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THE UNFCCC POLICY LANDSCAPE 
PRE LIMA 
Stephen Leonard, Senior Policy Analyst – UNFCCC 
Center for International Forestry ...
SETTING THE STAGE 
Big Picture 
• Recent emissions reductions announcements 
− EU: 40% on 1990 levels by 2030 
− China: Em...
SETTING THE STAGE – FORESTS 
New Climate Agreement – Possible inclusions: 
• REDD+ Mechanism 
• REDD+ Window in the GCF 
S...
THIS PRESENTATION….. 
• SBs 
– SBSTA – Metrics / REDD+ Safeguards / 
REDD+ Alternative Policy Approaches / 
Clean Developm...
ACRONYMS 
ADP: Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform 
AR5: Fifth Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on...
SUBSIDIARY BODIES
SBSTA 41 – REDD+ SAFEGUARDS INFORMATION SYSTEMS 
• The ‘need’ for further guidance on Safeguards Information Systems 
– Un...
SBSTA 41 – ALTERNATIVE POLICY APPROACHES TO REDD+ 
• Warsaw mandate to agree at SBSTA 40 – no agreement so put back to 
Li...
SBSTA 41 – CDM & LULUCF 
• CDM – under the Kyoto Protocol 
• SBSTA 40 considered inputs from technical paper 
• Ongoing co...
SBSTA 41 - METRICS 
• Provide the basis for comparing impacts in multiple GHG reduction efforts 
• Ongoing debate: 
‒ KP =...
SBI 41 – NATIONAL ADAPTATION PLANS 
• Much emphasis on the lack of finance: 
– new climate agreement links: 
• Finance inc...
THE DURBAN PLATFORM
THE DURBAN PLATFORM (ADP) 
• Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform 
• WS 1 - process to develop a protocol, another ...
PRE 2020 MITIGATION 
• TEMs – part of the formal process: 
– Land Use / Non CO2 Emissions (agriculture) 
• Purpose: 
– To ...
PRE 2020 MITIGATION 
• TEMS: Outputs: 
– Land Use 
• REDD+ remains high on the agenda 
• high mitigation & Adaptation pote...
PRE 2020 MITIGATION 
• Non CO2 Emissions – Agriculture 
– up to 80% of emissions from the agriculture sector could be redu...
NEW AGREEMENT - ADAPTATION 
• Has had a clear increase in profile 
• Major emphasis on scaling up finance 
• Link in with ...
NEW AGREEMENT - MITIGATION 
• Focus on a global goal - options: 
– temperature goal that reflects current science; 
– emis...
NEW AGREEMENT – REDD+ 
• Current Non Paper (will form basis of draft text) – see: 
http://unfccc.int/meetings/lima_dec_201...
NEW AGREEMENT – INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED 
CONTRIBUTIONS 
• CoP 20 – Agreement on scope – 
draft text out now 
• Comm...
NEW AGREEMENT – CYCLES, RULES, MODALITIES 
• MRV cycles already in place – BRs 
/ BURs / Nat Comms etc…. 
– How does this ...
ADP – EXPECTATIONS FOR LIMA 
• Decision on Pre 2020 mitigation / TEMs 
• Decision on INDCs 
– Scope of information – may e...
FINANCE
STANDING COMMITTEE ON FINANCE 
• Warsaw Mandate: 
– Coordination and cohesion of finance and forests 
– Beyond REDD+ 
• Ei...
GREEN CLIMATE FUND 
• Operating entity of the Financial 
Mechanism 
• Eighth Board Meeting in October – 
36 agenda items 
...
SYNERGIES & LANDSCAPES
SYNERGIES & LANDSCAPES 
• There was much activity Pre SB 40 / ADP 2.5 
• Agriculture Road Map goes through to mid 2016 – N...
MITIGATION & ADAPTATION SYNERGIES 
• Identified as important for the land sector in AR5 
• ADP - current non paper include...
ACRONYMS 
ADP: Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform 
AR5: Fifth Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on...
THANK YOU 
cifor.org 
blog.cifor.org 
ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org
The UNFCCC Policy Landscape Pre Lima
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The UNFCCC Policy Landscape Pre Lima

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Stephen Leonard, Senior Policy Analyst with CIFOR, gives presentation on the UNFCCC Policy Landscape before COP20 in Lima, Peru.

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The UNFCCC Policy Landscape Pre Lima

  1. 1. THE UNFCCC POLICY LANDSCAPE PRE LIMA Stephen Leonard, Senior Policy Analyst – UNFCCC Center for International Forestry Research 20 November 2014
  2. 2. SETTING THE STAGE Big Picture • Recent emissions reductions announcements − EU: 40% on 1990 levels by 2030 − China: Emissions peak by 2030 / 20% zero emissions energy by 2030 − USA: 26 – 28% on 2005 levels by 2025 • Financial Pledges being made ‒ Current pledges to GCF around US$9b – target this year of US$10 – 15b • Climate in G20 Communique despite Australian block • However, very few Kyoto Amendment ratifications
  3. 3. SETTING THE STAGE – FORESTS New Climate Agreement – Possible inclusions: • REDD+ Mechanism • REDD+ Window in the GCF SBSTA • Finalizing work on Safeguards in Lima • Alternative Policy Approaches – adaptation links Finance • GCF Frameworks completed • REDD+ Results Framework agreed in Barbados • Standing Committee on Finance
  4. 4. THIS PRESENTATION….. • SBs – SBSTA – Metrics / REDD+ Safeguards / REDD+ Alternative Policy Approaches / Clean Development Mechanism – land use – SBI - Adaptation Plans • New Climate Agreement – Elements & INDCs • Finance - Green Climate Fund / Standing Committee on Finance
  5. 5. ACRONYMS ADP: Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform AR5: Fifth Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change BRs: Biennial Reports BURs: Biennial Update Reports CDM: Clean Development Mechanism CfRN: Coalition for Rainforest Nations COP: Conference of Parties GCF: Green Climate Fund GEF: Global Environment Facility INDCs: Intended Nationally Determined Contributions IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change JMA: Joint Mitigation Adaptation KP: Kyoto Protocol LUCFA: Land Use Change and Forest Activities LULUCF: Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry MRV: Measuring Reporting and Verification Nat Comms: National Communications NAMAs: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions NAPs: National Adaptation Plans NAPAs: National Adaptation Programmes of Action SBSTA: Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SBI: Subsidiary Body on Implementation SCF: Standing Committee on Finance SIS: Safeguards Information Systems TEM: Technical Expert Meeting UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change WS: Work Stream
  6. 6. SUBSIDIARY BODIES
  7. 7. SBSTA 41 – REDD+ SAFEGUARDS INFORMATION SYSTEMS • The ‘need’ for further guidance on Safeguards Information Systems – Unresolved issue for the past 2+ years • Submissions received / compiled – CIFOR Analyses – majority of submissions favor further guidance. – trade-offs between further guidance and the promotion of country-driven approaches and national sovereignty. – need to minimize the burden for creation of and reporting on SIS. – civil society organizations highlighted issues around equity and participation of local people in the process. – Useful guidance on how to develop a country-driven approach.
  8. 8. SBSTA 41 – ALTERNATIVE POLICY APPROACHES TO REDD+ • Warsaw mandate to agree at SBSTA 40 – no agreement so put back to Lima • Premised on Bolivian Proposal – JMA and Non Markets – alternative to REDD carbon markets approach – not replacement – Expert Meeting / Workshop held in Bonn @ SBSTA 40 – See: https://unfccc.int/files/methods/redd/application/pdf/bolivian_proposal_j ma_05.06.2014.pdf • Debate over whether item remains under REDD or new Agenda item – Brazil pushing to have the item considered outside the REDD Bali Agenda item – Bolivia want it to remain under REDD
  9. 9. SBSTA 41 – CDM & LULUCF • CDM – under the Kyoto Protocol • SBSTA 40 considered inputs from technical paper • Ongoing consideration in Lima of additional LULUCF areas under the CDM: – Revegetation including agroforestry and silvopastoral; – Cropland management and grazing management • Wetland drainage and rewettingCDM – under the Kyoto Protocol • SBSTA 40 considered inputs from technical paper • Ongoing consideration in Lima of additional LULUCF areas under the CDM: – Revegetation including agroforestry and silvopastoral; – Cropland management and grazing management – Wetland drainage and rewetting
  10. 10. SBSTA 41 - METRICS • Provide the basis for comparing impacts in multiple GHG reduction efforts • Ongoing debate: ‒ KP =Global Warming Potential – others developed since 1997 ‒ Whether to expand to other metrics / timescales 8 different metrics in AR5 / timescales: 20, 50 and 100 years • Was considered in Bonn – no agreement – Lima • Brazil – need an agreement - critical input to the ADP ‒ Discussion concerning agreement on a ‘common metric’ or ‘basket of metrics’ for the new agreement
  11. 11. SBI 41 – NATIONAL ADAPTATION PLANS • Much emphasis on the lack of finance: – new climate agreement links: • Finance including via GCF • INDCs • Norway calling for adaptation and forests to be discussed in NAPs context – Expect more focus on forests and adaptation (SCF / GCF) • Countries lacking understanding of technical guidance and seeking greater clarity
  12. 12. THE DURBAN PLATFORM
  13. 13. THE DURBAN PLATFORM (ADP) • Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform • WS 1 - process to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force applicable to all Parties by 2015 for implementation by 2020 • WS 2 - Pre 2020 - to explore options to close the ambition gap ensuring highest possible mitigation efforts by Parties
  14. 14. PRE 2020 MITIGATION • TEMs – part of the formal process: – Land Use / Non CO2 Emissions (agriculture) • Purpose: – To enhance pre 2020 mitigation – Provide guidance to UNFCCC Institutions (eg: GCF) • Projects / programmes to finance • Priority areas – Likely to be ongoing to up 2020 • Possible to be broadened to include adaptation
  15. 15. PRE 2020 MITIGATION • TEMS: Outputs: – Land Use • REDD+ remains high on the agenda • high mitigation & Adaptation potential from forest and agricultural sectors; • a scaling up of finance, technology and capacity building is required; • sectoral policies are required; • participatory multi-stakeholder dialogues should commence at early stages; See: http://unfccc.int/bodies/awg/items/8171.php
  16. 16. PRE 2020 MITIGATION • Non CO2 Emissions – Agriculture – up to 80% of emissions from the agriculture sector could be reduced by 2030. • Potential policies and actions identified include – soil conservation; – soil productivity and erosion control; – nitrogen use efficiency; – rice management; – Research; and – landscape approach See: http://unfccc.int/bodies/awg/items/8420.php
  17. 17. NEW AGREEMENT - ADAPTATION • Has had a clear increase in profile • Major emphasis on scaling up finance • Link in with current processes – NAPs, NAPAs and Adaption Fund • Focus on a global adaptation goal – metrics – Vulnerability, resource allocation, economics, research, finance – Proposed process to be launched
  18. 18. NEW AGREEMENT - MITIGATION • Focus on a global goal - options: – temperature goal that reflects current science; – emissions reduction goal – 40 – 70% below 2010 levels by 2050; – maximum concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere – 350ppm; – Carbon budget • Divide as to whether developing countries should have economy wide emissions reduction targets
  19. 19. NEW AGREEMENT – REDD+ • Current Non Paper (will form basis of draft text) – see: http://unfccc.int/meetings/lima_dec_2014/session/8532.php • Institutions: REDD+ Mechanism – Possible Institution to be developed by SBSTA – NB: CfRN proposal - informal meetings • Finance: REDD+ Window in the GCF – Would be specific institutional arrangements for REDD+
  20. 20. NEW AGREEMENT – INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS • CoP 20 – Agreement on scope – draft text out now • Commitments / Contributions – to what extent will they be legally binding in a new agreement? • Parties to communicate their INDCs to the UNFCCC by the first quarter of 2015 • Countries beginning to express that REDD+ likely to be relied on as a contribution – Outstanding question as to what information would be included on REDD+ eg: safeguards information systems summary? • Disagreement remains as to whether to do an ex ante assessment in 2015 – will be an issue in Lima • Likely that INDCS will be broad – Mitigation, Adaptation, Technology, capacity building and finance – Reflected in draft text for Lima decision – Possible links with reporting processes – Biennial Report and Biennial Update Reports and International Assessment and Review and International Consultation and Analyses • Other links – NAPs / NAPAs / NAMAs
  21. 21. NEW AGREEMENT – CYCLES, RULES, MODALITIES • MRV cycles already in place – BRs / BURs / Nat Comms etc…. – How does this link to INDCs process where MRV is carbon? • Review cycle: adequacy of INDCs • Commitment cycle: emissions reductions / finance etc – Cannot be frozen in time • 5 years or 10 years – 5 year cycles with 10 year indicative targets – 10 year cycles with 5 year mid term review – In line with science - IPCC • Accounting – Most likely area of convergence between LULUCF & REDD+ - common accounting rules • Suggested that there be key Principles across the land sector – Technical work to be done 2015 – 2020 – Land-use change and forest activities (NEW terminology) • Principles – rights / landscapes – What hooks should these principles contain?
  22. 22. ADP – EXPECTATIONS FOR LIMA • Decision on Pre 2020 mitigation / TEMs • Decision on INDCs – Scope of information – may elaborate on REDD inclusion – Whether there will be an ex ante assessment in 2015 • Elements for a draft negotiating text – BUT – intercessional in February 2015 - fall back!!! – More clarity on Land-Use Change and Forest Activities (LUCFA)
  23. 23. FINANCE
  24. 24. STANDING COMMITTEE ON FINANCE • Warsaw Mandate: – Coordination and cohesion of finance and forests – Beyond REDD+ • Eighth Meeting – October in Bonn – Commenced preparations for 2015 Forum – Released Background paper • 2015 Forum on Finance and Forests – May 2015 – Will inform Financial Mechanisms – GCF, GEF, Adaptation Fund – Report to COP 21 (Paris)
  25. 25. GREEN CLIMATE FUND • Operating entity of the Financial Mechanism • Eighth Board Meeting in October – 36 agenda items • Governance Frameworks now in place • Accreditation Procedure now agreed - Applications have been release – Fast track procedures in place • Resource mobilization process in place – Next meeting 20 November (today) • REDD+ Results Based Payments Framework – see: http://www.gcfund.org/fileadmin/00_c ustomer/documents/MOB201410- 8th/GCF_B.08_08_Rev.01_Initial_Lo gic_Model_fin_20141022.pdf • Limited to Carbon – definition of results as ‘only’ ex post payments? • Recalls Warsaw language on requirements (eg: SIS) – No assessments process in place for safeguards compliance • Lacking – more work to be done – recognition / incentives for non carbon benefits – clear framework in place for Phase 1 & 2 finance
  26. 26. SYNERGIES & LANDSCAPES
  27. 27. SYNERGIES & LANDSCAPES • There was much activity Pre SB 40 / ADP 2.5 • Agriculture Road Map goes through to mid 2016 – New Agreement will be reached in 2015 – Agriculture discussion moving towards mitigation • Mitigation and Adaptation synergies are central to a landscape approach – under developed area – High potential for development going forward – Linked with non markets / alternative policy approaches • REDD+ discussion moving towards adaptation • Common accounting rules – high level principles
  28. 28. MITIGATION & ADAPTATION SYNERGIES • Identified as important for the land sector in AR5 • ADP - current non paper includes several linkages • GCF – Additional Adaptation Results Areas not agreed • SCF – Alternative Policy Approaches • SBSTA - Alternative Policy Approaches – JMA – Some Parties have called for international technical guidance and modalities on the issue – Bolivia, Singapore, China, PNG
  29. 29. ACRONYMS ADP: Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform AR5: Fifth Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change BRs: Biennial Reports BURs: Biennial Update Reports CDM: Clean Development Mechanism CfRN: Coalition for Rainforest Nations COP: Conference of Parties GCF: Green Climate Fund GEF: Global Environment Facility INDCs: Intended Nationally Determined Contributions IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change JMA: Joint Mitigation Adaptation KP: Kyoto Protocol LUCFA: Land Use Change and Forest Activities LULUCF: Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry MRV: Measuring Reporting and Verification Nat Comms: National Communications NAMAs: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions NAPs: National Adaptation Plans NAPAs: National Adaptation Programmes of Action SBSTA: Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice SBI: Subsidiary Body on Implementation SCF: Standing Committee on Finance SIS: Safeguards Information Systems TEM: Technical Expert Meeting UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change WS: Work Stream
  30. 30. THANK YOU cifor.org blog.cifor.org ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org

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