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Forests, Food Security and Nutrition in Africa

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Forests, Food Security and Nutrition in Africa

  1. 1. Bronwen PowellForests, Food Security and Nutrition in AfricaSustainable Forest Management in Central AfricaMay 22 and 23, 2013
  2. 2. Food Security DefinedFood security exists when all people, at all times,have physical and economic access to sufficientsafe and nutritious food to meet their dietaryneeds and food preferences for a healthy andactive life
  3. 3. • 868
million
people
food
insecure
(or
undernourished)people
in
the
world
(~12.5%
of
world)
(FAO
2012)• Highest
rates
in
Sub‐Saharan
Africa
26.8%
(compared
to
14.9%
for
alldeveloping
countries)• 2
billion
people
(almost
30%
of
world)
suffer
frommicronutrient
deficiency
(FAO
2012,
UN‐SCN
2010)• Vitamin
A
deficiency
27.9%
in
Africa,
much
higher
than
any
other
region• Vit
A
def.
in
children
in
Central
Africa
40.8%
(1990)
→
45.8%
(2005)….
Theonly
region
with
an
increase
in
rates• Anemia
(Iron
def.)
in
children
in
Africa
68%...
higher
than
other
regions• 1.4
billion
people
in
the
world
are
over‐weight
or
obese• 146
million
people
in
developing
world
have
diabetes
(Yach
et
al.
2006,
Nature)Some Important Numbers(updated for 2012)
  4. 4. IRONGrowth and cognitive development, school performance, workproductivity and maternal mortalitySources = animal source foods (meats), legumes,leafy greens, fish, fortified cereals
  5. 5. Vitamin AVision, infection and immunitySources = liver, leafy greens, orange vegetables (carrots,sweet potato, pumpkin), orange fruit, dairy (including humanmilk)
  6. 6. THINKING beyond the canopyDietary DiversityAnd…..iodine,
vitamin
B12,
zinc,calcium,selenium,folate...
  7. 7. Ickowitz, A., B. Powell, and T. Sunderland.Forests and Child Nutrition in Africa. Submitted for review
  8. 8. Tanzania, Powell et al. (2011), Powell et al. (in press)31% vitamin A, 26% iron, 23% calcium from wild foodschildren’s dietary diversity (FVS and DDS14) werecorrelated with forest cover (e.g. DDS14 and forest coverwithin 1km r=0.303; p<0.001)in dry season, individuals who had consumed vegetables hadgreater tree cover in close proximity to their homeGabon, Blaney et al. (2009)use of natural resource (i.e. wild plant and animal foods),was associated with dietary nutrient adequacy in children over2 years of age into adolescenceMadagascar, Golden et al. (2011)loss of wild meat in the diet would result in 29% ↑ in numberof children with anemia
  9. 9. DRC, Termote et al. (2012)individuals who had consumed wild plant foods had higherintake of vitamin A and calcium than those who had not ….those who consumed wild plant foods had greater intake offruit (and only 36% had consumed in rural area, less in urbanareas) (in Kisangani and rural Turumbu village of Yaoseko)
  10. 10. Income•Forests provide around one fifth of income (PEN)•Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient (FAO 2012)• Ickowitz 2011 “Wealthiest Is Not Always Healthiest…”• Men and women tend to use money differently
  11. 11. Diet and Nutrition Transitions... Lead to “Double Burden”• Dounias and Froment 2006: When forest-based hunter-gatherersbecome sedentary: consequences for diet and health. Unasylva224(57):online.
  12. 12. Ecosystem ServicesPollination best measured ES from forests…. important forfruits and vegetables (Gallai et al. 2009)… majority of globalvitamin A, calcium and folic acid supply dependent onpollination (Eilers et al. 2011)Water…. for agriculture, health (infection) and work loads
  13. 13. Thank
you!
  14. 14. Dietary Diversity
  15. 15. Different use of income by men vs. women?Womens decision-making, control over income, percent of incomeearned → positive impact on food intake and child nutrition status(Smith et al. 2003, Engle 1993, Hoddinott and Haddad 1991, Kennedy and Peters 1992)Others have found otherwise or note complications (OLaughlin 2007)e.g. Ternent et al. 2010: Burkina Faso, men willing to pay more than womenfor maternal health

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