ISSRM CONFERENCE, EDMONTON, JUNE 17-21, 2012Falling back on forests: how forest-dwelling people cope        with catastrop...
Outline   Background   Study Area   Methods   Results   Discussion   Implications and Conclusion
Background Forest-dependent people Working with communities  for a decade and  documented 1500 useful  species Forest p...
Category of use of forest      Food            Medicine         Boat construction          Heavy construction           Fi...
Problems Natural hazards (flood) frequently  occur Does people’s reliance on forest  change in times of disaster? A fla...
Objectives Do disasters influence people’s  reliance on the forest? What livelihood factors  influence forest reliance? ...
Study Area   Frontier forest (2000)   Non forest                                 Plot                                 Vill...
Methods Interviews, questionnaires, discussions Head of households (excluded those who suffered no damage and  were abse...
MethodsType of Damage:    Severity of                   Coping Strategies                                                 ...
Results General overview Impact of flood Coping strategies Do disasters influence  people’s reliance on the  forest? ...
General overviewList of forest products utilized by households before and after a flood for specific purposes             ...
10 most important plants species                                                                          Shorea parvifoli...
10 most important animalsHystrix brachyura                         Cervus unicolor                             Muntiacus m...
Impact of flood   Households impacted by flood   Severity of damage:      70% land damage, 60% crop loss, 55% house    ...
Increased reliance on the forestAssociated with loss or damage to house andcrops      Hunting and fishing      Harvestin...
Factors influence forest reliance Employment is associated  with education                                 25      No edu...
Implication & Recommendation The role of forest People’s coping strategies Most dependent households  on the forest aft...
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Falling back on forests: how forest-dwelling people cope with catastrophe in a changing landscape

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How do forest-dwelling people cope with catastrophe in a changing landscape? The role forests can play as ‘emergency supplies’ in times of hardship is little documented and the work presented here, based on research in the Malinau district of Kalimantan, Indonesia, is among the first studies with forest-dependent communities in Southeast Asia.
CIFOR researcher Nining Liswanti gave this presentation at the 18th International Symposium on Society & Resource Management (ISSRM) held on 17–21 June 2012 at the University of Alberta, Canada. The main theme of the conference was ‘Linking North and South: Responding to Environmental Change’, and 350 participants from 50 countries came together to discuss the intersection of social issues and natural resource management.

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Falling back on forests: how forest-dwelling people cope with catastrophe in a changing landscape

  1. 1. ISSRM CONFERENCE, EDMONTON, JUNE 17-21, 2012Falling back on forests: how forest-dwelling people cope with catastrophe in a changing landscape N. LISWANTI, D. SHEIL, I. BASUKI, M. PADMANABA and G. MULCAHY International Forestry Review Vol.13(4), 2011
  2. 2. Outline Background Study Area Methods Results Discussion Implications and Conclusion
  3. 3. Background Forest-dependent people Working with communities for a decade and documented 1500 useful species Forest provide important resources, land, and opportunity for livelihood
  4. 4. Category of use of forest Food Medicine Boat construction Heavy construction Fire woodLight construction Tools Marketable Basketry Ornament/ritu items alsHunting equipment Hunting place Future Recreation
  5. 5. Problems Natural hazards (flood) frequently occur Does people’s reliance on forest change in times of disaster? A flash flood in 2006 in Malinau watershed
  6. 6. Objectives Do disasters influence people’s reliance on the forest? What livelihood factors influence forest reliance? The role of forest in times of hardship is little documented and this is among the firststudies with forest-dependent communities in Southeast Asia
  7. 7. Study Area Frontier forest (2000) Non forest Plot Village MLA4 communities, 2 ethnic groups Road(Merap & Punan) RiverStudy in 2007 & 2008 Open area Continuous forest Degraded forest
  8. 8. Methods Interviews, questionnaires, discussions Head of households (excluded those who suffered no damage and were absent) Assessment: flood impact, the nature and extent of damage, coping strategies, sources of food and livelihoods, access to forest
  9. 9. MethodsType of Damage: Severity of Coping Strategies  Increase Reliance Forest Crop loss Damage:  Temporary Agricultural Land Damage  Minor Land House Damage  Medium  Resettlement Loss animals  Severe  Search Employment Notes: Dependence: relative frequency with which people turn to a given activity from among available choices  survival and livelihoods Statistical analysis: The <phi> coefficient and Kruskal– Wallis
  10. 10. Results General overview Impact of flood Coping strategies Do disasters influence people’s reliance on the forest? What livelihood factors influence forest reliance?
  11. 11. General overviewList of forest products utilized by households before and after a flood for specific purposes After floods In normal times*English name Merap Punan Merap PunanAnimalsBearded pig, Sambar deer, Red muntjak, River carp F F F FPalm civet, Asian mouse deer, Asian leaf turtle – F – FRhinoceros hornbill M – M MPlantsSago F F – –Bamboo F F F FIronwood – C/M C/M CTimber (Shorea & Dryobalanops) C/M C/M C/M CRattan & palm – B B BTimber (Hopea & Dipterocarpus) M – M –F= Food; C/M= Construction/Marketable; B=Basketry
  12. 12. 10 most important plants species Shorea parvifoliaAgathis borneensis Arenga undulatifoliaAquilaria beccariana Durio sp. Eusideroxylon zwageriElmerrillia tsiampacca Licuala valida Calamus caesius Shorea pinanga
  13. 13. 10 most important animalsHystrix brachyura Cervus unicolor Muntiacus muntjak Pycnonotus zeylanicusHelarctos malayanusTragulus napu Gracula religiosa Sus barbatus Buceros vigil
  14. 14. Impact of flood  Households impacted by flood  Severity of damage:  70% land damage, 60% crop loss, 55% house damage, and 30% loss of domestic animals  Combination of Coping Strategies:  Impact of damage:  >60% damage on land and crops  30% to 55% damage to house & animals  Coping Strategy Responses:  90% Increased reliance on forest  75% Temporary Agricultural Land  65% Searching for Employment  60% Resettlement
  15. 15. Increased reliance on the forestAssociated with loss or damage to house andcrops  Hunting and fishing  Harvesting timber  Collecting plants, sago and bamboo
  16. 16. Factors influence forest reliance Employment is associated with education 25 No education Reliance on forest is 20 Education Number of households associated with education 15 and wealth 10 Wealthier households have 5 better education and made 0 less use of the forest No Yes Search for employment
  17. 17. Implication & Recommendation The role of forest People’s coping strategies Most dependent households on the forest after a crisis Safety values should be recognized, respected, and as far as possible maintained – or where necessary substituted
  18. 18. THANK YOU

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