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David Gaveau, Douglas Sheil, Mohammad Salim, Husnayaen, Erik Meijaard
ASSOCIATION FOR TROPICAL BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION
Mo...
Maritime Continent forms the largest rainy area on Earth, the largest
generator and redistributor of water vapor into the ...
Maritime Continent forms the largest rainy area on Earth, the
largest generator and redistributor of water vapor into the ...
In 2015, an El-Nino year, CO2 emitted by (mainly) land fires: 889 Tg
25% of emissions in 1997; equiv. 3 months of emission...
1973
Created with Landsat MSS
Gaveau et al. PlosOne 2014
76% (55.8 Mha) of Borneo
old-growth rainforest
Gaveau et al. 2014
And the era of industrial-scale
extractive industries began……………
1973
76% (55.8 Mha) of Borneo
old-grow...
Gaveau et al. 2014
And the era of industrial-scale
extractive industries began……………
First came selective logging
and the c...
Gaveau et al. 2014
And the era of industrial-scale
extractive industries began……………
First selective logging
1973
76% (55.8...
1980s: LOGGING, FIRE & PLANTATIONS
Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood)
Intact forests
Forests degraded by ENSO fires
Sel...
1990s: LOGGING, FIRE&PLANTATIONS
Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood)
Intact forests
Forests degraded by ENSO fires
Selec...
2000-2015: LOGGING, FIRE & PLANTATIONS
Gaveau et al. in review
Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood)
Intact forests
Forest...
2000-2015: LOGGING, FIRE & PLANTATIONS
Gaveau et al. in review
Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood)
Intact forests
Forest...
1990-2000: LOGGING, FIRE&PLANTATIONS
Gaveau et al. 2014
Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood)
Intact forests
Forests degra...
1990-2000: LOGGING, FIRE&PLANTATIONS
Gaveau et al. 2014
Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood)
Intact forests
Forests degra...
Gaveau et al. 2014
Annual Rainfall
1973
Created with Landsat MSS
Gaveau et al. PlosOne 2014
76% (55.8 Mha) of Borneo
rainforest
Gaveau et al. in review
2015
50% (37.3 Mha) rainforest remain
- 28% intact
- 22% logged
18.6 Mha lost
2000-2013: LOGGING, FIRE & PLANTATIONS
7 Mha burned (shrubs) 1 Mha indus. Pulpwood
18.6 Mha deforested
1973-2015
6 Mha ind...
DEFORESTATION AND OIL PALM DEVELOPMENT
DEFORESTATION AND OIL PALM DEVELOPMENT
Industrial oil palm expanded by 8 Mha since 1973,
of which 6 Mha were old-growth fo...
DEFORESTATION AND OIL PALM DEVELOPMENT
New plantations can either replace natural forests or avoid
deforestation by planti...
AreainMillionha(Mha)
5
4
3
2
1
0
Indonesian Borneo
Malaysian Borneo
AreainMillionha(Mha)
5
4
3
2
1
0
Indonesian Borneo
Malaysian Borneo
AreainMillionha(Mha)
5
4
3
2
1
0
3.3Mha
Indonesian Borneo
Malaysian Borneo
AreainMillionha(Mha)
5
4
3
2
1
0
Indonesian Borneo
Malaysian Borneo
>15yr
>5yr>10yr
1.5Mha
AreainMillionha(Mha)
5
4
3
2
1
0
Indonesian Borneo
Malaysian Borneo
>5yr
>10yr
>15yr
>20yr
>5yr>10yr
>15yr
1.5Mha
0.9Mha
Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo3
2
1
0
0.5
1.5
2.5
AreainMillionha(Mha)
In Indonesian Borneo, a larger share of oil-pal...
56% 54%
34%
36%
Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo
17% 16%
28%
17%
33%
23%
PROPORTION OF OIL PALM ESTABLISHED ON ALREADY C...
46% 43%
14%
4%
Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo
50%
38%
57%
51%
ROLE OF OIL PALM IN TOTAL DEFORESTATION
CONCLUSION
The oil-palm plantation industry is the principle driver of the
loss of old-growth forest in Malaysian Borneo, ...
CONCLUSION
• Indonesian Borneo has experienced a steep increase in
rapid conversion to oil palm since 2005, and became the...
CONCLUSION
Though locally present for centuries, forest fires have
become the largest cause of forest loss in Borneo since...
THANK YOU
cifor.org
blog.cifor.org
ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org
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Four decades of forest degradation: Fire And oil palm expansion in Borneo

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At the Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, CIFOR scientist David Gaveau presents the results of analysis of four decades of maps of Borneo to look at deforestation, degraded land and the role of industrial plantations.

This work was funded by the United States Agency for International Development through the Governing Oil Palm Landscapes for Sustainability
(GOLS) Project, and is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) supported by the CGIAR Fund Donors:
http://www.cgiar.org/about-us/our-funders/

Published in: Environment
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Four decades of forest degradation: Fire And oil palm expansion in Borneo

  1. 1. David Gaveau, Douglas Sheil, Mohammad Salim, Husnayaen, Erik Meijaard ASSOCIATION FOR TROPICAL BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION Montpellier, France 19-23 June 2016 FOUR DECADES OF FOREST DEGRADATION: FIRE AND OIL PALM EXPANSION IN BORNEO
  2. 2. Maritime Continent forms the largest rainy area on Earth, the largest generator and redistributor of water vapor into the Earth’s atmosphere. Some rain received by northern latitudes in distant locations comes from this region  The third largest area of tropical rainforests in the world, enhancing rainfall, storing carbon, cooling Earth’s surface and providing habitat for wildlife Precipitation reported by TRMM satellite, Spracklen et al. 2012
  3. 3. Maritime Continent forms the largest rainy area on Earth, the largest generator and redistributor of water vapor into the Earth’s atmosphere. The third largest area of tropical rainforests in the world, enhancing rainfall, storing carbon, cooling Earth’s surface and providing habitat for wildlife Precipitation reported by TRMM satellite, Spracklen et al. 2012 BORNEO DESPITE THE RAINFALL, MEGA FOREST FIRES REGULARLY OCCURRED IN THIS REGION
  4. 4. In 2015, an El-Nino year, CO2 emitted by (mainly) land fires: 889 Tg 25% of emissions in 1997; equiv. 3 months of emissions by EU28 Corresponding carbon emissions: 289 Tg Associated C02-eq: 1.2 Pg Huijnen, Wooster, Kaiser. Gaveau et al. Scientific Reports2016
  5. 5. 1973 Created with Landsat MSS Gaveau et al. PlosOne 2014 76% (55.8 Mha) of Borneo old-growth rainforest
  6. 6. Gaveau et al. 2014 And the era of industrial-scale extractive industries began…………… 1973 76% (55.8 Mha) of Borneo old-growth rainforest
  7. 7. Gaveau et al. 2014 And the era of industrial-scale extractive industries began…………… First came selective logging and the creation of road Networks in forest, >270,000 km 1973 76% (55.8 Mha) of Borneo old-growth rainforest
  8. 8. Gaveau et al. 2014 And the era of industrial-scale extractive industries began…………… First selective logging 1973 76% (55.8 Mha) of Borneo old-growth rainforest 1970s: LOGGING Intact forests Selectively logged forests
  9. 9. 1980s: LOGGING, FIRE & PLANTATIONS Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood) Intact forests Forests degraded by ENSO fires Selectively logged forests
  10. 10. 1990s: LOGGING, FIRE&PLANTATIONS Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood) Intact forests Forests degraded by ENSO fires Selectively logged forests
  11. 11. 2000-2015: LOGGING, FIRE & PLANTATIONS Gaveau et al. in review Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood) Intact forests Forests degraded by ENSO fires Selectively logged forests
  12. 12. 2000-2015: LOGGING, FIRE & PLANTATIONS Gaveau et al. in review Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood) Intact forests Forests degraded by ENSO fires Selectively logged forests
  13. 13. 1990-2000: LOGGING, FIRE&PLANTATIONS Gaveau et al. 2014 Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood) Intact forests Forests degraded by ENSO fires Selectively logged forests
  14. 14. 1990-2000: LOGGING, FIRE&PLANTATIONS Gaveau et al. 2014 Indus. Plantations (oilpalm&pulpwood) Intact forests Forests degraded by ENSO fires Selectively logged forests
  15. 15. Gaveau et al. 2014 Annual Rainfall
  16. 16. 1973 Created with Landsat MSS Gaveau et al. PlosOne 2014 76% (55.8 Mha) of Borneo rainforest
  17. 17. Gaveau et al. in review 2015 50% (37.3 Mha) rainforest remain - 28% intact - 22% logged 18.6 Mha lost
  18. 18. 2000-2013: LOGGING, FIRE & PLANTATIONS 7 Mha burned (shrubs) 1 Mha indus. Pulpwood 18.6 Mha deforested 1973-2015 6 Mha indus. Oil Palm 0.2 Mha Mining 0.1 Mha Hydro. Dam4.4 Mha small&mid agri 37% 32% 5% 1% 0.5%25%
  19. 19. DEFORESTATION AND OIL PALM DEVELOPMENT
  20. 20. DEFORESTATION AND OIL PALM DEVELOPMENT Industrial oil palm expanded by 8 Mha since 1973, of which 6 Mha were old-growth forest in 1973
  21. 21. DEFORESTATION AND OIL PALM DEVELOPMENT New plantations can either replace natural forests or avoid deforestation by planting on previously cleared lands. The extent of these two situations is contested • NGOs identify industrial oil-palm plantations as the main driver of deforestation on Borneo. • Various industry and government representatives dispute that oil-palm plantations cause deforestation and highlight that plantations are a reasonable use of already deforested and degraded abandoned lands. We now look at Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo, the two largest producers of oil Palm with >80% of global share. Though locally present for centuries12, forest fires have become a large-scale cause of forest degradation and loss since the El Niño droughts of 19839
  22. 22. AreainMillionha(Mha) 5 4 3 2 1 0 Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo
  23. 23. AreainMillionha(Mha) 5 4 3 2 1 0 Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo
  24. 24. AreainMillionha(Mha) 5 4 3 2 1 0 3.3Mha Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo
  25. 25. AreainMillionha(Mha) 5 4 3 2 1 0 Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo >15yr >5yr>10yr 1.5Mha
  26. 26. AreainMillionha(Mha) 5 4 3 2 1 0 Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo >5yr >10yr >15yr >20yr >5yr>10yr >15yr 1.5Mha 0.9Mha
  27. 27. Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo3 2 1 0 0.5 1.5 2.5 AreainMillionha(Mha) In Indonesian Borneo, a larger share of oil-palm plantations were developed on lands cleared before 1973 and on degraded lands (predominantly forests converted to scrublands by drought and recurrent burning)
  28. 28. 56% 54% 34% 36% Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo 17% 16% 28% 17% 33% 23% PROPORTION OF OIL PALM ESTABLISHED ON ALREADY CLEARED LANDS
  29. 29. 46% 43% 14% 4% Indonesian Borneo Malaysian Borneo 50% 38% 57% 51% ROLE OF OIL PALM IN TOTAL DEFORESTATION
  30. 30. CONCLUSION The oil-palm plantation industry is the principle driver of the loss of old-growth forest in Malaysian Borneo, as 50-52% of all deforestation over four decades was associated with rapid conversion (within five years of forest clearance) to industrial plantations. In Indonesian Borneo, only 11–13% of all deforestation in Kalimantan was associated with rapid conversion to industrial oil palm as the majority of oil-palm plantations were developed on lands cleared before 1973 and on degraded lands (predominantly forests converted to scrublands by drought and recurrent burning Though locally present for centuries12, forest fires have become a large-scale cause of forest degradation and loss since the El Niño droughts of 19839
  31. 31. CONCLUSION • Indonesian Borneo has experienced a steep increase in rapid conversion to oil palm since 2005, and became the principle contributor of rapid net forest conversion by area with 1 Mha of old-growth and selectively logged forest lost to oil palm over the last 10 years. • The recent oil palm expansion involves many land fires that emitted enormous amounts of smoke into the atmosphere and caused much damage to the health of local people. • Locally present for centuries, forest fires have become the largest cause of forest loss in Borneo since the El Niño droughts of 1983. Forests felt cycles of repeated burns. Such cycles have converted 6.6 million hectares of old-growth and selectively logged forest to scrublands, mainly in Indonesian Borneo
  32. 32. CONCLUSION Though locally present for centuries, forest fires have become the largest cause of forest loss in Borneo since the El Niño droughts of 1983. Once the forest has burned, the increased risk of subsequent fires leads many forests to cycles of repeated burns. Such cycles have converted 6.6 million hectares of old-growth and selectively logged forest to scrublands, mainly in Indonesian Borneo, with some subsequent conversion to oil palm for some. Should remaining degraded lands be replanted with native vegetation or Plantations? Do deforestation and fires in Indonesia reduce rainfall over land ? Though locally present for centuries12, forest fires have become a large-scale cause of forest degradation and loss since the El Niño droughts of 19839
  33. 33. THANK YOU cifor.org blog.cifor.org ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org

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