Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: A brief introduction

584 views

Published on

Presented by Maria Brockhaus at a workshop on 'Sharing insights across REDD+ countries: Opportunities and obstacles for effective, efficient, and equitable REDD+ carbon and non-carbon results', held from 21-23 February 2017 in Naypyidaw, Myanmar.

Published in: Environment
  • Hello! Get Your Professional Job-Winning Resume Here - Check our website! https://vk.cc/818RFv
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: A brief introduction

  1. 1. Forests, Climate Change and REDD+: a brief introduction Maria Brockhaus Myanmar – February 2017
  2. 2. Strategies for climate change  Mitigation and adaptation: Different objectives Mitigation: To reduce emissions or enhance sinks Adaptation: To moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities
  3. 3. MITIGATION GhG concentrations Climate change Impacts Responses Global ecosystem service: Carbon sequestration. Instruments: CDM, REDD. Ecosystem-Based Mitigation ADAPTATION Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Local ecosystem services: Water regulation, provision of goods... Instruments: EBA.
  4. 4. Linkages between forests and adaptation are twofold  Adaptation for forests • CC affect forests • Adaptation measures needed for forests New challenges -> understanding impacts, adapting management  Forests for adaptation • Forest ecosystems contribute to social adaptation • They provide ecosystem services that contribute to risk management, and reduce the vulnerability of local communities and of the broader society New challenges -> forests in adaptation of sectors outside of the forest sector (Locatelli et al., 2010)
  5. 5. Forest Ecosystem-Based Mitigation: Examples e.g., Afforestation & Reforestation (CDM) Increasing carbon in ecosystems t With reforestation Carbon in ecosystem Baseline Avoiding loss of carbon from ecosystems Conservation Carbon in ecosystem t Baseline (deforestation) e.g., Avoided Deforestation (REDD+)
  6. 6. What is REDD+? … policy approaches and positive incentives for activities relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries UNFCCC Decision 2/CP.13–11
  7. 7. The core idea of REDD
  8. 8. REDD+ architecture
  9. 9. A brief REDD history  Early 1990s: Deforestation 1/5 of GHG emissions  2001 - COP7: Avoided deforestation too difficult to include in CDM (+ no additionality). Only A/R  2005 - COP11: 2 year consultation period for RED ; 2006 –Stern report  2007 - COP13: RED(D) included in Bali Action Plan; Norway’s Climate-Forest initiative, NOK 15 billions  2008+: FCPF (World Bank), UNREDD, other initiatives  2009 - COP15: some progress for REDD+, interim financing  2010: COP 16 confirms earlier decisions on REDD+; safeguards and ref.levels; REDD+ partnership  2011: COP 17: REDD part of commitment for all parties? Financing to be explored. Pilots and national policy reforms  2012: COP 18 and SBSTA - not much new, a lot of bracket text for safeguards, MRV etc. - verification problem  2013: COP 19 Warsaw framework, results based finance, guidance – safeguards issue will need further guidance  2014: SBSTA and COP 20 – Safeguards guidance, JMA  2015: COP 21 and SBSTA concluded REDD+ negotiations -> national implementation arenas  2016: Green Climate Fund and REDD+ results based payments, transparency
  10. 10. Paris Agreement, forests and REDD+  First time forests are explicitly mentioned (Art 5.1)  Encourages action for results based payments (e.g. REDD+) (Art 5.2)  keeping forests and trees standing and sustainably managed will be crucial for global efforts to reach the 1.5 temperature goal  especially in forest-rich countries avoided deforestation can provide major emission reductions contributions and REDD+ is explicitly mentioned in many (I)NDCs
  11. 11. The phased approach (adopted from Meridian Report 2009, UNFCCC) 11 Phase 1: Readiness Phase 2 PAM implementation Phase 3 Results Activities - Institutional strengthening - Technical capacity building - .. - Governance, regulatory and economic reforms (including Land use planning, Law enforcement, Moratoria) - Forest sector reforms - Removal of perverse subsidies - … - Improved forest management - Improved commodity chains - …. Performance - Assessment completed - Consultations conducted - Capacity increased - … - Policies enacted - Measures enforced - Proxies identified and monitored for changes in emissions - ….. - Quantified emission reductions, removal and enhancements (tCO2-e) - Quantified co-benefits - …. Financing Immediately available (readiness funds) Predictable amounts over a defined period, including countries’ own upfront investments Large-scale funding (note-shift from market to public funds)
  12. 12. Performance in REDD+  Over past decades move towards output/outcome orientation based on incentives, cash-on-delivery approaches  Some problems of ‘’traditional aid’ : - High transaction costs due to donor requirements; National ownership; “The accountability problem”, in which countries are held accountable to the donors instead of their citizens; low incentive to perform (‘ritual dance’ between donor/receiver)  REDD+ to incentivize quantifiable results: Payments for performance Should allow for ownership over reform, integration of context, and for turning tables from aid receiver to service provider  REDD+ shifted away from market-based to public fund-based, performance element remains  Risks of ‘aidification’ of REDD+, but lessons available (Angelsen 2016)
  13. 13. Key trends Objectives: CO2 Co-benefits Funding: Rich pay poor REDD+ countries Policies: PES Broad PAMs Forest policies Funding: Market Public (aid) Scale: National Local/projects
  14. 14. Challenges in national REDD+ Among others ...  Coordination across sectors and administrative levels (in decentralized systems)  Tenure, financing systems, benefit sharing and participation  MRV systems and capacity  Scope, scale, permanence, leakage  Sovereignty and ownership over process and reform(s)  Capacity and political will to address the drivers of forest carbon change (driven oftentimes by interests of powerful elites), access/availibility to data on sectorial contributions to DD, and identifying an effective policy mix
  15. 15. www.cifor.org/gcs

×