Forest Tenure Reform:New Community Rights in the Age of Climate ChangeAnne M LarsonSenior Associate, CIFORWorkshop: Taking...
Outline of presentation<br />I. Intro to REDD & communities<br />II. Research and methods<br />III. Obstacles to reforms<b...
I. Intro to REDD & communities<br />What is REDD(+)? (strategies for reducing emissions from DD and enhancing C stocks)<br...
II. Research and methods<br />Comparative case study, policy advocacy research in over 30 sites in 10 countries <br />Coun...
III. Obstacles to reformA. Statutory rights<br />Extent, permanence and security of rights (through what legal mechanisms?...
III. Obstacles to reformB. Implementation processes<br />Foot-dragging by the state (state interest in the resources on th...
III. Obstacles to reform C. Access to benefits<br />Accompanying measures (capacity building, access to markets)<br />Lice...
III. Obstacles for reform: Summary<br />
IV. Lessons: Communities & REDDAttention to tenure in REDD to date<br />‘… many R-PINs suggest a very limited analysis (an...
IV. Lessons: Communities & REDDREDD risks for communities<br />Tenure rights <br />Rules for forest use<br />without secur...
IV. Lessons: Communities & REDDQuestions…<br />Will states share REDD benefits with communities? <br />Will they facilitat...
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Forest tenure reform: New community rights in the age of climate change

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Anne M. Larson

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in: Education
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Forest tenure reform: New community rights in the age of climate change

  1. 1. Forest Tenure Reform:New Community Rights in the Age of Climate ChangeAnne M LarsonSenior Associate, CIFORWorkshop: Taking Stock of Smallholder and Community ForestryMontpellier, FranceMarch 24-26, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Outline of presentation<br />I. Intro to REDD & communities<br />II. Research and methods<br />III. Obstacles to reforms<br />Statutory rights<br />Implementation<br />Access to benefits<br />IV. Lessons for REDD & communities<br />
  3. 3. I. Intro to REDD & communities<br />What is REDD(+)? (strategies for reducing emissions from DD and enhancing C stocks)<br />REDD & communities: (1) could leave out, (2) have positive effects on communities or (3) have negative effects <br />Right to forests, rights to Carbon, decision-making (rules) about forests<br />Tenure rights: <br />REDD is likely to require secure tenure (PES experience, logic of international markets/ investments)<br />If communities do not have secure tenure, who will get rights?<br />If rights are “secured”, who will get them?<br />Rule-making: <br />Who makes the rules for meeting REDD requirements?<br />
  4. 4. II. Research and methods<br />Comparative case study, policy advocacy research in over 30 sites in 10 countries <br />Countries and sites chosen: <br />Where a statutory tenure change in favour of communities had recently occurred or was about to occur<br />Where there was potential to influence policy<br />Rights-based approach in the sense that “local people” were (usually) advocating for tenure rights<br />Dynamic study of reform processes<br />Highly contextualized at various scales: local (single community), groups of communities, regional, national<br />
  5. 5. III. Obstacles to reformA. Statutory rights<br />Extent, permanence and security of rights (through what legal mechanisms?)<br />Quality and quantity of forests granted<br />Rules for resource use<br />Rights for some may exclude others with customary claims<br />
  6. 6. III. Obstacles to reformB. Implementation processes<br />Foot-dragging by the state (state interest in the resources on those lands?)<br />Logistical difficulties (ex. demarcation)<br />Competing claims (legitimate and not, the role of the state)<br />Governance challenges (elite capture, unaccountable authority)<br />Time…<br />
  7. 7. III. Obstacles to reform C. Access to benefits<br />Accompanying measures (capacity building, access to markets)<br />Licenses and permits, complex bureaucracies<br />Discretionary powers of forest officers<br />Costs, lack of credit<br />Markets <br />
  8. 8. III. Obstacles for reform: Summary<br />
  9. 9. IV. Lessons: Communities & REDDAttention to tenure in REDD to date<br />‘… many R-PINs suggest a very limited analysis (and in some cases understanding) of the existing situation with regards to conflicts over tenure and potential obstacles to reform and implementation. Issues such as … the nature of customary practices and indigenous rights are not consistently addressed. Furthermore, few countries address the need to clarify carbon rights within existing tenure systems.’ <br />‘Given the strong consensus amongst participating countries that improving tenure security is critical for REDD, a deeper and more practical discussion of how these issues may be resolved will be needed….’ (Davis et al. 2009).<br />
  10. 10. IV. Lessons: Communities & REDDREDD risks for communities<br />Tenure rights <br />Rules for forest use<br />without secure rights, increased risk of REDD failure<br />risk of elite capture <br />risk of conflict<br />risk of inequity in benefits<br />with or without secure rights, who benefits?<br />…Failure of the state to defend and secure rights for communities<br />who makes the rules<br />who enforces them<br />how do they restrict livelihood activities<br />are losses adequately compensated<br />who is affected most<br />…Tendency to centralize decisions, top-down rules<br />
  11. 11. IV. Lessons: Communities & REDDQuestions…<br />Will states share REDD benefits with communities? <br />Will they facilitate community participation?<br />Will states defend communities against competing interests? Against elite capture?<br />Will states protect community livelihoods over potential national income from C sales?<br />Will states simply make the rules and expect, or force, communities to follow them?<br />

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