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Gender issues and bushmeat

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While bush meat consumption as a driver of deforestation has received international attention, understanding the roles played by women and men in the consumption of wild animals will be vital if the trade is to continue sustainably. This presentation gives an overview of CIFOR research on the roles and contributions of men and women in the hunting, trade, and consumption of bush meat within the value chain.

Robert Nasi, CIFOR Scientist and Leader of the CGIAR Research Programme on Forest, Trees, and Agroforestry (http://www.cifor.org/crp6/), gave this presentation at the first Africa Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) and the Forestry Network for sub-Saharan Africa (FORNESSA), held in Nairobi, Kenya in June 2012.

While bush meat consumption as a driver of deforestation has received international attention, understanding the roles played by women and men in the consumption of wild animals will be vital if the trade is to continue sustainably. This presentation gives an overview of CIFOR research on the roles and contributions of men and women in the hunting, trade, and consumption of bush meat within the value chain.

Robert Nasi, CIFOR Scientist and Leader of the CGIAR Research Programme on Forest, Trees, and Agroforestry (http://www.cifor.org/crp6/), gave this presentation at the first Africa Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO) and the Forestry Network for sub-Saharan Africa (FORNESSA), held in Nairobi, Kenya in June 2012.

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Gender issues and bushmeat

  1. 1. Gender Issues and Bushmeat N. Van Vliet, R. Nasi IUFRO-FORNESSA Conference, Nairobi, June 2012
  2. 2. What
are
the
roles
and contributions
of
men
and women
in
the
use
and trade
of
bushmeat,
along the
bushmeat
trade chain? From
hunting
to consumption,
passing through
trade
and
food preparation,
do
they differ?
  3. 3. Bushmeat Consumption Population (x1000) Dense (tonne/meat/yr) Extracted Basin Forest (t/yr) (km2) Rural Urban Rural Urban Amazon 3,938,000 14,425 24,352 909,000 small 1,299,000 Congo 1,612,000 57,046 41,199 2,909,000 289,000 4,569,000 If
bushmeat
consumption
in
the
Congo
Basin
was
to
be
replaced
by
locally produced
beef,
an
area
as
large
as
25
million
hectares
might
have
to
be converted
to
pastures. Nasi,
Van
Vliet,
Taber
2011
  4. 4. LA The Bushmeat Market Chain Prey Hunters Transporters Final
consumers
in
rural
areas Wholesalers Retailers Final
consumers
in
urban
areas
  5. 5. Hunting Is
generally considered
a
”man” only
activity
  6. 6. Hunting Women
are
sometimes
directly involved
in
hunting….. • Romanoff
(1983)
describes
Matses
women
in
the Peruvian
Amazon
who
accompany
their
husbands, helping
to
chase
and
kill
animals • Hurtado
et
al.
(1985)
indicate
that
Ache
women
in Paraguay
help
men
search
for
and
transport
captured animals,
occasionally
killing
animals
themselves. • Biesele
and
Barcaly
(2001)
describe
excellent
Ju/'hoan women
trackers
of
large
game
who
accompany
their husbands
and
contribute
substantially
to
their
hunting success.) © Kumpel N.
  7. 7. Hunting Women
often
push
or
encourage

hunting "Women
are
the
arms
of
the
dibouka” [throw
of
the
nets] (McCreedy,
1994:15) The
Aka
conducted
a
bobanda
ritual
when
net‐hunting
was
not successful.
Men
organized
the
ritual
and

pleaded
with
women
to participate
because
women's
enthusiasm
and
energy
were viewed
as
crucial
to
the
success
of
the
ritual
and
future
net‐ hunting.
  8. 8. Hunting Women
often
push
for
hunting “If
a
certain
man
goes
hunting
but
I don’t
go,
my
wife
might
even
start
loving that
man.” (Man,
age
32) Tanzania, FZS: Asanterabi Lowassa (asante.kweka@gmail.com)
  9. 9. LA
FILIÈRE
VIANDE
DE
BROUSSE The Bushmeat Market Chain Prey Hunters Transporters Final
consumers
in
rural
areas Retailers Wholesalers Final
consumers
in
urban
areas
  10. 10. Transporting Men
are
mostly
involved
in
transport
from
the
source
to
urban
areas but
women
are
often
involved
in
transport
when
buying
in
the forest
to
sell
on
the
markets
  11. 11. LA
FILIÈRE
VIANDE
DE
BROUSSE The Bushmeat Market Chain Prey Hunters Transporters Retailers Wholesalers Final
consumers
in
rural
areas Final
consumers
in
urban
areas
  12. 12. Wholesalers and retailers Women
are
involved
in
the
trade
from
retailers,
wholesalers,
restaurants, prepared
bushmeat
meals
sold
in
markets
or
in
the
street
  13. 13. Income Purchasing:
the
income
generated
by
women
is
invested
in
food In urban areas: “In Kisangani, protein and bushmeat consumption by children was not correlated with the father´s profession (Correspondence Factor Analysis, Wilks Lambda test, protein: p=0,96; bushmeat: p=0,7) nor with the mother’s profession (protein: p=0,1; bushmeat: p=0,3) (Table 5). However, children whose mother had an income generating activity, ate more proteins and significantly more bushmeat than the others (protein: p=0,14; bushmeat: p=0,05).” van Vliet et al., submitted
  14. 14. Income Purchasing:
the
income
generated
by
women
is
invested
in
food In rural areas: ”Over half of the money spent by men in the village shop was on alcohol and cigarettes, and the amount and proportion of income spent on these items increased substantially with increases in individual hunting offtake. By contrast, the majority of purchases made by women were of food, but their food purchases decreased actually and proportionally with increased household hunting offtake”.
  15. 15. LA
FILIÈRE
VIANDE
DE
BROUSSE The Bushmeat Market Chain Prey Hunters Transporters Retailers Wholesalers Final
consumers
in
rural
areas Final
consumers
in
urban
areas
  16. 16. Consumption Bushmeat
preferences
by
gender South
west
Cameroun,
van
Vliet
and
Nasi,
unpublished)
 (N=345) women preferences men preferences monkey cane rat monkey 6% cane rat 10% 5% 11% pangolin pangolin 6% 11% red duikers 5% blue duiker red duikers 3% 9% porcupine porcupine blue duiker 61% 46% 2% Bats,
nile
monitor,
fox
and
gorilla
were
only
mentioned

by
men;
elephants
were
clearly preferred
by
women
(78%
of
the
votes
were
from
women)
  17. 17. Consumption Bushmeat
consumption
patterns
by
gender Uganda: Oluput et al., 2009
  18. 18. Consumption Bushmeat
consumption
patterns
by
gender Vietnam: Drury, 2011 ”Men were significantly more likely to report having eaten wildmeat in the last 12 months (p<0,01). However, gender played no significant role in consumption wild animal derived medicinal products. Both men and women consider wildmeat as a male food, typically associated with male activities. Most female consumers interviewed had been invited to eat wildmeat by male colleagues, friends or family members and were generally less enthousiastic and less knowledgeble about wildmeat than male consumers”
  19. 19. Consumption Bushmeat
consumption
patterns
by
gender ”Results indicated that age and sex of the respondent did not affect consumption, but ethnic group was statistically significant for the three study species.”
  20. 20. Consumption Consumption
taboos
for
men
and
women Women
that
eat
bay
duiker
could
have
periods
for
ever (Kota,
Gabon)
  21. 21. Consumption Consumption
taboos
for
men
and
women Women
that
eat
Neotragus
while
pregnant
will
have
epileptic
children (Kota,
Gabon)
  22. 22. Consumption Consumption
taboos
for
men
and
women Young
men
and
women
that
eat
yellow
back
duiker
will
never
marry, only
elder
people
consume
it (Kota,
Gabon)
  23. 23. Conclusions • The
overall
trade
chain
is
gender
balanced • Differences
in
the
contribution
of
bushmeat
to income:
In
Urban
areas,
bushmeat
contributes
to income
for
women,
whereas
in
rural
areas
it contributes
to
the
income
of
men. • Women
invest
more
on
food,
whereas
men
tend
to spend
more
money
on
non
necessities • There
are
gender
differences
in
bushmeat consumption
patterns • Knowledge
on
these
relative
gender
roles
is
key
to the
development
of
alternatives
to
ensure
that measures
target
the
right
audienc
  24. 24. Thank you

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