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Gendered differentiation in the use of forest resources: Results from PEN

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Research suggests that, within households, gender relations influence the distribution of income in general, and forest income in particular.

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Gendered differentiation in the use of forest resources: Results from PEN

  1. 1. THINKING beyond the canopy Gendered differentiation in the use of forest resources: Results from PEN Victoria Reyes-Garcia, Ronnie Babigumira, Gerald Shively & Terry Sunderland UEA, 13th June 2011
  2. 2. THINKING beyond the canopy Research suggests that, within households, gender relations influence the distribution of income in general, and forest income in particular. It is commonly assumed that • Men extract forest products for sale and women for household consumption. • But women rely more than men on forest products for income generation. We use the PEN global data set to assess within household gendered differences :  in the consumption and sale of forest products, and  in the reliance of processed and unprocessed forest products. Gender and forest income
  3. 3. THINKING beyond the canopy Methods  We highlighted the two key variables used in the gender analysis. 1. Outcome variables  For both Unprocessed and Processed forest products, (i) Wife and adult female members, (ii) Husband and adult male members, (iii) Both, (iv) Children 2. Product characteristics  food, fuel, medicines/resins/dyes, structural/fibre, fodder, manure/fertilizer, mineral/metals, others.  Dominant (largest share of income) product class for each household which we use to control for product characteristics  Global analysis: regional understanding
  4. 4. THINKING beyond the canopy Data: who does what?
  5. 5. THINKING beyond the canopy Data: types of products
  6. 6. THINKING beyond the canopy Men, women, and children participate in the collection and processing of forest products, but activities are gender specialized.  The share value of forest products collected by men surpasses the share value of forest products collected by women. Share value of forest products by age-sex groups 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Women Both Men Children Processed Unprocessed
  7. 7. THINKING beyond the canopy  Women specialize in the collection and processing of forest products for subsistence, whereas men specialize on forest products for sale. Share value of subsistence vs cash forest products Unprocessed Processed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Women Men 0 10 20 30 40 50 Women Men Cash Subsistence
  8. 8. THINKING beyond the canopy Regional patterns: Latin America In the Latin American sites, where forest income and forest dependence are higher, the share value of processed and unprocessed forest products collected by men surpasses the share value of forest products collected by women. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Women Both Men Children Subsistence Cash 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Women Both Men Children Unprocessed Processed
  9. 9. THINKING beyond the canopy Regional patterns: Asia In the Asian sites, the pattern is more complex. Overall men the share value of forest products collected by men is larger, but differences are smaller than in LA. Women have higher shares in subsistence. Unprocessed Processed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Women Both Men Children Subsistence Cash 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Women Both Men Children
  10. 10. THINKING beyond the canopy Regional patterns: Africa In the African sites, the share value of unprocessed products collected by women is larger than the share value collected by men. But men have a larger share on processed forest products. Unprocessed Processed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Women Both Men Children Subsistence Cash 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Women Both Men Children
  11. 11. THINKING beyond the canopy Multivariate analysis Unprocessed Processed Women hh head 0.211*** 0.325*** Age -0.001* 0.001* Education -0.001 -0.003 Good roof -0.023* 0.057 # kids 0.003 -0.006 Total income -0.000 -0.000* Agricultural land -0.001*** 0.001 Participation on forest management -0.009 -0.045 Unprocess for construction -0.086*** -0.527*** Unprocess for fuel 0.194*** -0.117 Distance to road 0.001 0.003 Distance to forest -0.000 0.000 Income inequality 0.451 0.817 Female wage -0.003 0.000
  12. 12. THINKING beyond the canopy Key findings • Female headed households rely more on income from NTFPs and are probably more vulnerable to shocks • Strong gender differentiation: product characteristics are important • Men contribute significantly to household income through NTFP collection and sale: “they are doing their bit” • Initial assumptions related to gender and NTFPs confirmed
  13. 13. THINKING beyond the canopy Possible future research  Understand outflows: How do men and women use income from NTFP sale?  Regional differentiation: need to explore reasons  Capturing the “hidden economy”: would more formal regulations/institutional arrangements ensure greater equity?  Understanding linkages between NTFPs and food security, especially in the face of climate change
  14. 14. THINKING beyond the canopy Policy Implications  Within household distribution of income from forest products presents regional variations, so there is no good “one size fit all” policy regarding gender and forest income.  Understanding gender-based forest income distribution might help design policies and development interventions that provide women with more equitable access to income  However, most donors recognise importance of gender-oriented research yet successful integration remains elusive
  15. 15. THINKING beyond the canopy www.cifor.cgiar.org

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