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Disentangling complexity in landscape governance from a polycentric and legal pluralism perspective

Presented by Cut Augusta Mindry Anandi (COLANDS PhD candidate (University of Amsterdam)) at CIFOR-ICRAF Science Week 2023, 8 May 2023

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Disentangling complexity in landscape governance from a polycentric and legal pluralism perspective
Cut Augusta Mindry Anandi
Kapuas
Hulu, West
Kalimantan,
Indonesia
Map: S. Narulita, Y. Laumonier, CIFOR, 2020
Problem identification
In Seriang and Labian-Leboyan sub-watersheds
Multiple legal systems
(regulations, policies)
Statutory rules and regulations (State
law, Provincial & Regency Decrees,
Village regulations)
Private governance
(private sector and CSO certification
standards)
Customary or traditional governance
(Adat)
Multiple jurisdictions and decision-making authorities
Formal: Government institutions (National Park, Forest Management
Unit (KPH), Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF).
Informal: Customary institutions (Periau, Nelayan, Menua – Banua),
Certification bodies
Multi-layered governing systems
Landscape governance
Acknowledges that:
• Landscapes are
• diverse
• dynamic
• complex
• affected by multiple scales1
• Governance
• needs to be context-specific
• is an iterative process of “muddling through”
• has multiple possible entry points and solutions2
• Stakeholders
• Are diverse
• Have competing interests
• Come from different sectors and scales3
• Collective action requires
• Willingness to coordinate actions across sectors, scales and governance bodies4
• Willingness to reconcile competing land uses5
1. Kooiman and Bavinck 2005
2. Sayer et al. 2013; Freeman et al. 2015; Reed et al. 2016; 2019; Foli et al. 2018; Kusters et al. 2018; Ros-Tonen et al. 2018
3. Ros-Tonen 2014; Freeman et al. 2015; Sayer et al. 2016; Reed et al. 2021; Riggs et al. 2021
4. Carmenta et al. 2020; Vermunt et al. 2020; Reed et al. 2021; Riggs et al. 2021
5. Sayer et al.2013; Reed et al.2016
CSOs
Multiple but interrelated centres of decision-making
Ministry of
Environment and
Forestry
Forestry Agency
National
park
National
Provincial
Forest
Management
Unit
Regency
On site
(sub-district
and village)
Conservation Forestry
APL/Land for other purposes
Bappeda
Regency
National planning agency
(BAPPENAS/ATR/BPN)
Formal
Head of village
Customary
leaders
Head of sub-
district
Informal
Community
institution
Polycentric governance in Kapuas Hulu
Resort
Private
companies
Polycentric governance – multiple centres of decision-making in
Kapuas Hulu
Sacred areas such as Tembawang and Pulau (customary) – are
located within the national park, the Forest Management Unit
(FMU) and the non-forest estate (APL).
 Distinct approaches – some better suited to the local
context1
 Sharing responsibilities may strengthen protection,
monitoring and rule enforcement (photo)
 Local-scale governance bodies ease networking,
relationships, and shared learning within communities
Strengths
 Management approaches may conflict with each other
 Rules may contradict each other
 Overlapping jurisdictions
 Poor coordination between different governance bodies
 Information flows reach the most powerful and
influential people only
Weaknesses
1 McGinnis & Ostrom, 2011
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Disentangling complexity in landscape governance from a polycentric and legal pluralism perspective

  • 1. Disentangling complexity in landscape governance from a polycentric and legal pluralism perspective Cut Augusta Mindry Anandi
  • 2. Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan, Indonesia Map: S. Narulita, Y. Laumonier, CIFOR, 2020
  • 3. Problem identification In Seriang and Labian-Leboyan sub-watersheds Multiple legal systems (regulations, policies) Statutory rules and regulations (State law, Provincial & Regency Decrees, Village regulations) Private governance (private sector and CSO certification standards) Customary or traditional governance (Adat) Multiple jurisdictions and decision-making authorities Formal: Government institutions (National Park, Forest Management Unit (KPH), Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF). Informal: Customary institutions (Periau, Nelayan, Menua – Banua), Certification bodies Multi-layered governing systems
  • 4. Landscape governance Acknowledges that: • Landscapes are • diverse • dynamic • complex • affected by multiple scales1 • Governance • needs to be context-specific • is an iterative process of “muddling through” • has multiple possible entry points and solutions2 • Stakeholders • Are diverse • Have competing interests • Come from different sectors and scales3 • Collective action requires • Willingness to coordinate actions across sectors, scales and governance bodies4 • Willingness to reconcile competing land uses5 1. Kooiman and Bavinck 2005 2. Sayer et al. 2013; Freeman et al. 2015; Reed et al. 2016; 2019; Foli et al. 2018; Kusters et al. 2018; Ros-Tonen et al. 2018 3. Ros-Tonen 2014; Freeman et al. 2015; Sayer et al. 2016; Reed et al. 2021; Riggs et al. 2021 4. Carmenta et al. 2020; Vermunt et al. 2020; Reed et al. 2021; Riggs et al. 2021 5. Sayer et al.2013; Reed et al.2016
  • 5. CSOs Multiple but interrelated centres of decision-making Ministry of Environment and Forestry Forestry Agency National park National Provincial Forest Management Unit Regency On site (sub-district and village) Conservation Forestry APL/Land for other purposes Bappeda Regency National planning agency (BAPPENAS/ATR/BPN) Formal Head of village Customary leaders Head of sub- district Informal Community institution Polycentric governance in Kapuas Hulu Resort Private companies
  • 6. Polycentric governance – multiple centres of decision-making in Kapuas Hulu Sacred areas such as Tembawang and Pulau (customary) – are located within the national park, the Forest Management Unit (FMU) and the non-forest estate (APL).  Distinct approaches – some better suited to the local context1  Sharing responsibilities may strengthen protection, monitoring and rule enforcement (photo)  Local-scale governance bodies ease networking, relationships, and shared learning within communities Strengths  Management approaches may conflict with each other  Rules may contradict each other  Overlapping jurisdictions  Poor coordination between different governance bodies  Information flows reach the most powerful and influential people only Weaknesses 1 McGinnis & Ostrom, 2011
  • 7. Legal pluralism - The interconnections between legal systems • Legal pluralism  multiple rules applying to the same jurisdiction1 • Numerous normative systems in Kapuas Hulu  these normative orders interact in different ways2 • Interconnections can be classed based on quality (contrary/affirmative) and intensity (weak/strong)1 Strong Weak Affirmative Contrary quality intensity Indifference Accommodation Mutual support Competition Different legal systems may apply to the same jurisdiction, but one ignores the other Example: a fishermen association develops its own management rules that fishermen apply, ignoring state regulation Different legal systems – State, private and customary – recognize and adapt to each other but with minimal institutional and jurisdictional integration Example: Government adapted rules for land and fire-burning so that they could be accommodated in customary rules Co-existing legal systems support each other, leading to synergies Example: co-management between National Park and CBOs in the Conservation Partnership (community eco-tourism in Kaban Mayas and the honey farmer association (APDS) Both state and customary legal systems have a strong presence in a particular jurisdiction and compete for power Example: Allocation of land for oil palm in areas under customary rule 1. Bavinck & Gupta, 2014 2. Merry 1988 in Berman 2009 p. 228
  • 8. Legal pluralism in Kapuas Hulu Member of Periau Danau Sentarum (APDS) working on annual internal evaluation for BIOCERT organic certification with help of the National Park (funding and expertise), 2020 Strengths  Feasibility to reach people in remote areas through devolution of authority (van Cott, 2000)  Potential pathways for a long-term landscape strategy by fostering mutual support and accommodation (photo) Weaknesses  Only a small group of people has access to information about legal systems and regulations  The influence and power of the decision-making authority determine whether legal pluralism advances in the direction of mutual support or competition
  • 9. Conclusions • Polycentric governance and legal pluralism have pros and cons (strengths and weaknesses) • Strong and affirmative relationships leading to mutual support are on the rise • Observed advantages of polycentric governance and legal pluralism include: • Power sharing with remote communities • Improved law enforcement, monitoring, and protection of natural resources • Continual learning and policies that integrate statutory, customary and market-based legal systems • Potential for long-term partnerships in land use and resource governance • Yet, the influence of State decision-makers in a small community can be significant and may also lead to competition or indifference between state and customary legal systems • Facilitation of a forum of dialogue across sector and governance levels is essential for achieving mutual support between different legal systems  key role for integrated landscape approaches
  • 10. Thank you Further contact: c.a.m. anandi@uva.nl or augusta.mia@gmail.com

Editor's Notes

  1. The quality refers to the degree to which authorities consider the other legal systems valid and useful and can be contrary or affirmative. The type of interconnection determines how different legal systems co-exist intensity refers to the strength of interconnectedness between legal systems and can be weak and strong.