Demonstrating, regulating and celebrating community forestry REDD in Cambodia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea


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Dr. D. Andrew Wardell

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in: Education
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  • The Cambodia Daily , 7 December 2006 W orld Development Vol. 34 No. 11, November 2006 Special issue Rescaling Governance and the Impacts of Political and Environmental Decentralization Murdiyarso, D. and Skutsch, M. (eds.) , 2006. Community Forest Management as a Carbon Mitigation Option Case Studies; Luttrell, C., Schreckenberg, K., and Peskett, L., 2007. ‘The implications of Carbon Financing for Pro-Poor Community Forestry’ ODI FPEP Forestry Briefing 14, December 2007. ODI, London. Peskett, L. and Harkin, Z., 2007. ‘Risk and Responsibility in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation’. ODI FPEP Forestry Briefing 15, December 2007. ODI, London. Peskett, L., Huberman, D, Bowen-Jones, E., Edwards, G. And Brown, J., 2008. ‘Making REDD Work for the Poor.’ Poverty Environment Partnership. ODI, London.
  • Decentralization has come in waves Mamdani’s “decentralized despotism” Practices of assemblage and community forest management Law is not implemented or enacted unscathed by everyday negotiations, or more dramatic circumvention, by manipulation, or outright non- observance. Untying rights of access and use of resources from the territorial claims of the state. The rents of non-enforcement
  • Forest carbon credits are only generated (and paid for) after project activities have occurred, and it has been demonstrated (and independently verified through actual measurements) that deforestation decreased Estimates of emissions reductions in the Project Document are intended for planning purposes only
  • Philippe Le Billon, 2000 Learning and Innovation Loan – 6m ha under forest concessions, mostly foreign-owned. NGO Forum, Request for Inspection, 21 January 2005; Notice of Registration, 04 February 2005 World Bank, Inspection Panel Report No. 35556, 30 March 2006 Amended Law on Elections of Commune Councils, June 2006 Global Witness ‘Not seeing the wood for the land’ The Cambodian Organic Law defines the administrative management of the capital, provinces, municipalities, districts and Khans. The capital, provinces, municipalities, districts and Khans shall be governed in accordance with the principles of unified administration in order to establish, promote and sustain democratic development through the policy of decentralization and de-concentration. Khmer Rouge Tribunal, First substantial hearings, 30 March 2009. FA divorced from D & D reforms
  • CF Agreements and attendant management plans are approved by MAFF/FA. Additional 253 CF sites being processed by MAFF Speech by H.E. Ty Sokhun during the community forestry signing ceremony, Kampong Thom Province, 27 March 2009
  • Oddar Meanchey – FA, CFI/Pact, CDA, TGC, and CCI Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area – FA and WCS
  • Anlong Veng - NGO Forum Request for Inspection, January 2005 Sub Decree on provincial ELCs revoked and other ELCs cancelled, and in one case converted to a proposed CF site. Silenced histories – negotiation between FA and an international broker
  • Anlong Veng - NGO Forum Request for Inspection, January 2005
  • Poffenberger, Peluso, Rich Forests, Poor People Ribot, J.C., Agrawal, A. and Larson, A.M., 2006. Recentralizing while Decentralizing: How National Governments Reappropriate Forest Resources Manor Two Laws promulgated in 1998/1999 wrt D & D, and came into effect in 2000. The period 2000-2005 witnessed some of the highest rates of deforestation in recent history as Bupatis exercised new powers to issue 100 ha logging licenses. DG Forest Production Development; BPKH; BKSDA etc
  • Village Forestry ( Hutan Desa ) Community Forestry ( Hutan Kemasyarakatan , HKM) Peoples’ Plantation Forests ( Hutan Tanaman Rakya , HKR) Partnerships between communities and concessionaires ( Kemitraan ) Badan Pertanahan Nasional
  • Post-COP.13 fatigue? PP. 6, 2007 and PP. 3, 2008 P.68, 2008; SK.455, 2008; SK.21, 2009; P. 61, 2008 P. 30, 2009 (compliance); P. 36, 2009 (voluntary) P. 10; P.15 and P. 24 (January-February 2010) Revision of P. 30 and P. 36 into a single consolidated regulation in response to letter from Ministry of Finance, December 2009 Ministry of Forestry; National Council for Climate Change; Ministry of Environment; Bappenas; Ministry of Public Works
  • IUPHHK-RE Below ground carbon pool Learning by doing
  • 5.2 million people 33 m hectares of forest (71% of total land area) Section 49 of the Forestry Act, 1992 and all subsequent amendments 1993, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2005 and 2007. Section 58 (b) sets out framework to define benefits due to, and participation by landowners/resource owners – PNGFA has developed Guidelines for Incorporated Landowners’ Groups 2008 National Forestry Development Guidelines Provincial Forest Plan; Provincial Forest Development Guidelines; Provincial Forest Management Committee – to be endorsed by the National Forest Board PNGFA, Manual on Land Group Incorporation, Feb. 1995: and PNGFA, Village Guide to Land Group Incorporation, March 1995
  • Shearman, P. et al , 2008. The State of the Forests of Papua New Guinea, 1972-2002 Biotropica PNGFA, Manual on Land Group Incorporation, Feb. 1995: and PNGFA, Village Guide to Land Group Incorporation, March 1995 5.2 million people Forest Trends, 2006. Logging, Legality and Livelihoods in Papua New Guinea: A Synthesis of Official Assessments of the Large-Scale Logging Industry Independent monitor, SGS
  • Race for the Rainforest “Can’t we have the logging first and the ICDP later?”. Section 49 of the Forestry Act, 1992
  • REDD first tabled by PNG and Costa Rica at COP.11 CRFN boasts 33 member states Recruitment of 70 staff based on advertisement placed in The Nation, September 2008 April Salome ?; Eastern Highlands Province – Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area; Western Province – Makama Forest Management Area; Village REDD idea (WCS) Office of Climate Change and Environmental Sustainability later became the OCC and Carbon Trading Carbon prophets
  • 16 December 2009
  • Dan Brockington Celebrity and the Environment Fame, Wealth and Power in Conservation Daniel Boorstin Image A guide to Pseudo Events in America (1961) republished 1992
  • Demonstrating, regulating and celebrating community forestry REDD in Cambodia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    1. 1. Demonstrating, Regulating and Celebrating Community Forestry REDD in Cambodia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea Dr. D. Andrew Wardell Taking stock of smallholder and community forestry Where do we go from here? CIFOR/CIRAD/IRD, Montpellier 24-26 March 2010 Norad grant GLO 4244, INS 09/010/Rockefeller Foundation grant 2009 COR 202
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Why community forestry and REDD? </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Papua New Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Concluding remarks </li></ul>
    3. 3. Case study framework <ul><li>Focus on a two year period (2007-2009); work in progress; REDD still being invented. </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forestry/decentralization reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress with community forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REDD readiness and projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case study – a REDD project or an ‘event’ </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why community forestry and REDD? <ul><li>Community forestry not yet performing well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Custodians of the land/resources? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving out of poverty? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limits of decentralization in practice </li></ul><ul><li>REDD financing – the missing link? </li></ul><ul><li>Early optimism and cautionary notes </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Community forest management </li></ul><ul><li>State-granted privileges and management by restriction, exclusion and fear </li></ul><ul><li>Legal pluralism and the negotiation of access and rights </li></ul><ul><li>Untying rights to resources from the territorial claims of the state </li></ul><ul><li>Rents of non-enforcement </li></ul>Contradictory forest policies?
    6. 7. <ul><li>“ Invites Parties to further strengthen and support ongoing efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation on a voluntary basis; </li></ul><ul><li>3. Further encourages Parties to explore a range of actions, identify options and undertake efforts, including demonstration activities , to address the drivers of deforestation relevant to their national circumstances….” </li></ul>Decision 2/CP.13
    7. 8. <ul><li>War - commodification of forests </li></ul><ul><li>Peace accord, 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Moratorium on forest concessions, (3.4m ha), 31.12.2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Commune Sangkat Law, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Land Concessions, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Bidding Coupes w/e 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Organic Law, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Global Witness, 1999-Oct. 2009 </li></ul>Cambodia - Context
    8. 9. <ul><li>Sub-Decree on CF, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>prakas 8-step CF process </li></ul><ul><li>CF training materials and mapping services </li></ul><ul><li>124 CF sites protected by law (15 years + 15) </li></ul><ul><li>Community vs. conservation forestry ( Rectangular Strategy II, Nov. 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>2 million ha CF by 2020 (19% of national forest estate) </li></ul>Cambodia – Community Forestry
    9. 11. <ul><li>Two demonstration projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oddar Meanchey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seima BCA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sar Char Nor 699, May 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>R-PIN, March 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>UN-REDD ‘Observer’, Nov. 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>REDD Task Force, Jan. 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Replication CF REDD in Siem Reap (37 CF sites) </li></ul>Cambodia – REDD readiness
    10. 12. <ul><li>‘ Bundled’ 13 CF sites – economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>Avoided mosaic deforestation METH – dual validation (VCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-benefits (CCB Standard) </li></ul><ul><li>Cancellation/conversion of ELCs </li></ul><ul><li>Secure tenure for CF groups </li></ul><ul><li>Border dispute with Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit-sharing/distribution </li></ul>Oddar Meanchey CF REDD Project
    11. 13. Cambodia - strengthening CF?
    12. 14. <ul><li>130m ha of ‘state’ forest land </li></ul><ul><li>Land rights weakly-recognized in 1960 Agrarian Law </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance of forest concession model (timber, plywood, pulp and paper and potentially, REDD), 1960s to present </li></ul><ul><li>Recentralizing while decentralizing – do forests or communities benefit? </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of Forestry – a vertically-integrated bureaucracy </li></ul>Indonesia - Context
    13. 15. <ul><li>Regulation 6/2007 (34/2002 and 1/2004) – 4 options, viz. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Village Forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peoples’ Plantation Forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships between communities and concessionaires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less than 40% of all properties with title (BPN - Sertipikat ) </li></ul><ul><li>Very few ulayat (collective) tenure rights recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Historical CF focus in Java </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 million ha by 2010 (1.6% of forest estate) </li></ul>Indonesia – Community Forestry
    14. 16. Community forestry - Java
    15. 17. <ul><li>IFCA process (pre-COP.13) </li></ul><ul><li>A plethora of MOF regulations </li></ul><ul><li>P. 36 (11 benefit-sharing models) </li></ul><ul><li>National MRV system(s) </li></ul><ul><li>R-Plan endorsed </li></ul><ul><li>UN-REDD ‘Fast track’ funds, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Inter and intra-institutional factionalism </li></ul><ul><li>ca. 25 REDD projects </li></ul>Indonesia – REDD readiness
    16. 18. <ul><li>Ecosystem Restoration License </li></ul><ul><li>High carbon density forests </li></ul><ul><li>Avoided Planned Deforestation METH – dual validation (VCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Community benefits – Puter/FPP </li></ul><ul><li>MOF vs provincial regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact Assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A new generation of concessionaires? </li></ul>Katingan peat forest REDD Project
    17. 19. Katingan peat forest REDD project
    18. 20. Indonesia – a geographic disconnect?
    19. 21. <ul><li>Customary ownership of PNG’s land (97%) </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance of (Malaysian) logging industry </li></ul><ul><li>PNG Forest Authority </li></ul><ul><li>FMAs negotiated with Incorporated Land Groups and concessionaires </li></ul><ul><li>PNGFA’s 34 step process </li></ul>Papua New Guinea - Context
    20. 22. <ul><li>State of PNG’s Forests, 1972-2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsistence agriculture (45.6%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging (48.2%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining (6%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest fires (4.4%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantations (1%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging, Legality and Livelihoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of OCC (NEC 56/2008) and proposed structures (TAB, NAB and IAB) </li></ul></ul>PNG – Context 2
    21. 23. PNG log exports, 1978-2007
    22. 24. <ul><li>Systematic failure of ICDPs </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier efforts to develop CF and PES (FORCERT and Eco Forestry Forum, 2007-09) </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based forest enterprises (mobile sawmills) </li></ul><ul><li>Village REDD concept (WCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential of provincial forest governance (EHP and Medang Provinces) </li></ul>PNG – Community Forestry
    23. 25. <ul><li>COP.11 to COP. 13 </li></ul><ul><li>National vs. sub-national REDD </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition of Rainforest Nations </li></ul><ul><li>OCC-ES and OCC-CT </li></ul><ul><li>3-tier structure proposed </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension of Exec. Director/OCC </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee investigation </li></ul><ul><li>No credible projects </li></ul>PNG – REDD readiness
    24. 26. <ul><li>CRFN – 3 representatives only </li></ul><ul><li>Maya Lin, Vivienne Westwood, Bianca Jagger, some large conservation NGOs et al </li></ul><ul><li>5 awards (WIM Foundation) </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of a PNG REDD project </li></ul><ul><li>Edelman PR (on behalf of CRFN) </li></ul><ul><li>McKinsey & Company (Jan. 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon is my government now </li></ul>PNG REDD+ Gala Event, COP.15
    25. 27. PNG - celebrating REDD on the world’s stage?
    26. 28. <ul><li>Need to align forest sector reforms more closely with broader decentralization reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Rights to land = rights to trees = rights to carbon? </li></ul><ul><li>Moving beyond the REDD project approval culture – governance of future benefit-sharing and distribution mechanisms </li></ul>Concluding Remarks