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Low-emission food system perspectives in Viet Nam

Presented by Christopher Martius (CIFOR-ICRAF) at "Low-emission food system development in the Mekong Delta: Opportunities, challenges and future pathways", 7 November 2023, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

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07/11/2023
Low-emission food system perspectives
in Viet Nam
Insights from international data
Christopher Martius, Pham Thu Thuy, Francis M. Mwambo, Loanne Guerin, Nathanaël Pingault
c.martius@cifor-icraf.org November 2023
www.cgiar.org
input supply
agriculture,
forestry, land
use (AFOLU)
processing,
packaging
transport
storage,
preservation,
cooling
retail
household
consumption
The food systems perspective – more than agri-food systems
Food loss and waste occurs
AFOLU
food system
Christopher Martius and WP1 team | c.martius@cifor-
icraf.org
0
1
07/11/2023
Our food systems need transformation
…moves annually US$ 12 trillion
provides food security, nutrition,
livelihoods
DRC
-
Photo
by
Axel
Fassio/CIFOR-ICRAF
-
https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/52222779687
Indonesia
-
Photo
by
Nanang
Sujana/CIFOR
-
https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/36299541016
…is responsible for ecosystem
degradation, biodiversity loss,
water pollution, depletion of fish
stocks
and GHG emissions 31% (23-
42%)1
The global food system…
1 IPCC (Babiker et al. 2022)
www.cgiar.org
Country Profiles & Infobriefs on food system emissions
Viet Nam
Infobrief
(under
development)
China Colombia Kenya Viet Nam
2
3
07/11/2023
www.cgiar.org
Food system GHG emissions in Viet Nam
Source: FAOSTAT: https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/GT (extractedon 20 January 2023)
Comparing food system emissions in China,
Colombia, Kenya and Viet Nam
- All emissions are per year
- Inside the boxes, percentages are shown
- China shown as half of real size
Global food
system
emissions:
16,138 Mt
CO2eq/year
= 31% of all
emissions
• Vietnam’s food system emissions 0.7% of
global food system emissions
• Emissions in 2020 ca. 8% over 2010
4
5
07/11/2023
www.cgiar.org
Total national GHG emissions, food system
emissions, and pre- and post-production emissions
national total emission = 100 per cent
total PP of
total national
(%)
total PP of total
food system
(%)
total FS
emissions of
total national
em. (%)
country
8,26
59
14
China
8,06
13
62
Colombia
9,36
13
72
Kenya
6,48
24
27
Viet Nam
China Colombia Kenya Vietnam
total GHG emissions
food system emissions
pre- and post-production emissions
- data confirmation
- joint strategy development
- planning support
- supporting and improving NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions)
- increasing ambition globally
Food system transformation perspectives in Vietnam - for discussion
challenges
co-benefits
perspective
activity
sector
Farmer behavioral change
Increase land
productivity
Largest emissions (34% of
food system emissions)
Varieties, direct seeing, dry rice, rice-
fish, rice-duck systems, etc.
Rice production
Understand link to nutrition
Research- and training-intensive
reduce emission intensity
Fight malnutrition,
reduce land
footprint
2nd largest emissions (12%)
Reducing enteric fermentation (CSA
technologies), improving health etc,
manure management
Livestock emissions +
manure management
3rd largest emissions
(10%)
Synth. fertilizer appl.
Develop detailed data sets
Behavioral change needed
Less garbage, more
food security
4th argest emissions (8%)
Reduce waste at consumer
household (information campaigns,
technical solutions such as cooling)
Household
consumption
Private sector role
National-level data collection
needed on FLW to identify the
opportunities
Behavioral change needed
Reducing food
insecurity, improving
productivity, reduce
landfills
4th largest emission sector
(8%)
Reducing supply chain losses
(transport, storage, cooling,
processing), increase re-use
Reducing consumer household waste
Improving waste disposal
Food loss and food
waste disposal
Plantation resilience
Land / carbon ownership
Restoring ecosys-
tem services (bio-
diversity, water, …)
Preserving and growing a
large carbon sink
Restoring woodlands and other
natural ecosystems and their
ecological functions
Restoration and
reforestation
Research-intensive
‘Crystal ball’: Identify realistic
assumptions and scenarios
Efficient state
budget planning
Very important in de-
carbonization of economy
away from fossil fuels
Climate change and species
distribution? Future food habits?
Higher biomass demand?
Export/import changes?
Future needs and
demands
6
7
07/11/2023
www.cgiar.org
Suggested way forward
Update this analysis with national data and data from
IRRI, Worldfish etc.
Collect disaggregated data on food loss and waste
Jointly developing strategies to address food system
transformations
• Towards sufficient, nutritious food, resource-efficiently
produced
Develop case studies to prove the concept
Integrate food systems view in national level planning
(NDCs and national action plans) and sub-national planning
Upgrade NDCs, upgrading ambition, increasing resilience
and productivity of food systems with increased food and
nutrition security
www.cgiar.org
Discussion overview
1. What do you think?
2. What was overlooked?
3. Where can the food system concept be
useful in Viet Nam?
4. What food system transformations
could become part of Viet Nam’s NDC?
5. How could this approach be applied in
your area of work?
8
9
07/11/2023
Thank
you for
today’s
contributions!
Christopher Martius
c.martius@cifor-icraf.org
10

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Low-emission food system perspectives in Viet Nam

  • 1. 07/11/2023 Low-emission food system perspectives in Viet Nam Insights from international data Christopher Martius, Pham Thu Thuy, Francis M. Mwambo, Loanne Guerin, Nathanaël Pingault c.martius@cifor-icraf.org November 2023 www.cgiar.org input supply agriculture, forestry, land use (AFOLU) processing, packaging transport storage, preservation, cooling retail household consumption The food systems perspective – more than agri-food systems Food loss and waste occurs AFOLU food system Christopher Martius and WP1 team | c.martius@cifor- icraf.org 0 1
  • 2. 07/11/2023 Our food systems need transformation …moves annually US$ 12 trillion provides food security, nutrition, livelihoods DRC - Photo by Axel Fassio/CIFOR-ICRAF - https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/52222779687 Indonesia - Photo by Nanang Sujana/CIFOR - https://www.flickr.com/photos/cifor/36299541016 …is responsible for ecosystem degradation, biodiversity loss, water pollution, depletion of fish stocks and GHG emissions 31% (23- 42%)1 The global food system… 1 IPCC (Babiker et al. 2022) www.cgiar.org Country Profiles & Infobriefs on food system emissions Viet Nam Infobrief (under development) China Colombia Kenya Viet Nam 2 3
  • 3. 07/11/2023 www.cgiar.org Food system GHG emissions in Viet Nam Source: FAOSTAT: https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/GT (extractedon 20 January 2023) Comparing food system emissions in China, Colombia, Kenya and Viet Nam - All emissions are per year - Inside the boxes, percentages are shown - China shown as half of real size Global food system emissions: 16,138 Mt CO2eq/year = 31% of all emissions • Vietnam’s food system emissions 0.7% of global food system emissions • Emissions in 2020 ca. 8% over 2010 4 5
  • 4. 07/11/2023 www.cgiar.org Total national GHG emissions, food system emissions, and pre- and post-production emissions national total emission = 100 per cent total PP of total national (%) total PP of total food system (%) total FS emissions of total national em. (%) country 8,26 59 14 China 8,06 13 62 Colombia 9,36 13 72 Kenya 6,48 24 27 Viet Nam China Colombia Kenya Vietnam total GHG emissions food system emissions pre- and post-production emissions - data confirmation - joint strategy development - planning support - supporting and improving NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) - increasing ambition globally Food system transformation perspectives in Vietnam - for discussion challenges co-benefits perspective activity sector Farmer behavioral change Increase land productivity Largest emissions (34% of food system emissions) Varieties, direct seeing, dry rice, rice- fish, rice-duck systems, etc. Rice production Understand link to nutrition Research- and training-intensive reduce emission intensity Fight malnutrition, reduce land footprint 2nd largest emissions (12%) Reducing enteric fermentation (CSA technologies), improving health etc, manure management Livestock emissions + manure management 3rd largest emissions (10%) Synth. fertilizer appl. Develop detailed data sets Behavioral change needed Less garbage, more food security 4th argest emissions (8%) Reduce waste at consumer household (information campaigns, technical solutions such as cooling) Household consumption Private sector role National-level data collection needed on FLW to identify the opportunities Behavioral change needed Reducing food insecurity, improving productivity, reduce landfills 4th largest emission sector (8%) Reducing supply chain losses (transport, storage, cooling, processing), increase re-use Reducing consumer household waste Improving waste disposal Food loss and food waste disposal Plantation resilience Land / carbon ownership Restoring ecosys- tem services (bio- diversity, water, …) Preserving and growing a large carbon sink Restoring woodlands and other natural ecosystems and their ecological functions Restoration and reforestation Research-intensive ‘Crystal ball’: Identify realistic assumptions and scenarios Efficient state budget planning Very important in de- carbonization of economy away from fossil fuels Climate change and species distribution? Future food habits? Higher biomass demand? Export/import changes? Future needs and demands 6 7
  • 5. 07/11/2023 www.cgiar.org Suggested way forward Update this analysis with national data and data from IRRI, Worldfish etc. Collect disaggregated data on food loss and waste Jointly developing strategies to address food system transformations • Towards sufficient, nutritious food, resource-efficiently produced Develop case studies to prove the concept Integrate food systems view in national level planning (NDCs and national action plans) and sub-national planning Upgrade NDCs, upgrading ambition, increasing resilience and productivity of food systems with increased food and nutrition security www.cgiar.org Discussion overview 1. What do you think? 2. What was overlooked? 3. Where can the food system concept be useful in Viet Nam? 4. What food system transformations could become part of Viet Nam’s NDC? 5. How could this approach be applied in your area of work? 8 9