Landscape approach - 20 years of watershed management in Niger
20 years of watershed management in Niger
Global Landscape Forum
Warsaw 16 / 17 November 2013
Dieter Nill, Martina Wegner, Klaus
Territorial concept and landscape approach
• Territory: as spatially cohesive area.
• Boundaries depend on the development potential.
Example: 20 years of watershed management in Niger
Population growth and severe land degradation.
Higher temperatures, declining and less reliable rainfall, severe
droughts since 1970s.
Funding BMZ, implemented by GIZ / KfW /
Between early 90ies and 2010, more than
400,000 ha treated with SWC at a rhythm of
More than 200 water-spreading weirs with >
10.000 ha with flood irrigation
Large scale impacts possible.
• Planting pits
30 – 45 €/ha
• Nardi trenches
55 % contrib.
Cost-efficient and effective integrated solutions are available with
Programme support only after active request and approval.
Rolling approach to work with about 100 villages in parallel.
Year 1: organizing population, training, pilot activities.
Years 2 to 5: Intensive implementation.
Years 5 and 6: Progressive shift of responsibilities to the
communities. End of support autonomy.
Population provides: free labour, local
materials and maintenance.
Programme provides: training, basic tools
and material, trucks and tractors.
People and programme need time to treat
• Yields of herbaceous biomass from ~ 0 to 600/700 kg/ha*yr.
• Production of wood generally around 1 stere/ha*yr.
• Improved biodiversity and protection of lower areas.
• Increased / more stable yields i.e. millet > x 2 (200 kg/ha*yr more).
• Straw increased by x 1.6 (520 kg/ha*yr more).
• Increase of millet yields x 2 and increase of production x 5.8
• Strong increase in vegetable production, employment and income
• Heightening of groundwater levels
Significant positive effects on food security and stability, income,
ecology and living conditions.
Drivers and challenges
Conceptual changes / decentralisation
Especially external challenges create risks and opportunities.
Landscape approaches offer multiple benefits:
• A powerful and low-cost concept to improve food security and incomes;
• They have positive environmental effects i.e. on biodiversity and water
• Very suitable to mainstream CC adaptation and mitigation;
• They have large scale impact potential;
• They improve governance in rural areas by implying all stakeholders
and integrate know-how across sectors;
• They mobilise and strengthen the local population;
Requirements / succces factors
Successful landscape approaches need:
• A participatory, bottom-up approach with involvement of all stakeholders;
• A multi-level approach seeking favorable policy and legal frame works at
macro-level to strongy implement at meso- and micro-level;
• Medium- to long-term implementation, which requires a strong political
• Suitable medium- to long-term funding mechanisms;
• Food availability per capita only improved if population growth not too
very much !