Bronwen PowellForests, Food Security and Nutrition in AfricaSustainable Forest Management in Central AfricaMay 22 and 23, 2013
Food Security DefinedFood security exists when all people, at all times,have physical and economic access to sufficientsafe and nutritious food to meet their dietaryneeds and food preferences for a healthy andactive life
• 868 million people food insecure (or undernourished)people in the world (~12.5% of world) (FAO 2012)• Highest rates in Sub‐Saharan Africa 26.8% (compared to 14.9% for alldeveloping countries)• 2 billion people (almost 30% of world) suffer frommicronutrient deficiency (FAO 2012, UN‐SCN 2010)• Vitamin A deficiency 27.9% in Africa, much higher than any other region• Vit A def. in children in Central Africa 40.8% (1990) → 45.8% (2005)…. Theonly region with an increase in rates• Anemia (Iron def.) in children in Africa 68%... higher than other regions• 1.4 billion people in the world are over‐weight or obese• 146 million people in developing world have diabetes (Yach et al. 2006, Nature)Some Important Numbers(updated for 2012)
IRONGrowth and cognitive development, school performance, workproductivity and maternal mortalitySources = animal source foods (meats), legumes,leafy greens, fish, fortified cereals
THINKING beyond the canopyDietary DiversityAnd…..iodine, vitamin B12, zinc,calcium,selenium,folate...
Ickowitz, A., B. Powell, and T. Sunderland.Forests and Child Nutrition in Africa. Submitted for review
Tanzania, Powell et al. (2011), Powell et al. (in press)31% vitamin A, 26% iron, 23% calcium from wild foodschildren’s dietary diversity (FVS and DDS14) werecorrelated with forest cover (e.g. DDS14 and forest coverwithin 1km r=0.303; p<0.001)in dry season, individuals who had consumed vegetables hadgreater tree cover in close proximity to their homeGabon, Blaney et al. (2009)use of natural resource (i.e. wild plant and animal foods),was associated with dietary nutrient adequacy in children over2 years of age into adolescenceMadagascar, Golden et al. (2011)loss of wild meat in the diet would result in 29% ↑ in numberof children with anemia
DRC, Termote et al. (2012)individuals who had consumed wild plant foods had higherintake of vitamin A and calcium than those who had not ….those who consumed wild plant foods had greater intake offruit (and only 36% had consumed in rural area, less in urbanareas) (in Kisangani and rural Turumbu village of Yaoseko)
Income•Forests provide around one fifth of income (PEN)•Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient (FAO 2012)• Ickowitz 2011 “Wealthiest Is Not Always Healthiest…”• Men and women tend to use money differently
Diet and Nutrition Transitions... Lead to “Double Burden”• Dounias and Froment 2006: When forest-based hunter-gatherersbecome sedentary: consequences for diet and health. Unasylva224(57):online.
Ecosystem ServicesPollination best measured ES from forests…. important forfruits and vegetables (Gallai et al. 2009)… majority of globalvitamin A, calcium and folic acid supply dependent onpollination (Eilers et al. 2011)Water…. for agriculture, health (infection) and work loads
Different use of income by men vs. women?Womens decision-making, control over income, percent of incomeearned → positive impact on food intake and child nutrition status(Smith et al. 2003, Engle 1993, Hoddinott and Haddad 1991, Kennedy and Peters 1992)Others have found otherwise or note complications (OLaughlin 2007)e.g. Ternent et al. 2010: Burkina Faso, men willing to pay more than womenfor maternal health