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Mangrove emission factors: Scientific background on key emission factors

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Presented by Sigit Sasmito and Daniel Murdiyarso, CIFOR, at Online Workshop Capacity Building on the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement, FREL Diagnostic and Uncertainty Analysis, April 14th, 2020

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Mangrove emission factors: Scientific background on key emission factors

  1. 1. Session 4 Mangrove emission factors: Scientific background on key emission factors Sigit D. Sasmito and Daniel Murdiyarso 14 April 2020
  2. 2. Objectives • Scientific background for some key emission/removal factors for coastal wetlands (mangrove) • To overview available Tier 1 default emission/removal factors in 2013 IPCC Wetlands Supplement • To identify potential generated emission/removal factors and scientific approach refinements for Tier 2 and 3 levels (e.g., AGB, DOM, Soil) in Indonesia
  3. 3. Carbon pools in mangrove ecosystem Mangrove ecosystems Source: Kauffman and Donato (2012)
  4. 4. Field data collection: carbon stocks Source: Kauffman and Donato (2012)
  5. 5. Tier 1 emission/removal factors: an overview Forest management Extraction (Aquaculture, salt pond) Drainage Biomass DOM Soil Stock-Different Biomass fluxes DOM decomposition Soil C/GHG fluxes Gain-Loss Fluvial fluxes (DOC, POC) Rewetting (restoration, rehabilitation) Management Activity N2O C burial, CH4 CO2 Source: 2013 IPCC Wetlands Supplement
  6. 6. Tier 2 and 3 data availability: C-stock Mangrove typology map is adopted from Worthington & Spalding (2018). Cambridge. Murdiyarso et al. (2015). Nature Clim Change. Sidik et al. (2019). Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. Arifanti et al. (2019). Forest Ecology and Management. Cameron et al. (2019). Ecological Application. Sasmito et al. (2020). Global Change Biology. Kusumaningtyas et al. (2019). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science.
  7. 7. Tier 2 and 3 data availability: C-stock and GHG fluxes Source: Sasmito et al. (2019). Global Change Biology. • Data availability from systematic review with publication cut-off date Nov 2018
  8. 8. Biomass emission/removal factors availability for Tier 1 & 2 Parameters Tier 1* Tier 2** Carbon fraction of AGB 45.1 % (Table 4.2) NA -> Tier 1 Wood density 0.71 (Table 4.6) NA -> Tier 1 AGB (before activity) 192 tonnes dm/ha (Table 4.3) 187 tonnes C/ha Ref 1 118 tonnes C/ha Ref 2 96 tonnes C/ha Ref 3 10—130 tonnes C/ha/yr Ref 6 AGB (after FM 0 yr) NA 0% Ref 3 AGB (after Aq 15 yr) NA 15% Ref 3 Annual AGB growth 9.9 tonnes dm/ha/yr (Table 4.4) 3.6 tonnes C/ha/yr Ref 3 4—7 tonnes C/ha/yr Ref 4 16.6 tonnes C/ha/yr Ref 5 R/S ratio 0.49 (Table 4.5) 0.13 Ref 1 0.23 Ref 2 0.18 Ref 3 Note: * = Only value from tropical wet mangrove is presented here; ** Mean are compiled from Ref 1 = Murdiyarso et al. (2015), Ref 2 = Arifanti et al. (2019), Ref 3 = Sasmito et al. (2020), Ref 4 = Sasmito et al. (2019), Ref 5 = Sidik et al. (2019), Ref 6 = Kusumaningtyas et al. (2019)
  9. 9. DOM emission/removal factors availability for Tier 1 & 2 Parameters Tier 1* Tier 2** Dead wood carbon stocks 10.7 (Table 4.7) 22.2 tonnes C/ha Ref 1 14.1 tonnes C/ha Ref 2 Dead wood carbon stocks (after FM 0 yr) NA 199% Ref 2 Dead wood carbon stocks (after Aq 0 yr) NA 204% Ref 2 Litter carbon stocks 0.7 (Table 4.7) NA Note: * = Only value from tropical wet mangrove is presented here; ** = Data are compiled from Ref 1 = Murdiyarso et al. (2015), Ref 2 = Sasmito et al. (2020)
  10. 10. Biomass emission/removal factors refinement (1) • Mangrove typology map (Durr et al. 2011; Worthington and Spalding, 2018) Source: Sasmito et al. (2020). Global Change Biology. N=158 N=158
  11. 11. Biomass emission/removal factors refinement (2) • Improved biomass estimation by using country-specific allometric equation (Krisnawati et al. 2012) Source: Krisnawati et al. (2012). Monograf model-model alometrik untuk pendugaan biomassa pohon pada berbagai tipe ekosistem hutan di Indonesia. FOERDIA-MOEF.
  12. 12. Biomass emission/removal factors refinement (3) • Biomass regrowth after activity (Sasmito et al. 2019, 2020; Sidik et al. 2019) Source: Sasmito et al. (2019, 2020). Global Change Biology. Carbonstocks(tonnesC/ha) Time since reg. (yr) Time since reg. (yr) Time since reg. (yr) N = 97
  13. 13. DOM emission/removal factors refinement • Dead wood specific gravity (Kauffman & Cole 2010; Sasmito et al. 2020) • DOM stocks increase after forest management (~100%), Source: Sasmito et al. (2020). Global Change Biology. Source: Kauffman and Cole (2010). Wetlands.
  14. 14. Soil emission/removal factors availability Parameters Tier 1 Tier 2 Soil before 471 (Organic soil) 286 (Mineral soil) 434 (Organic soil) -> Sasmito et al (2020) More data from Arifanti et al. (2019), Murdiyarso et al. (2015), Sidik et al. (2019) Soil after (Construction) 0 -> 1 meter NA Soil after (Use) NA 44% -> 2 meter depth (Sasmito et al 2020) Soil after (Discontinued) NA Arifanti et al. (2019) List of default assumptions in 2013 Wetlands Supplement: • Soil carbon stock is limited up to 1 meter for Tier 1 • Forest management -> zero soil carbon stock different for Tier 1 • Extraction -> zero soil carbon stock at after construction pond/excavated soils
  15. 15. Soil emission/removal factors refinement (1) List of gaps: • Soil carbon stock can be limited up to 2- 3 meters • Forest management -> zero soil carbon stock different statistically • Extraction -> 40% remained carbon stocks at excavated soils • Update Table 4.8 of Chapter 4 of 2013 Wetlands Supplement by including all extraction phases: • Construction/Immediate ponds development • Use/Active ponds • Discontinued/Abandoned ponds • Mass balance vs. depth equivalent (See Andretta et al. 2016) Source: Sasmito et al. (2020). Global Change Biology.
  16. 16. Extraction emission/removal factors refinement Biomass DOM Soil Soil 0 remained stocks 1meter Biomass DOM Soil Soil ? 2meter Soil Soil 16 years of abandoned released 33 tonnes C/ha/yr (Arifanti et al. 2019) Time Mangrove Construction Use Discontinued Tier1&2Tier3 40% remained after 15 years use (Sasmito et al. 2020)
  17. 17. Emission/removal factors derived from fluxes and non-CO2 Parameters Tier 1 Tier 2 Soil CO2 emission (rewetting) -> soil carbon burial -1.62 tonnes C/ha/yr – (0.21—1.19) tonnes C/ha/yr Ref 1 –1.26 tonnes C/ha/yr Ref 2 –(1.94—17.22) tonnes C/ha/yr Ref 3 Soil CO2 emission (drainage) 7.9 tonnes C/ha/yr NA Soil CH4 emission (rewetting) 193.7 kg CH4 ha/yr Cameron et al. (2019b) Ulumuddin (2019) Sasmito et al. In preparation. Soil N2O emission (Aquaculture) 0.00169 kg N2O-N per kg fish produced NA Fluvial export (DOC, POC, DIC) NA NA Note: Ref 1 = Sasmito et al. 2020. Catena; Ref 2 = Hapsari et al. 2019. Global Change Biology; Ref 3 = Kusumaningtyas et al. 2019. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science.
  18. 18. Choice of Activity Data • National forest cover change (primary and secondary mangrove) • Land-use change in mangrove: • Forest management -> production forest • Aquaculture -> MMAF • Drainage • Rewetting/restoration -> restoration project/initiative • Southeast Asia mangrove cover change (2000-2012) -> Richards and Friess (2016). PNAS.
  19. 19. Summary points • Scientific evidence for key emission/removal factors (AGB, DOM, Soil) in mangrove is available at following levels: • Tier 1 (2013 IPCC Wetlands Supplement), • Tier 2 (Bioregional Indonesia specific), and • Tier 3 (Ecological/Hydro-geomorphic types) -> Current or Future opportunity? • Remaining gaps: • Soil carbon emission/removal factors (extraction activity) • Non-CO2 emission/removal factors • Integrating activity data (Primary and Secondary mangrove) with available mangrove typology map • Annual area of aquaculture (construction, use, discontinued) • Carbon emission/removal factors from seagrass -> LIPI P2O (Wahyudi et al. 2019. Ocean Science Journal) and KKP (Rahayu et al. 2019. Aquatic Geochemistry)
  20. 20. References 1. Andreetta, A., Huertas, A. D., Lotti, M., & Cerise, S. (2016). Land use changes affecting soil organic carbon storage along a mangrove swamp rice chronosequence in the Cacheu and Oio regions (northern Guinea‐Bissau). Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 216, 314–321. 2. Arifanti, V. B., Kauffman, J. B., Hadriyanto, D., Murdiyarso, D., & Diana, R. (2019). Carbon dynamics and land use carbon footprints in mangrove-converted aquaculture: The case of the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Forest ecology and management, 432, 17-29. 3. Cameron, C., Hutley, L. B., Friess, D. A., & Brown, B. (2019). Community structure dynamics and carbon stock change of rehabilitated mangrove forests in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological applications, 29(1), e01810. 4. Cameron, C., Hutley, L. B., Friess, D. A., & Munksgaard, N. C. (2019b). Hydroperiod, soil moisture and bioturbation are critical drivers of greenhouse gas fluxes and vary as a function of landuse change in mangroves of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Science of the Total Environment, 654, 365-377. 5. Dürr, H. H., Laruelle, G. G., van Kempen, C. M., Slomp, C. P., Meybeck, M., & Middelkoop, H. (2011). Worldwide Typology of Nearshore Coastal Systems: Defining the Estuarine Filter of River Inputs to the Oceans. Estuaries and Coasts, 34(3), 441-458. 6. Hiraishi, T., Krug, T., Tanabe, K., Srivastava, N., Baasansuren, J., Fukuda, M., & Troxler, T. (2014). 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories: Wetlands. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC. 7. Kauffman, J. B., & Cole, T. G. (2010). Micronesian Mangrove Forest Structure and Tree Responses to a Severe Typhoon. Wetlands, 30(6), 8. Kauffman, J., & Donato, D. (2012). Protocols for the measurement, monitoring and reporting of structure, biomass and carbon stocks in mangrove forests. CIFOR Working Paper(86). 9. Krisnawati, Haruni, Wahyu Catur Adinugroho, and Rinaldi Imanuddin. "Monograf model-model alometrik untuk pendugaan biomassa pohon pada berbagai tipe ekosistem hutan di Indonesia." Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Konservasi dan Rehabilitasi, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Bogor (2012). 10. Kusumaningtyas, M. A., Hutahaean, A. A., Fischer, H. W., Perez-Mayo, M., Ransby, D., & Jennerjahn, T. C. (2019). Variability in the organic carbon stocks, sources, and accumulation rates of Indonesian mangrove ecosystems. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 218, 310-323. 11. Murdiyarso, D., Purbopuspito, J., Kauffman, J. B., Warren, M. W., Sasmito, S. D., Donato, D. C., ... & Kurnianto, S. (2015). The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation. Nature Climate Change, 5(12), 1089-1092. 12. Rahayu, Y. P., Solihuddin, T., Kusumaningtyas, M. A., Afi Ati, R. N., Salim, H. L., Rixen, T., & Hutahaean, A. A. (2019). The Sources of Organic Matter in Seagrass Sediments and Their Contribution to Carbon Stocks in the Spermonde Islands, Indonesia. Aquatic Geochemistry. 13. Richards, D. R., & Friess, D. A. (2016). Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(2), 344-349. 14. Sasmito, S. D., Kuzyakov, Y., Lubis, A. A., Murdiyarso, D., Hutley, L. B., Bachri, S., ... & Borchard, N. (2020). Organic carbon burial and sources in soils of coastal mudflat and mangrove ecosystems. Catena, 187, 104414. 15. Sasmito, S. D., Sillanpää, M., Hayes, M. A., Bachri, S., Saragi‐Sasmito, M. F., Sidik, F., ... & Nugroho, J. D. (2020). Mangrove blue carbon stocks and dynamics are controlled by hydrogeomorphic settings and land‐use change. Global Change Biology. 16. Sasmito, S. D., Taillardat, P., Clendenning, J. N., Cameron, C., Friess, D. A., Murdiyarso, D., & Hutley, L. B. (2019). Effect of land‐use and land‐cover change on mangrove blue carbon: A systematic review. Global change biology, 25(12), 4291-4302. 17. Sidik, F., Fernanda Adame, M., & Lovelock, C. E. (2019). Carbon sequestration and fluxes of restored mangroves in abandoned aquaculture ponds. Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, 15(2), 177-192. 18. Ulumuddin, Y. (2019). Pore-water methane dynamics as an indicator of ecosystem functioning following Ecological Mangrove Rehabilitation (EMR) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia (Doctoral dissertation, The Australian National University (Australia)). 19. Wahyudi, A. a. J., Rahmawati, S., Irawan, A., Hadiyanto, H., Prayudha, B., Hafizt, M., . . . Kiswara, W. (2020). Assessing Carbon Stock and Sequestration of the Tropical Seagrass Meadows in Indonesia. Ocean Science Journal. doi:10.1007/s12601-020-0003-0 20. Worthington, T., & Spalding, M. (2018). Mangrove restoration potential: A global map highlighting a critical opportunity. https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.39153
  21. 21. Acknowledgements The capacity building materials were made possible through a grant given by the Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI) to the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) under the Agreement No. INS 2070-19/0010. While CIFOR gratefully acknowledges the support, the information provided in the materials do not represent the views or positions of the Norwegian Government. CIFOR would like to recognize the support by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in generating some of information used in the materials.
  22. 22. Thank you

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