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Forest fire management in Ethiopia, experiences and challenges

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Presented by EFCCC on 28 August 2019 at "Fire Trends in Ethiopia in the Context of REDD+ and FLR Investments" Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Published in: Environment
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Forest fire management in Ethiopia, experiences and challenges

  1. 1. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  FDRE, ENVIRONMENT, FOREST & CLIMATE CHANGE COMMISSION
  2. 2. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  1. Introduction 1.1. historical background 2. The what of fire 3. The Basics of Wildfire 4. Causes of forest fire in Ethiopia 5. Challenges 6. Efforts made 6.1. preventive actions 6.2. protective actions 7. Possible way forward 8. Conclusion Presentation Outlines
  3. 3. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  Ethiopia is one of the world’s fastest-growing populations and is the second most populous country in Africa;  The country is experiencing high levels of economic growth;  At the same time, Ethiopia continues to face major challenges (food insecurity, cyclical disasters, population pressure, unemployment, disease & NR degradation /specially, forests/); 1. Introduction 1.1. Historical Background
  4. 4. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   The susceptibility of forest fire in Ethiopia is higher due to its geographical location;  The extent of forest fire damage is so huge in the country, and not even measured and recorded;  However, nationally there is only limited initiatives on the prevention and control of forest fire. Historical Background…
  5. 5. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  Statistical data on fire are missing i.e. “no systematic & complete record of forest fire regimes & their impacts well addressed”; absence of forest fire policies, laws and directives; Hence, no single wild land fire management plan in the country. Historical Background…
  6. 6. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  Ethiopian farmers have been using fire as a means of production or as a farming tool for a long time;  Yodit/Gudit (849-897 A.C.): “ordered her army and the local people to set fire to forests stretching from Tigray to Gonder & Wello in suspected hiding grounds for the soldiers of Emperor Dilnaad”; o Grange Mohamed (1527-1542 A.C.): “clear and burn all the forests stretching from the eastern lowlands to the central highlands”; o In 1984 fire damaged~ 308,200 ha of forests; Historical Background…
  7. 7. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   In 2009 over 300,000 ha natural forests were damaged by wildfires;  Recently in 2018 Kefa biosphere reserve & in 2019 Bale Mountain and Simen Mountain National Parks were amongst those damaged by forest fire;  Despite all these facts, Ethiopia is not yet had well organized systems that enable to tackle this problem; Historical Background…
  8. 8. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Ethiopia occupies the interior of the Eastern Horn of Africa stretching b/n 3°N & 15°N latitude & 33°E & 48°E, with a total area of 1.13 million km2;  Ethiopia is a country of great geographical diversity with high & rugged mountains, flat topped plateau & deep gorges, incised river valleys & rolling plains;  Erosion, volcanic eruptions, drought, wild fire, floods are some of the disasters;  Altitudes range: Dalol 110m bsl-Ras Dejen 4620m asl. Locational background
  9. 9. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   The climate of Ethiopia is classified into three types based on the annual and monthly means of temperature & rainfall as well as on seasonal changes of rainfall and types of native vegetation associated with them as Dry, Tropical, Temperate rainy climate types which are further subdivided into three dega, weynadega, kola Climate (let browse more)
  10. 10. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Fire is the visible effect of the process of combustion  It occurs b/n oxygen in the air & some sort of fuel.  The fuel must be heated to its ignition temperature for combustion to occur.  The reaction will keep going as long as there is enough heat, fuel & oxygen.  Combustion is when fuel reacts with oxygen to release heat energy.  Combustion can be slow or fast depending on the amount of oxygen available. 2. The what part… fire triangle
  11. 11. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  One important task for forest mgt is the protection of the forest resource base; Fire is often the most dangerous of many sources affect the forest; is a real threat for the people living inside or adjacent to the forest area.  Each year 1000s of people lose their homes due to wildfires, & 100s of people die in these accidents; +++10s of 1000s of domestic animals perish. 3. The Basics of Wildfire
  12. 12. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   According to (Jurvélius, 2011); it is estimated that every year: o 10 to 15m ha of boreal or temperate forest burn. o 20 to 40m ha of tropical rain forest burn. o 500 to 1,000m ha of tropical & subtropical savannahs, woodlands & open forests burn. o >90% of all this burning is caused by human activity. Therefore, it is quite clear that fire prevention and control should receive top priority among forest management activities. 3. The Basics of Wildfire…
  13. 13. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  To get road access by villagers;  To get a new flush of grass after rains by burning dry grass in dry weather;  Scaring wild animals from entering the villages;  To destroy the stumps of illicitly cut trees in the forest areas.  Traditional Honey collection  Illegal settlement  For clearing agricultural land  Deliberate firing of forest area  Improper Charcoaling activities 4. Causes of forest fire in Ethiopia(Mostly Man Made)
  14. 14. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  Lack of skilled human power & insufficient financial resources;  Lack of knowledge & technologies for fire prevention/control or rehabilitation of forest areas affected by fire;  Lack of demarcation of forest areas for immediate action to be taken  Insufficient &/or lack of researches held on forest fire;  Lack of mechanisms to monitor forests & forecast possible fire risks 5. Challenges
  15. 15. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Lack of linkage /networking at various levels;  Lack of forest mgt plan  Lack of land use policy  Lack of equipped & trained forest fire fighting brigade  Lack of law enforcement  Lack of infrastructures for fire prevention  Lack of inter regional coordination  Lack of safety materials & controlling equipment's Challenges…
  16. 16. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Absence of an adequate fire fighting institution for fire suppression;  Absence of trained & equipped personnel for fire fighting;  Weak institutional arrangements at all levels to monitor all forested areas & implement preventive measures; Challenges…
  17. 17. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Absence of reliable statistical data on occurrence of wildfires, areas burned & losses are not available;  Lack of systematic reporting on forest fire & no data permitting any analysis of causes, risks & the extent of damage for wildfire;  There is no efficient communication system to transmit the information to the appropriate organ; Challenges…
  18. 18. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Absence of systematic fire mgt structure at any level except forest fire control committees w/c’t operational mainly due to limited finance;  Lack of incentive for efficient forest mgt & conservation w/c leads to no interest to conserve forests & env’t in general;  Lack of appropriate land use & forest policies with functional legislation; Challenges…
  19. 19. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Inappropriate & ineffective structure as well as shortage of physical, human & financial resources;  Lack of organized system both at federal & regional level for preventing & controlling forest fire;  Lack of sufficient research on forest fire; Challenges…
  20. 20. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Lack of appropriate knowledge & technologies for fire prevention/control or rehabilitation of forest areas affected by fire;  Insufficient control of the ever-increasing human population;  Poor overall economic performance & poverty; Challenges…
  21. 21. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  6.1. Preventive Actions  Structure/directorate working on forest fire has been set in place at national level (within the commission);  Forest fire manual prevention & protection has been developed;  Awareness creation by following global forest fire watch report alert & awaring the staffs  Supporting region by checklist in order to minimize risk. 6. Efforts made
  22. 22. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Training for d/t religious bodies on building common perception on the prevention of forest fire;  ToT for regional staffs to raise motivation & participation of local community on the prevention of forest fire;  Prepare & disseminate d/t broachers & leaflets & using mass medias for alerting the wider communities; Preventive Actions…
  23. 23. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  As we don’t yet have trained crew or organization for fire fighting in our country: o We have been tried to mobilize the wider community members to fight the fire. o We have played a coordination and mobilization of resource and request a support (helicopter) to safe the protected areas (SMNP) 6.2. Protective Actions (fire Suppression)
  24. 24. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   We have also dealt with other countries (Ezrael forest fire fighting team) for technical support  Afforestation was made via mass mobilization  Hence, 25ha of land are planted as FLR option within Semen Mountain National Park; also  The Bale Mountain National Park was on restoration since it was protected; Efforts made…
  25. 25. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  Efforts made…  Afforestation program via mass mobilization …
  26. 26. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  Efforts made…
  27. 27. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  Efforts made…
  28. 28. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Minimize migration to forests & properly address those already settled inside forests with their active participation in the decision making;  Appropriate benefit sharing mechanisms to the local communities dependent on the forest;  Livelihood enhancement options should be considered;  Create frequent awareness about forest fire at all levels;  Researches should be held & appropriate technologies should be generated to minimize the problem; 7. Possible way forward
  29. 29. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Appropriate land-use & forest policy with functional legislation should be in place;  Improve the present organizational set-up i.e. “we have to have clear organ w/c dealt with the forestry sector with adequate trained manpower, financial & logistical resources”.  Organize well-trained, well-equipped & financially backed stand-by Fire Possible way forward…
  30. 30. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Fire Brigades should be organized care fully & well equipped  Staying alert during the dry season and follow carefully the movements of local people in the forests, especially those that own traditional beehives in the forests.  Fire mgt plan that reckons fire as an integral part of entire forest protection system should be in place; Possible way forward…
  31. 31. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Fire mgt plan can be highly successful if & only if it: o ensure people’s participation; o promote indigenous knowledge; o emphasize preventive measures and o Enhance multi-stakeholders’ networking. Possible way forward…
  32. 32. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   to safeguard forest & biological resources in the region by reducing fire damages via mobilizing:  GOs, NGOs, Private Sector & Civil Societies. o With the aim of assessing the status, damages & impacts of forest fire so as to come up with possible solutions. Possible way forward…
  33. 33. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  The foregoing discussions indicate that fire can be both beneficial and harmful to forest & woodland resources;  To use fire beneficially, prevent its harmful effects &/or control suddenly out-breaking fires, knowledge about fire & its behavior, skill of fighting fire should be in place;  Appropriate policy, legislative & institutional arrangements for forest fire management including permanently established units or bodies at all levels that are responsible for forest fire management is a must, 8. Conclusion
  34. 34. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.   Generally, o adequate budget; o qualified personnel & the necessary physical facilities; o Strong fire information, mgt & dissemination including provision for early warning mechanisms, ways of mobilizing & coordinating rural & urban communities in the management of forest fire as well as competent research on fire are mandatory in order to safe our planet & our forests as well. Conclusion …
  35. 35. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file.  Thank you for your Attention! If we take care of the Earth, the Earth will take care of us; Otherwise…

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