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Growing energy and restoring land: Potentials of bioenergy production from degraded and underutilized land in Indonesia


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Presented by Himlal Baral of the Center for International Forestry Research at the 3rd Asia-Pacific Rainforest Summit, on 23–25 April 2018 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Growing energy and restoring land: Potentials of bioenergy production from degraded and underutilized land in Indonesia

  1. 1. Himlal Baral, CIFOR Yogyakarta, 21 – 22 April 2018 Growing energy and restoring land: Potentials of bioenergy production from degraded and underutilized land in Indonesia
  2. 2. Outline • Degraded land – global and Indonesia • Restoration goal/targets and financing requirement • Bioenergy as an opportunity • Current research activities • Key messages Photo: CIFOR
  3. 3. Global area of degraded land Gibbs and Salmon 2015. Appl Geog
  4. 4. Degraded land in Indonesia Source: Critical Areas Map of Forestry Planning Agency/ICCC, 2014 Defn: an area or a land that has declined function in productivity, hydrological purpose, low carbon content, low biodiversity level, and low vegetation cover due to loss of soil organic matter, which make the soil is physically, chemically, and biologically infertile. ICCC, 2014 (land cov., slope, potential erosion, land productivity, land management)
  5. 5.  TARGETS BY 2030:  7.1 access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services  7.2 increase the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix  7.3 double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency  7.4 enhance intl cooperation to facilitate clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology  7.5 expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries,
  6. 6. Growing interest on bioenergy • 30% rise in global energy demand to 2040 (IEA, 2016) • Hundreds of millions of people will still left in 2040 without basic energy services (IEA, 2016) • The Paris Agreement on CC – ‘transformative change in the energy sector’ is key to reach the agreement • SD is not possible without access to sustainable energy – SDG 7 • National goal/target related to renewable energy including bioenergy… e.g., Indonesia 23% by 2025… • Avoiding bioenergy competition for food crops and land
  7. 7. KEY ISSUES WITH FIRST GENERATION BIOENERGY • Food, Fuel and Environment trilemma • Low net energy balance • LULC – related issues • Water, Erosion, Herbicide and pesticide Source:
  8. 8. Forest landscape restoration and bioenergy linkage ‘‘Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources.” “a planned process to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes”... (Rietbergen-McCracken et al., 2007) Produces biomass for bioenergy production Justifies the cost for restoration
  9. 9. Key questions… Q1: How can sustainable bioenergy be developed to avoid the food-energy- environment trilemma with alternative feedstocks while restoring degraded landscapes? Q2: What are the most promising species to achieve efficient bioenergy production from degraded land in Indonesia? Species characters, productivity and additional environmental values? Q3: What are the socio-economic and environmental outcomes of energy plantation on degraded land?
  10. 10.  Component I: Reviewing/mapping policies, land availability, species suitability, potential productivity, community perceptions – opportunities and challenges  Component II: Establishing research/demo trial of key bioenergy species (trees not herbaceous plants) in degraded peatland in C Kalimantan  Component III: Laboratory/chemical analysis – fuel/energy productivity/efficiency and suitable business model for smallholders/SMEs  Stakeholder engagement and capacity building: work with local/national partners – universities and community groups  Potential for scaling up these activities and linking to restoration of degraded land for biomass production Project activities/components... Review/stakeholders perception Action research/ field trial and learning Laboratory/chemical analysis, Business model Potential for scaling up Photo: CIFOR
  11. 11. Van Oort et al. (2015) Ecosystem services Approaches and tools
  12. 12. Critical land Conservatio n area Non-protected area Yes No Protected area Land Cover Map Available Licensed to a concession Site available Suitability analysis Growth place suitability attribute Landsyste m map Biophysics attributes Bioenergy species Yield estimation Productivity rate Potential Bioenergy in Indonesia Tree species Type of biomass Adaptation to unfavorable conditions References Calliandra colothyrsus wood Acidic soil (pH 4.9-5.3) and drought Palmer et al., 1994; Orwa, et al., 2009 Calophyllum inophyllum L seeds Saline and waterlogged areas Ong et al., 2011; Agoramoorthy et al., 2012; Leksono et al., 2015 Pongamia pinnata seeds Saline soil and waterlogged areas Scott et al., 2008; Miyake, et al., 2015 Reutealis trisperma seeds Sloping areas (15% - 40%) Herman et al., 2013; Restuaji and Santoso, 2014 Gliricidia sepium wood Acidic soil (pH < 5.5) Mainoo and Ulzen-appiah, 1996; Bhattacharya et al., 2003 Five tree species capable of adapting to marginal lands
  13. 13. • 4 key species –Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum); Kemiri sunan (Reutealis trisperma); Gamal (Gliricidia sepium); Kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) • Additional species: Lauceana leucocepahala, and Pongamia piannata • Site suitability, intercropping potential, N2 fixing, social/community preference
  14. 14. Project location – Buntoi, Pulang Pisau, C Kalimantan • Availability of large area of degraded and marginal land • Pilot project on bioenergy listari • Community interest – alternative opportunity to use marginal land
  15. 15. Spatial analysis of degraded land in Indonesia - Not critical lands - Potentially critical lands - Protected lands - Forests - Swamps - Estate crops - Buildings - Water Maps - Slightly critical lands - Critical lands - Very critical lands - Non-protected lands - Underutilized lands - Slope - Soil pH - Soil salinity - Soil depth - Rainfall - Temp. - Altitude Included Excluded Critical land Conservation area Land system Land cover and use Step1:DegradedlandsinIndonesia - Rice fields - Fishponds - Mining Degraded lands in Indonesia Suitability to grow biofuel species Selecting species with higher energy Step 2: Suitability of degraded lands to grow biofuel species
  16. 16. Available degraded lands for biofuel production - About 16.8 million hectares - Dominant in Kalimantan and Sumatra Wiraguna et al in prep
  17. 17. Suitable lands for various biofuel species (1) Kaliandra (2) Gamal (3) Nyamplung (4) Malapari (5) Kemiri sunan Wiraguna et al in prep
  18. 18.  Monoculture  Mixed Crops 0 50 100 150 200 0 5 10 Plantheight(cm) Months 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 5 10 Plantheight(cm) Months 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 Diameter(mm) Months 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 5 10 Diameter(mm) Months 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 5 10 Leafnumbers Months 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 5 10 Leafnumbers Months • Initial results indicate potentials of agroforestry system • Further investigation is required to identify yield, returns etc.
  19. 19. Site-specific species selection for bienergy production
  20. 20. PYC INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONFERENCE 2017 Mentawai Prosperity Bamboo Farming Employment Power Plant Electricity Access Lighting and other productive activities Partnership, scaling up and impacts Source: CPI
  21. 21. Clean Power Indonesia First Light on First Bamboo Biomass Power Plant in Asia Pacific Saliguma Village, Siberut Island, Mentawai Regency, West Sumatra Province INDONESIA Source: CPI
  22. 22. Interim conclusions and the way forward… Opportunity to restore the degraded land while producing sustainable bioenergy and supporting rural livelihoods… • Avoids conflicts between food, fuel and environment • Create jobs opportunities in rural areas – production processing • Improve energy security • Contribution to several SDGs • Further work/investigation is required to answer some emerging issues…(ES trade-offs, tenure/governance, market… )
  23. 23. The way forward… • Identification/delineation of degraded and/or abandoned land suitable for energy crops o Clear definition of degraded land, tenure, existing use, yield • Engagement of all stakeholders at early stage • Research and development o Right trees in the right place, silviculture, management etc. • No bioenergy crops in food production areas / no conversion of natural forests for bioenergy plantings…
  24. 24. Ongoing activities (2018-2020) • Continue field trial – growth yield monitoring of various bioenergy tree species • Bioenergy and ecosystem services trade-offs, synergies and interaction • Life cycle assessment (LCA) o evaluate climate effects of bioenergy decision via calculation of net GHG savings • Bioenergy value chain and inclusive business model o Finance, market knowledge, organizational and tech capacities • Governance issues - land tenure/ access rights o Tenure security, legal and regulatory framework, gender and equity related issues
  25. 25. Concluding comments • Vast amounts of deforested and degraded land in Indonesia and globally – deliver limited benefits to human and nature; • Restoration of degraded land for biomass production provides opportunities to reduce poverty, improve food/energy security, mitigate climate change and protect the environment; • CIFOR-NIFoS collaborative research on bioenergy on degraded land stimulating discussion among wide range of stakeholders such as, govt, private sector including potential investors, smallholders and community groups – opportunity to restore and use degraded land; • Lessons are applicable to SEA and globally.
  26. 26. THANK YOU