Livestock, Land and Land Grabbing
Meat and Diary production
• Uses 30 percent of the
Earth’s land surface
• 70 percent of all agricultural
land
• 8 percent ...
Livestock‘s emissions
18 % of total human activity related emissions (transport: 14 %)
• 65 % of nitrous oxide and 64 % of...
Intensive livestock farming and
monoculture expansion
Industrial agriculture and the
cultivation of mono-crops for
feed or...
Invasión de lasoy
Invasion of soja
en el Paraguay
in Paraguay

Fase inicial
Segunda fase
Tercera
Década de los `80
Década ...
Major factor in land grabbing and rural depopulation:
cattle ranching and soy production are labour-extensive
forms of agr...
Meat consumption
grams per head per day
North
South
Global

224 g
47 g
101 g

Recommendation to save the climate:
(medical...
The crisis will only expand if US meat
consumption patterns are copied
• Without effective policies to halt it, global
mea...
„Projections“
• 2013: 7 billion
• 2050: 9 billion
30% population increase
100% food increase
because of „societal expectat...
Subsidies to animal products in OECD
(2009) in billion USD
milk

pork

beef
Soya

chicken
Intensification: More of the same problems
Livestock biotechnologies are likely to lead to
• faster increase in genetic un...
Impacts of shift to industrial livestock
farming
• In Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil: soy
monocultures, agrotoxics, deforesta...
The main impacts are quantitative so standards
and certification do not function
Reducing methane emissions from factory
farms with biogas digesters are a major CDM
activity

Smithfield farm in La Granja...
Livestock’s “co-benefits”
• 70 % of the world’s poor
keep livestock
• livelihoods for one billion of
the world’s poor
• 20...
Grasslands:
Carbon sink AND food resource
• 70 % of agric. land
• Livestock is the only way to turn grassland into
food
• ...
Grasslands - a major carbon sink
• Savannas can reproduce 150% of their weight
annually – forests 10%
•
•
•
•
•

Source: D...
The Landscape Approach and the risks
of Land Grabbing
• Who decides what activities take place
where? Where does the destr...
Biodiversity Offsets: Double Damage
Excluding people from the soy lands, and the offset
areas, while failing to address environmental impacts
Inherent Risks of REDD+
- Weak land tenure rights and
negotiation power of
women, Indigenous
peoples, peasants, pastoralis...
Can REDD+ Address the Drivers of Forest
Loss?
REDD+ and the Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation

November 2013
Global Forest Coalition
Editing: Ro...
Further reading

Industrial livestock production
and its impact on smallholders
in developing countries
Susanne Gura
May 2...
For more information:
Brighter Green: http://www.brightergreen.org/
Global Forest Coalition: http://globalforestcoalition....
Livestock, Land and Land Grabbing
Livestock, Land and Land Grabbing
Livestock, Land and Land Grabbing
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Livestock, Land and Land Grabbing

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This presentation focuses on the role of intensive livestock farming and monoculture expansion for the environment. It also addresses the issue of land grabbing and grasslands as a carbon sink.

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Livestock, Land and Land Grabbing

  1. 1. Livestock, Land and Land Grabbing
  2. 2. Meat and Diary production • Uses 30 percent of the Earth’s land surface • 70 percent of all agricultural land • 8 percent of all water used by human society • Is the largest sectoral source of water pollution • Is the main cause of deforestation in Latin America, the continent with the highest deforestation rate
  3. 3. Livestock‘s emissions 18 % of total human activity related emissions (transport: 14 %) • 65 % of nitrous oxide and 64 % of ammonia • 37 % of methane • 9 % of carbon dioxide equivalent Includes emissions of feed production Excludes land use / land use change Amazone basin: 70% of rainforest is lost to pastures 80 % of agricultural emissions IPCC
  4. 4. Intensive livestock farming and monoculture expansion Industrial agriculture and the cultivation of mono-crops for feed or fuel are eroding ecological processes that allow carbon to be stored in soils and not released into the atmosphere. As a result of the use of chemical fertilizers, intensive agriculture and animal monocultures produce important quantities of nitrous oxide, the third most significant greenhouse gas responsible for global warming
  5. 5. Invasión de lasoy Invasion of soja en el Paraguay in Paraguay Fase inicial Segunda fase Tercera Década de los `80 Década del 2000 `90 Situación actual y tendencias Década del 2000
  6. 6. Major factor in land grabbing and rural depopulation: cattle ranching and soy production are labour-extensive forms of agriculture
  7. 7. Meat consumption grams per head per day North South Global 224 g 47 g 101 g Recommendation to save the climate: (medical journal The Lancet) 90 g/head/day China: already reached 90g in the cities; 20% of urban kids are obese
  8. 8. The crisis will only expand if US meat consumption patterns are copied • Without effective policies to halt it, global meat production will double by 2050 • This means 120 billion animals per year will be slaughtered • Almost all growth will happen in industrial systems • Triggering massive land grabbing for fodder production
  9. 9. „Projections“ • 2013: 7 billion • 2050: 9 billion 30% population increase 100% food increase because of „societal expectations“ to eat more meat Without industrial livestock: Food for 10.5 billion people already today
  10. 10. Subsidies to animal products in OECD (2009) in billion USD milk pork beef Soya chicken
  11. 11. Intensification: More of the same problems Livestock biotechnologies are likely to lead to • faster increase in genetic uniformity, • more market power and dependency on a few genetics corporations, • more disease problems, • more demands for subsidies, • more pressure on animal welfare, • more environmental pollution, and • more climate change, in sum, more of the problems that are already now an implicit part of the production system and not likely to be solved
  12. 12. Impacts of shift to industrial livestock farming • In Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil: soy monocultures, agrotoxics, deforestation, depopulation of countryside, genocide amongst Indigenous peoples • Indonesia, India: Farmers become tools for industry, introduction GMOs for feedstock, growth hormones, antibiotics • Benin, Kenya, Cameroon: Pastoralism replaced by imported industrial livestock products
  13. 13. The main impacts are quantitative so standards and certification do not function
  14. 14. Reducing methane emissions from factory farms with biogas digesters are a major CDM activity Smithfield farm in La Granja, Veracruz, Mexico 56% of CDM projects in Mexico are pig farms These biodigesters, however, have experienced many technical difficulties that place their future viability and continued development in question. E. Lokey in: Renewable Energy Volume 34, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 566-569
  15. 15. Livestock’s “co-benefits” • 70 % of the world’s poor keep livestock • livelihoods for one billion of the world’s poor • 200 million pastoralists • 2/3 of livestock keepers are female FAO
  16. 16. Grasslands: Carbon sink AND food resource • 70 % of agric. land • Livestock is the only way to turn grassland into food • Evolution: grasslands & ruminants • Seasonal use by wild and domesticated herds contributes to grassland conservation as well as to its carbon sink function
  17. 17. Grasslands - a major carbon sink • Savannas can reproduce 150% of their weight annually – forests 10% • • • • • Source: Davies J. & Nori M. (2008): Managing and mitigating climate change through Pastoralism. Policy Matters, October 2008 Cover 30-45 % of land surface - more than forest Susceptible to land grabbing, no advocates Roots are a major carbon store 34 % of terrestrial carbon stores Too often, grasslands are classified as ‘marginal’, ‘degraded’ or ‘unused’ lands Conversion of grasslands into croplands has many negative impacts
  18. 18. The Landscape Approach and the risks of Land Grabbing • Who decides what activities take place where? Where does the destruction go? • Rural people, especially Indigenous peoples and forest peoples, and especially women, are almost always politically and economically marginalized – who decides for them? • “Land degradation neutral” - whose livelihoods are destroyed? Whose lands and livelihoods are used to “compensate” for it?
  19. 19. Biodiversity Offsets: Double Damage
  20. 20. Excluding people from the soy lands, and the offset areas, while failing to address environmental impacts
  21. 21. Inherent Risks of REDD+ - Weak land tenure rights and negotiation power of women, Indigenous peoples, peasants, pastoralists : Elite resource capture and land grabbing are inherent risks - Counting how much carbon is stored is expensive – most funds will go to (male) consultants - Focus on carbon promotes monoculture tree plantations and ignores social and cultural values - Who will Pay for the Results?
  22. 22. Can REDD+ Address the Drivers of Forest Loss?
  23. 23. REDD+ and the Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation November 2013 Global Forest Coalition Editing: Ronnie Hall
  24. 24. Further reading Industrial livestock production and its impact on smallholders in developing countries Susanne Gura May 2008
  25. 25. For more information: Brighter Green: http://www.brightergreen.org/ Global Forest Coalition: http://globalforestcoalition.org/

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