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Emergent Dynamics of Migration and Their
Potential Effects on Forest and Land Use in
North Kalimantan, Indonesia
CIFOR’s R...
Outline
• Background & Motivation
• Research Questions
• Background of Location, Research Sites and
Methods
• Results, imp...
Background and Motivation
• Migration is a livelihood, investment
and resilience strategy
• Migration might have two-way
c...
Research Questions
o What are the major drivers of migration and
mobility?
o How is migration contributing to forest and l...
A case study from Indonesia:
Malinau District
• North Kalimantan Province
• 42,000 km2 , low population density
• Extensiv...
Research Site & Methods
First round:
Quantititave Data Collection
• Household surveys
• 141 migrants HH in 8 Villages
• 21...
Research Site and Migration PatternCharacteristics
LOWER MALINAU (RURAL)
• Accessibility: Road access to
Malinau city (cap...
Transformation in educational background
• Dramatic increase in
proportion of youth
with higher education
background after...
Follow up
• What explains this shift in migration patterns?
• What are the cost of youth migration?
• What are the source ...
Reasons for shifting in
migration pattern
Less migration for employment:
• Greater hurdles in migrating to
Malaysia withou...
Continuous State making in forest frontiers
Prior to 1999: Subdistrict
Malinau, District Bulungan,
East Kalimantan Provinc...
What are the costs of youth
migration?
• Labour: Reduction of labor &
change in labor allocation?
o Not much
• Financial c...
What are the source of livelihoods of migrant sending
household?
3 main sources of livelihoods*:
• Lower Malinau (Rural)
1...
Coping strategies & Forest and Land Use
Distinct patterns emerging in 2 groups:
• Those who have salaried jobs are not rel...
Research Questions
o What are the major drivers of migration and
mobility?
o How is migration contributing to forest and l...
Making sense and next steps
Subsistence,
Cash from past
migration and
natural
resource
Intensification
of forest and
farm ...
On the changing view about education across
generations
• “...there are many more young people who have been going to coll...
“Actually, if we want to try to work as farmers,
we can do it. But we don’t want to be like our
parents who devote their l...
cifor.org
blog.cifor.org
ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org
THANK YOU
k.juniwaty@cgiar.org
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Emergent dynamics of migration and their potential effects on forest and land use in North Kalimantan, Indonesia

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Presented by Kartika Sari Juniwaty of the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) at the World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, on 21 March 2018 in Washington, DC

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Emergent dynamics of migration and their potential effects on forest and land use in North Kalimantan, Indonesia

  1. 1. Emergent Dynamics of Migration and Their Potential Effects on Forest and Land Use in North Kalimantan, Indonesia CIFOR’s Research Program on Migration and Forests Kartika Sari Juniwatya, Bimbika Sijapati Basnetta, Benita Nathaniaa, Rilin Purwatia I Made Sanjayaa, Paul Thungb Worldbank Land and Poverty Conference Washington DC, March 21st, 2018 aCenter for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Indonesia bBrunel University London, UK
  2. 2. Outline • Background & Motivation • Research Questions • Background of Location, Research Sites and Methods • Results, implications and next steps
  3. 3. Background and Motivation • Migration is a livelihood, investment and resilience strategy • Migration might have two-way causal relationship with forests, however research on this is limited. (Hecht et.al, 2014) • Address the research gap and support our partner, GIZ Forest and Climate Change (FORCLIME), in making evidence based policies
  4. 4. Research Questions o What are the major drivers of migration and mobility? o How is migration contributing to forest and land use change? o What are the future prospects for forests and rural livelihoods? o What are the implications for forest-related intervention and policies?
  5. 5. A case study from Indonesia: Malinau District • North Kalimantan Province • 42,000 km2 , low population density • Extensive forest resources, rich in biodivesity • History of resource exploitation (logging, mining, cash-crop, lucrative NTFP) but forest cover still high • History of cross-border migration • One of the intervention sites of GIZ Forest and Climate Change (FORCLIME) programme Land Cover Map, Malinau District 2015
  6. 6. Research Site & Methods First round: Quantititave Data Collection • Household surveys • 141 migrants HH in 8 Villages • 219 non-migrants HH in 8 Villages Second round: Qualitative Data Collection • In-depth interviews • Households • Education migrants (43), non- migrants (15), in-migrants(5), Economic Migrant (5), Other (6), Potential (3) • Individual • returnee migrants (9), migrants at destination (16), prospective migrants (5) • FGD and KII • Local Leaders (8), Women group (8), Youth group (8), Forest User (8), Mixed Group (5)
  7. 7. Research Site and Migration PatternCharacteristics LOWER MALINAU (RURAL) • Accessibility: Road access to Malinau city (capital), Proximity to market • Livelhoods: Diverse jobs • Forests: History of resource exploitation (mining) and also strong forest management (tanah oleh) UPPER MALINAU (REMOTE) • Acccesibility: Hill; Access to Malinau city (capital) by airplane; bordering Malaysia; distance from market. • Livelihoods: subsistence farming, forest-based livelihoods • Forests: Larger primary forest 16.74 16.13 17.48 77.09 82.26 70.87 6.17 1.61 11.65 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Total Remote Site Rural Site Employment Education Others
  8. 8. Transformation in educational background • Dramatic increase in proportion of youth with higher education background after 2000. • Significant generational difference in education rates. Proportion of Youth with higher education by Cohort 9.52 9.17 16.22 44 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1980 1990 2000 2010 Rural Site Remote Site Total 2001
  9. 9. Follow up • What explains this shift in migration patterns? • What are the cost of youth migration? • What are the source of livelihoods of migrant sending household? • How do they cope with the cost of youth migration? Whether and to what extent is it related to farm and forest? • What’s next?
  10. 10. Reasons for shifting in migration pattern Less migration for employment: • Greater hurdles in migrating to Malaysia without permits • More jobs opportunities in the village More migration for education: • Prospective jobs in the village • Scholarships • Shift in mindset • Viewed as long term strategy to access better employment opportunities Decentralization
  11. 11. Continuous State making in forest frontiers Prior to 1999: Subdistrict Malinau, District Bulungan, East Kalimantan Province 2001: District Malinau, East Kalimantan Province 2012: District Malinau, North Kalimantan Province Ongoing discussion: Apau Kayan District, North Kalimantan Province • Decentralization & establishment Malinau as a new district in 1999 • District has authority to manage administrative and budget • More representative budget sharing  • Infrastructure development provided cash for villagers who worked for the construction • Opportunities to work in public sector for villagers: government officials, teacher, nurse
  12. 12. What are the costs of youth migration? • Labour: Reduction of labor & change in labor allocation? o Not much • Financial cost: o Education expense is 28% of total expenditure ▪ Non migrant: 12% ▪ Per capita monthly expenditure 24-32 USD.
  13. 13. What are the source of livelihoods of migrant sending household? 3 main sources of livelihoods*: • Lower Malinau (Rural) 1. Agriculture (for consumption) 2. Salary 3. Micro enterprise • Upper Remote (Remote) 1. Agriculture (for consumption) 2. Government sallary 3. Sell/consume forest product * Combined ranking by households using Borda Count Method
  14. 14. Coping strategies & Forest and Land Use Distinct patterns emerging in 2 groups: • Those who have salaried jobs are not relying on farm and forest to pay for education. o In addition, first generation of migrants supporting younger siblings using their salary (from rural site- Lower Malinau). • For those who are more dependent on farm and forests, as expected, are intensifying existing resources o e.g. Gaharu collection, logging increase by not a significant spike. Cash crop production increase but no indication of clearing new land from primary forests.
  15. 15. Research Questions o What are the major drivers of migration and mobility? o How is migration contributing to forest and land use change? o What are the future prospects for forests and rural livelihoods? o What are the implications for forest-related intervention and policies?
  16. 16. Making sense and next steps Subsistence, Cash from past migration and natural resource Intensification of forest and farm to pay for education Diversified livelihood, less dependency on forest No diversification of livelihood t-1 t t+n Youth migration for education Success Fail Household level Village level Similar condition with t Forest intact/ increase ? ? Vacum in forest management Policy interventions needed follow up: FGD, Experiment
  17. 17. On the changing view about education across generations • “...there are many more young people who have been going to college since the new district was established [decentralization]…Now that there are more employment opportunities, parents are keen to invest in their children’s education, and their children are also willing to study ... ” Rani, a secretary of women group in our remote site • “my parents’ generation did not want to invest in our education. Most of us did not go to school because transport from the city to the village was difficult. Even if when some of us did, there were no jobs for us, so what was the point of getting educated? Our parents said education cannot be eaten, we can get rice from the field. But my generation has witnessed many people have successful lives due to education. So we ecourage our children to pursue higher studies too. ” Melati, Women group leader in FGD remote site
  18. 18. “Actually, if we want to try to work as farmers, we can do it. But we don’t want to be like our parents who devote their lives to farming and forest-based livelihoods only. We prefer to have a salaried job and rely on forests and farming to complement our livelihood.” Amit, youth migrant returnee, teacher, remote site “I would like to return to the village and set up a workshop to repair machines because there is none in the village, but I have to find the capital for that first. I will try to earn by finding and selling agarwood. Once the workshop is running smoothly, I will try to apply for a civil servant position.” Arif, a 7th semester student in Samarinda, from remote site We have to do multiple different things to find money to pay for our children to study outside the village. In the past, we used to work only for food. Now, we are growing old and the children are migrating, we have to work really hard.” -Roni, father of 2 youth education migrants from rural Site On the future after getting educationOn the financial burden
  19. 19. cifor.org blog.cifor.org ForestsTreesAgroforestry.org THANK YOU k.juniwaty@cgiar.org

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