforestation ?
⇒ Land policy
Conseque...
•3
0
Mapping a full cycle of swidden cultivation in the mountains of Myanmar and Laos
Mapping a full cycle of swidden cultivation in the mountains of Myanmar and Laos
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Mapping a full cycle of swidden cultivation in the mountains of Myanmar and Laos

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Presentation by Prof Shinya Takeda from Kyoto University at the ASFN 6th Conference at Inle Lake in June 2015.

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Mapping a full cycle of swidden cultivation in the mountains of Myanmar and Laos

  1. 1. The ASFN 6th Conference 2 June, 2015, 16:15-17:30 Parallel 3: Management and Governance of Dynamic Forest Landscape Mapping a full cycle of swidden cultivation in the mountains of Myanmar and Laos: Lessons learned from long-term monitoring of swidden cultivation in one Karen and one Khmu village Takeda, Shinya Graduate School of Asia and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
  2. 2. Swidden farming is found throughout the mountains of mainland Southeast Asia; however, there is a current preference for other land-use systems. The recent trend toward a market economy has forced the people and forests in the mountains to undergo various changes as they integrate into the world market. They have been impacted by the enclosure movement called the Land and Forest Allocation Program, the expansion of the cultivation of cash crops such as maize and Para rubber trees, the increase in logging concessions, and re-afforestation aimed at industrial wood resources. Introduction
  3. 3. Khmu village, Viangkham district, Louang Phabang province, Lao PDR Karen village, Toungoo district, the Bago division, Myanmar Research sites Inle Lake
  4. 4. YANGON •MYANMAR the Bago mountains Bago Yoma, Swidden Farming and Karen Area •After the colonization of Lower Burma in 1853, reserved forests were established by the colonial government in the Bago mountains (Bago Yoma), the homeland of the Karen swidden cultivators. •Swidden farming was banned to protect teak forests for long-term commercial exploitation.
  5. 5. •YANGON •MYANMAR •Karen areas were demarcated where they have been allowed to freely practice swidden farming. Bago Yoma, Swidden Farming and Karen Area the Bago mountains
  6. 6. •Cutting the field January - March •Burning the field April •Taungya in rainy season July •Harvest of upland rice November Bambusa polymorpha (chataungwa) Bambusa tulda ( thaiwa )
  7. 7. 8Livelihood: remoteness and self-sufficiency
  8. 8. •Swidden farming and livelihood •9
  9. 9. 10 Bambusa polymorpha (ChataungWa)
  10. 10. 11
  11. 11. 12
  12. 12. ①2002 ②2003 ③2004 ④2005 ⑤2006 ⑥2007 ⑦2008 ⑧2009 ⑨2010 ⑩2011 relocation of the village bamboo flowering
  13. 13. 15Total area of swidden plots (ha) Number of swidden plots Average plot size(ha) Average fallow periods (years) ①2002 161.46 60 2.69 17.9 ②2003 141.15 66 2.14 15.1 ③2004 179.91 75 2.40 12.8 ④2005 196.88 73 2.70 13.0 ⑤2006 96.06 56 1.72 11.9 ⑥2007 162.73 72 2.26 12.4 ⑦2008 166.34 77 2.16 11.4 ⑧2009 149.81 71 2.11 13.9 ⑨2010 146.41 62 2.36 13.6 ⑩2011 56.62 68 0.83 11.4 relocation of the village bamboo flowering
  14. 14. Current year taungya, young fallow and old fallow
  15. 15. Nyein Chan et.al., 2013. Forest Ecology and Management,304  Above-ground biomass accumulation 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 Old forest Averagedrybiomass(Mg/ha) Fallow age (years) Climber Understorey Dead bamboo Live bamboo Tree
  16. 16. Above-ground biomass accumulation Ln (y) = 2.439+0.629 Ln (x) (R2 = 0.721, P<0.001) - c.35-years to natural teak-bearing forests - Faster than other fallows in Northern Thai & NW. Vietnam Nyein Chan et.al., 2013. Forest Ecology and Management,304  Suckers/rhizomes and coppicing – important regeneration strategies
  17. 17. Transition in swidden land use Transition of indigenous uses 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 %oftotalHHs Year Series1 Series2 Series3 Series4 2005 – Village move to new place near to road 2010 – Private plantation nearby Nyien Chan.2015. Ethnic groups, transition in their indigenous uses of forest resources and current trend in fallow forest recovery swidden paddy No swidden Teak taungya 1=2002
  18. 18. Community forest ? November 2014 Teak regeneration in swidden field
  19. 19. Research Site •S village in Luang Prabang Province •Khmu people •84 household opened 96 fields in 2005 •82 household opened 96 fields in 2006
  20. 20. 隣村 借地 焼畑 地 Swidden farming 2005-2011
  21. 21. •Maize Vietnam Thailand Young fallow with Ya Khi Lo ‘the end of cheap food’ (The Economist 6 December 2007) High food prices and the food crisis - experiences and lessons learned, FAO 2009
  22. 22. Dec 2012, new road was constructed !
  23. 23. Myanmar Karen swidden cultivation (2002~2011 10 years) Laos Khmu swidden cultivation (2005~2011 7 years) Village area 4,973.94ha A Total are of swidden 161.46ha B Potential fallow period 30.8years (A/B) Average fallow periods 12 years 1,673.88ha A 143.65ha B 11.7years (A/B) 4 years Comparison of swidden cultivation system in Karen and Khmu village maize goat, pig, cattle, buffalo (cassava production for feed) paper mulberry, lac, agarwood, para rubber Sesame, cotton, chili commercial crop productive fallow commercial crop productive fallow continuous upland farming Para rubber plantation small paddy field teak plantation subsistence upland rice production wage labor charcoal and bamboo
  24. 24. Consequences of Myanmar’s reintegration into the world…… Swidden agriculture has experienced drastic transformation in to other diverse market-oriented land use types. People living close to roads tend to develop market-oriented farming practices. Intensive plantations is another emerging driver of the rapid transformation of swidden fields. Out migration; work away from home village.....
  25. 25. A case study in Matupi, southern Chin State, Myanmar. (Nyein Chan & Shinya TAKEDA. 2015. Can Wa-U (Amorphophallus spp.) cultivation be an alternative livelihood option for swidden cultivators in the course of swidden transformation? ) • Extent of swidden transformation in T village 27 0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Area(ha) No.ofhouseholds(HHs) Year No. of HHs Area (ha) (a)
  26. 26. Swidden transformations and rural livelihoods Cash crops have often improved livelihoods but complete specialization for the market increases vulnerability. (Cramb 2009) Positive market incentives and supportive government policies are better than standardized, top-down directives. Swidden farming plays a key role in 1) ensuring livelihood safety of local people against market fluctuations and 2)conserving biodiversity.
  27. 27. Swidden + Paddy Fields Small Scale Forest Management vs Large Scale Reforestation / Deforestation ? ⇒ Land policy Consequences of Myanmar’s reintegration into the world……and community livelihoods and environment conservation.
  28. 28. •3 0

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