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Mangrove emission factors: Navigating chapter 4-Coastal wetlands

Presented by Rupesh Bhomia, Scientist, CIFOR at Online Workshop Capacity Building on the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement, FREL Diagnostic and Uncertainty Analysis, 20-22 September 2021

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Mangrove emission factors:
Navigating Chapter 4 – Coastal Wetlands
(Session 1)
Rupesh Bhomia, Sigit Sasmito and
Daniel Murdiyarso
CIFOR
Concluding Remarks
Purpose of this session
• Familiarize the structure of 2013 IPCC Wetlands
Supplement, especially Chapter 4
• Understand the links with 2006 IPCC Guidelines, especially
on mangroves and the assumptions used
• Discuss Tier 1 methods (parameters and factors) as default
values and possibility of using Tier 2
• Explore the use of the Wetlands Supplement (Chapter 4)
for Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL)
Introduce the Wetland IPCC
supplement to:
• Present linkages between the 2006
IPCC guidelines and the supplement
• Provide an understanding of the
structure of the supplement for
reporting national emissions/
removals from peatlands
https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/
Objectives
2006 IPCC Guidelines on wetlands restricted to
peatlands drained & managed for peat extraction,
conversion to flooded lands, & limited guidance for
drained organic soils
 Wetlands Supplement extends content of 2006
Guidelines by filling gaps and providing updates
reflecting scientific advances, but does not replace it
Introduction: Overview of the guidelines
Introduction: Overview of the guidelines
Chapters 2 and 3 in the Wetlands Supplement do not
provide additional guidance for the pools biomass and dead
organic matter
➢Generic methods for estimating above-ground and below-
ground biomass carbon stock changes for all land-use
categories are available in Section 2.3.1, Chapter 2 in
Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines
Introduction: Overview of the guidelines
Ad

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Mangrove emission factors: Navigating chapter 4-Coastal wetlands

  • 1. Mangrove emission factors: Navigating Chapter 4 – Coastal Wetlands (Session 1) Rupesh Bhomia, Sigit Sasmito and Daniel Murdiyarso CIFOR
  • 2. Concluding Remarks Purpose of this session • Familiarize the structure of 2013 IPCC Wetlands Supplement, especially Chapter 4 • Understand the links with 2006 IPCC Guidelines, especially on mangroves and the assumptions used • Discuss Tier 1 methods (parameters and factors) as default values and possibility of using Tier 2 • Explore the use of the Wetlands Supplement (Chapter 4) for Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL)
  • 3. Introduce the Wetland IPCC supplement to: • Present linkages between the 2006 IPCC guidelines and the supplement • Provide an understanding of the structure of the supplement for reporting national emissions/ removals from peatlands https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/ Objectives
  • 4. 2006 IPCC Guidelines on wetlands restricted to peatlands drained & managed for peat extraction, conversion to flooded lands, & limited guidance for drained organic soils  Wetlands Supplement extends content of 2006 Guidelines by filling gaps and providing updates reflecting scientific advances, but does not replace it Introduction: Overview of the guidelines
  • 5. Introduction: Overview of the guidelines
  • 6. Chapters 2 and 3 in the Wetlands Supplement do not provide additional guidance for the pools biomass and dead organic matter ➢Generic methods for estimating above-ground and below- ground biomass carbon stock changes for all land-use categories are available in Section 2.3.1, Chapter 2 in Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines Introduction: Overview of the guidelines
  • 7. Chapter 4 provides: oguidance for CO2 emissions and removals from organic and mineral soils for the management activities of extraction (including construction of aquaculture and salt production ponds), drainage and rewetting, revegetation and creation; o default data for estimation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and removals for soils in mangrove, tidal marsh and seagrass meadows; oguidance for N2O emissions during aquaculture use; oguidance for CH4 emissions for rewetting, revegetation and creation of mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrass meadows. Introduction: Overview of the guidelines
  • 8. Tier: A level of methodological complexity • Tier 1: Default method. Equations & emission factors (EF) for estimating emissions/removals in guidelines • Tier 2: Intermediate method. Country-specific or disaggregation by e.g. climate, peat-nutrient status, etc. • Tier 3: The most complex & data-demanding method. Detailed modeling / high resolution. • All tiers are intended to provide unbiased estimates. Accuracy & precision expected to improve from Tier 1 to Tier 3 Methodological Tiers
  • 9. • Need of guidance on estimating and reporting anthropogenic GHG emissions and removals from managed coastal wetlands. • Coastal wetlands (tidal freshwater and salt marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangroves) hold large reservoirs of carbon (C) in biomass and especially soil • Significant global stocks: omangroves, ~8 Pg C (Donato et al., 2011), otidal marshes, ~0.8 Pg C (Pendleton et al., 2012), and oseagrass meadows, 4.2 – 8.4 Pg C (Fourqurean et al., 2012) Coastal Blue Carbon: Background
  • 10. It is a good practice to report mangroves in the appropriate national land-use category according to the national forest definition Source: IPCC (2014) Mangroves
  • 11. Specific management activities in mangroves Activity Sub activity Activities relevant to CO2 emissions and removals Forest management practices in mangroves* Planting, thinning, harvest, wood removal, fuelwood removal, charcoal production* Extraction Excavation to enable port, harbour and marina construction and filling or dredging to facilitate raising the elevation of land Drainage Agriculture, forestry, mosquito control Rewetting, revegetation and creation Conversion from drained to saturated soils by restoring hydrology and reestablishment of vegetation Activities relevant to non-CO2 emissions Aquaculture (use) N2O emissions from aquaculture use Rewetted soils CH4 emissions from change to natural vegetation following modifications to restore hydrology * including conversion to Forest Land or conversion from Forest Land to other land uses.
  • 12. Carbon pools – Tier 1 (t d.m. ha-1) Aboveground Biomass Dead organic matter Soil carbon Belowground Biomass 2 3 4 Organic: 471 (216-935) Mineral: 286 (55-1376) (Table 4.11) Litter: 0.7 (0-1.3) Dead wood: 10.7 (6.5-14.8) (Table 4.7) Tropical Wet 0.49 (0.04-1.1) Tropical Dry 0.29 (0.09-0.79) Root/shoot ratio, R (Table 4.5) Tropical Wet 192 (8.7-384) Tropical Dry 92 (3.2-201) (Table 4.3) 1
  • 13. Assumptions – Tier 1 Forest management, soil carbon stock does not change Extraction, after construction pond/excavated soils, soil carbon stock is zero Soil carbon stock is limited up to 1 meter All estimates are “initial change” Salt production/ Aquculture
  • 14. 0.71
  • 15. Tier 1: All pools emissions/removals - Ext Eqn.4.4 Eqn.4.5 Eqn.4.6 Eqn.4.4 Eqn.4.5 Eqn.4.6 Eqn.4.4 Eqn.4.5 Eqn.4.6
  • 16. Tier 1: All pools emissions/removals - Exc Eqn.4.4 Eqn. 4.5 Eqn. 4.6
  • 17. Tier 1: Biomass emissions/removals - Ext 0.45 0.49 192
  • 18. Tier 1: DOM emissions/removals - Ext 0 10.7+0.7
  • 19. Tier 1: Soil emissions/removals - Ext 0 471
  • 20. Higher Tiers: for Stock-Different methods Tier 2 National data could include country specific values of any parameter used in the Tier 1 method or values that permit biomass carbon stock changes using the Stock-Difference method. Refer also to the relevant sections of Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for further guidance. Tier 3 Tier 3 methods may employ the use of data that are of higher order spatial disaggregation and that depend on variation in salinity or further disaggregation of regional differences within a country. Forest growth rates of specific age ranges could be applied. Refer also to the relevant sections of Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for further guidance.
  • 22. Tier 1: CO2 emissions from rewetting -1.62 t C/ha/yr
  • 23. Tier 1: CO2 emissions from drainage 7.9 t C/ha/yr
  • 24. Tier 1: CH4 emissions from rewetting 193.7 kg CH4 ha/yr
  • 25. Tier 1: N2O emissions from aquaculture 0.00169 kg N2O-N per kg fish produced
  • 26. Reference Ardhani, T.S.P. (2020). Mangrove vegetation structures and ecosystem carbon stocks across different coastal typologies in Demak Regency, Central Java. (Master Thesis), Bogor: IPB University. Arif, A.M., Guntur, G., Ricky, A.B., Novianti, P., & Andik, I. (2017). Mangrove ecosystem C-stocks of Lamongan, Indonesia and its correlation with forest age. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, 21(8). Arifanti, V.B. (2017). Carbon Dynamics Associated with Land Cover Change in Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems of the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. (Ph.D. dissertation). Corvallis, Oregon, USA: Oregon State University. Arifanti, V. B., Kauffman, J. B., Hadriyanto, D., Murdiyarso, D., & Diana, R. (2019). Carbon dynamics and land use carbon footprints in mangrove-converted aquaculture : The case of the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 432, 17–29. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.047 Donato, D.C., Kauffman, J.B., Murdiyarso, D., Kurnianto, S., Stidham, M., Kanninen, M. (2011). Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geoscience, 4(5), 293–297. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1123. FAO (2007). The world’s mangroves 1980–2005. FAO Forestry Paper. Rome, Italy: FAO. Ginting, Y. R. S. (2018). Mangrove distribution, sedimentation, and soil carbon accumulation in North Sumatra, Indonesia. (Master Thesis). Bogor, Indonesia: IPB University. Giri, C., Ochieng, E., Tieszen, L.L., Zhu, Z., Singh, A., Loveland, T., Masek , J., & Duke, N. (2011). Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20, 154–159. [IPCC]. (2014). 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands. Hiraishi, T., Krug, T., Tanabe, K., Srivastava, N., Baasansuren, J., Fukuda, M. and Troxler, T.G. (eds). IPCC, Switzerland. Murdiyarso, D., Purbopuspito, J., Kauffman, J. B., Warren, M. W, Sasmito, S. D., Donato, D. C.,et al. (2015). The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global change mitigation. Nature Climate Change, 5 (12), 1089-1092. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE 2734. Sasmito, S. D., Sillanpää, M., Hayes, M. A., Bachri, S., Saragi-Sasmito, M. F., Sidik, F., et al. 2020b. Mangrove blue carbon stocks and dynamics are controlled by hydrogeomorphic settings and land-use changes. Global Change Biology. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15056 Sidik, F., Adame, M. F., & Lovelock, C. E. (2019). Carbon sequestration and fluxes of restored mangroves in abandoned aquaculture ponds. Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, http://doi.org/10.1080/19480881.2019.1605659 Sidik, F., Neil, D., & Lovelock, C. E. (2016). Effect of high sedimentation rates on surface sediment dynamics and mangrove growth in the Porong River, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 107, 355–363. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.02.048