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Country profile guidelines: Myanmar

Presented by Maria Brockhaus, Monica Di Gregorio and Thuy Thu Pham at a workshop on 'Sharing insights across REDD+ countries: Opportunities and obstacles for effective, efficient, and equitable carbon and non-carbon results' on 23 February 2017 in Naypyidaw, Myanmar.

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Country profile guidelines: Myanmar

  1. 1. THINKING beyond the canopy Maria Brockhaus, Monica Di Gregorio and Thuy Thu Pham February 2017 Country profile guidelines Myanmar
  2. 2. THINKING beyond the canopy Comparative Analysis (Combined Country Cases) Why: to identify structural and governance barriers as well as opportunities to realise REDD+ and secure 3E outcomes + co- benefits, to provide policy recommendations for improved international and national policy design and implementation, and provide recommendations on requirements for global and national institutional architecture How: comparative analysis of individual research elements (country profiles, media analyses, etc), and full country cases (qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) ) Country case studies Cross-country comparative analysis Country profile Why: To reveal contextual conditions (drivers of deforestation, institutions, political economy, REDD architecture as discussed) How: literature review, expert interviews Discourse Media Analysis  Why: To determine what kinds of actors are shaping public debate and influencing the policy process. How: media-based analysis REDD+ Policy Content Analysis Why: To identify and analyse policies and measures to secure 3E outcomes and co-benefits How: Policy content analysis of existing REDD national strategy documents Policy Network Analysis Why: To analyse actors, their relations and the structural conditions in the policy arena (Actors, Perception, Power, Position) How: survey and in-depth interviews FlexibleElement:SpecificPolicyStudiestocapture emergingorcountryspecificissuesandquestions, focusonpoliticaleconomystudies National REDD+ Strategy Assessment (Full Country Case Analysis) Why: To assess proposed policies and measures, to identify obstacles and opportunities to realise REDD+ and secure 3E outcomes + co-benefits, to provide policy recommendations for improved domestic policy design and implementation How: Policy context and content analysis of existing REDD national strategies (Actors, Mechanisms, Structures)
  3. 3. THINKING beyond the canopy 3 Country Profile Rationale:  The country profile provides an overview of the contextual conditions that affect the REDD policy environment in each country and a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness, efficiency and equity (3Es) implications of the proposals for the national REDD strategies. It is based on reviews of existing literature, national data and documentation, legal reviews, as well as selected expert interviews.  The country profile also provides a collection of some data and construction of indicators that will feed into further research components of the Global Comparative Study
  4. 4. THINKING beyond the canopy 4 Country profile outputs: 1. Country profile (for internal use): • Country case study with supporting documentation, indicators, and data collection for further analysis and comparative analysis 2. Peer-reviewed occasional paper for public release • Input in REDD national policy process • Country case study, stressing lessons learned and policy learning aspects for REDD policy design and implementation (omits appendices and indicators)
  5. 5. THINKING beyond the canopy 5 Country profile + appendices 5 Sections: 1. Analysis of the Drivers of D&D (forest cover, direct & indirect drivers) -REVIEW 2. Institutional Environment and Distributional Aspects (governance, decentralization and rights to carbon/land/trees) -REVIEW 3. The Political-Economy of D&D (the politics behind the drivers) – REVIEW 4. The Climate Change Policy Environment (policy process, core actors, policy and protest events) - DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS a) REDD+ and mitigation b) adaption and synergies 5. Implications for Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity (3Es) - ANALYTICAL
  6. 6. THINKING beyond the canopy 6 Guide for Country Profile  For each section: • Short rationale for each section • Guidelines: questions to guide a qualitative analysis • Appendices: basic indicators and data collection for cross-country comparison, list of sources of documentation  provides a structure for the country profile
  7. 7. THINKING beyond the canopy 7 1. Analysis of the Drivers of D&D 1.1. Forest cover and historical overview of forest cover change 1.2. Review of the main drivers of forest cover change 1.3. Mitigation potential
  8. 8. THINKING beyond the canopy 8 1.1. Forest cover and historical overview of forest cover change  Current forest cover and land-use conditions  Land use changes and deforestation & degradation trends over the last 20 years (deforestation hot spots, afforestation and reforestation)
  9. 9. THINKING beyond the canopy 9 1.2. Review of the main drivers of forest cover change • Drivers of D&D:  Direct causes: Logging, small-scale and large- scale agriculture and agro-business, infrastructure, alternative employment opportunities, accessibility to roads  Indirect causes: Demographics, incomes, technology, culture, macro-economic and international conditions • Agents • Root Causes • Dynamics (relations between agents, typical sequencing, causes that operate in ‘tandem’)
  10. 10. THINKING beyond the canopy 1.3. Assessment of data related to drivers, processes and impacts  This assessment focusses on how and what data is collected and shared, where are possible gaps in relation to main drivers of deforestion.  It also asks questions about the existing forest monitoring systems in the country, and the transparency within.
  11. 11. THINKING beyond the canopy 1.4. Assess carbon stocks and emission factors  Provide information on national estimates of carbon stocks and a forest carbon stock distribution map if it exists  Assess the current state of national forest inventory as part long-term carbon measurement and monitoring plan including capacity development plans on national, regional and local levels.  Assess the current state of factors for carbon stocks associated with conversion, Expansion Factors, Emission Factors, Wood Density and Root/Shoot Ratio, etc. using IPCC National GHG guidelines (2006 Revision). Assess which elements of a national inventory can be implemented at Tier 2 and which will require being done at Tier 1. Assess priorities for further factor development to achieve Tier 2 inventories for major deforestation and degradation drivers (identified in the previous section).
  12. 12. THINKING beyond the canopy 12 1.5. Mitigation potential  Carbon impact from D&D, inventory and accounting capacity, capacity strengthening programs and implications for mitigation  Example of implications for mitigation : “Ideal REDD implementation case”: 1 driver that creates lots of emissions, is easy to monitor and easily addressed through a policy process i
  13. 13. THINKING beyond the canopy 13 1. Indicators of drivers of D&D Appendix 1: Indicators of the Drivers of D&D XLS template for data entry 1
  14. 14. THINKING beyond the canopy 14 2. Institutional Environment and Distributional Aspects 2.1. Governance in the forest margins 2.2. Decentralization and benefit-sharing 2.3. Rights: Indigenous rights, rights to carbon, land and trees
  15. 15. THINKING beyond the canopy 15 2.1. Governance in the forest margins  Broader global context: • Global Governance aspects and International Agreements • International programs on law enforcement in forestry • Implications for REDD  Governance conditions in areas at high threat of D&D (focus of governance issues related to forest and land use decisions) • illegal logging, corruption, elite capture, civil society participation, governance capacity – human and financial resources
  16. 16. THINKING beyond the canopy 16 2.1. Indicators on governance in the forest margins Appendix 2.1: Indicators of governance
  17. 17. THINKING beyond the canopy 17 2.2. Decentralization and benefit- sharing  Decentralization in the sectors driving D&D, comparison between legal provisions and actual practice  Congruence of national laws on decentralization, with sectoral laws for main drivers of D&D  Legal provisions on benefit–sharing mechanisms from land use and land use revenues between different levels of government, and non- governmental entities
  18. 18. THINKING beyond the canopy 18 2.2. Indicators on decentralization and benefit- sharing Appendix 2.2: Indicators of Decentralization and Benefit-sharing
  19. 19. THINKING beyond the canopy 19 2.3. Rights: Indigenous rights, rights to carbon, land and trees (in hot spots for D&D) • Context of Indigenous Rights  International context (ILO, UNDRIP)  National context (national legal provision of recognition of indigenous rights, actual practices, mobilization of indigenous organizations and their position of REDD) • National tenure context:  Carbon tenure  Land and tree tenure (both de jure and de facto) • Implications for REDD policy design and likely outcomes
  20. 20. THINKING beyond the canopy 20 2.3. Indicators of Rights (indigenous & tenure) Appendix 2.3: Indicators of Rights 2
  21. 21. THINKING beyond the canopy 21 3. Political-economy of D&D  National political-economy factors of D&D: • Political determinants of sectoral policies, development strategies and D&D, existence and compliance with environmental & sustainability standards, governance, constellations of sectoral & bureaucratic interests, patron-client network politics…  International political-economy factors of D&D: • International demand and prices for forest and agricultural products, FDI, international debt and loans of IFI and their political determinants…
  22. 22. THINKING beyond the canopy 22 3. Political-economy Indicators Appendix 3: Political-Economy 3
  23. 23. THINKING beyond the canopy 23 4. The REDD Policy Environment: Actors, Events, Policy Process 4.1. Broader climate change policy context 4.2. REDD policy actors, events and policy process 4.3. REDD consultation processes and multi- stakeholder forums 4.4. Future REDD policy options and processes
  24. 24. THINKING beyond the canopy 24 4.1 Broader Climate Change Policy Context  Major climate change mitigation and adaptation (M&A) activities to date  Existing policies on climate change M&A and assessment of outcome (including financial mechanisms)  Lessons for REDD policies
  25. 25. THINKING beyond the canopy 25 4.1. Indicators of the Broader Climate Change Policy Context Appendix 4.1.: CC policy context
  26. 26. THINKING beyond the canopy 26 4.2. REDD Actors, Policy Events, and Policy Process Descriptive analysis of: • Major policy events in national REDD policy arena • Major protest events related to REDD • Core actors in the REDD policy arena (data collected feed into the Policy Network Analysis)
  27. 27. THINKING beyond the canopy 27 4.2. Definitions: • Policy events are defined as: Decisions points which determine the selection of binding policy options (producing specific policy outputs from documents (R-Pin and R-PP) to legislation, new institutions or organizations), and meetings/ occasions of national relevance where important policy proposals options have been discussed by authoritative actors. • Protest events here are defined as collective public actions central to REDD issues, organized mainly by non-state actors. Usually elicited from civil society key informants or media sources. • Core Actors are defined as: Actors (organizations) that take part in substantive national policy debates and initiatives on REDD, and that consider themselves and are perceived by others as relevant actors in the REDD policy arena.
  28. 28. THINKING beyond the canopy 28 4.2. Data collection on Actors, Policy, and Protest Events :  List of major policy events  List of major protest events  List of core actors Appendix 4.2: LISTS
  29. 29. THINKING beyond the canopy 29 4.3. Consultation processes and multi-stakeholder forums  Collection of documentation from REDD consultation processes (feeds into further research) • Instruction for sources differ slightly for R-PP and non-R-PP participating countries.  Coding exercise of (up to) 4 main consultation/multi- stakeholder forums  Qualitative assessment of participation and governance aspects in the REDD policy process
  30. 30. THINKING beyond the canopy 30 4.3. Data and coding of consultation processes and multi-stakeholder forums Appendix 4.3.: Instructions, consultation list, coding instructions XLS Template Consultation Coding Database
  31. 31. THINKING beyond the canopy 31 4.4. Future REDD policy options Present the main national REDD policy design proposals in terms of: • Type of proposed REDD activities • Financing proposals & options • MRV proposals & options • Benefit Sharing proposals & options • Participation mechanisms proposals & options • Institutional and policy proposals & options • Policy learning assessment, proposals & options 4
  32. 32. THINKING beyond the canopy 32 5. Implications for Effectiveness, Efficiency and Equity  For main drivers of D&D: 3Es assessment of related current sectoral policies and future other policy options  3E assessment of major REDD aspects 3E implications of: • Governance and institutional context • Tenure and property rights conditions • MRV capacity • REDD financing and cost-benefit policy options • Participation and vertical coordination • Horizontal coordination • Other issues relevant for REDD if applicable • General outlook: 3E and prospective REDD policy outcomes
  33. 33. THINKING beyond the canopy 3E definition The 3 Es: effectiveness refers to the extent of carbon and non-carbon benefits achieved by REDD+; efficiency refers to the actual costs; and equity refers to the distributional aspects of the associated costs and benefits, procedural aspects of participatory decision-making and the specific contexts that shape stakeholders’ perceptions of equity (Angelsen et al. 2009 and McDermott et al. 2013) !!!TRADE OFFS!!!
  34. 34. THINKING beyond the canopy Key dimensions of equity (McDermott et al. 2012) 1) contextual equity—the conditions embedded in the social and political context that put some people or groups at a disadvantage, a typical example being gender discrimination; 2) procedural equity—the level of representation, participation and equal say in decision making processes; 3) distributive equity—the distribution of costs and benefits of policies and actions among stakeholders
  35. 35. THINKING beyond the canopy Lessons learnt so far  No strict word limit, you don’t have to follow exactly what is stated in the guidelines about this  Don’t forget the introduction and the executive summary for the final product  Do not produce overlap, particularly section 1 and 3 seem to be challenging… to avoid overlap, work closely together , discuss !  What helped in other countries where writing meetings/workshops, gives people space to identify common needs, challenges and literature (grey or published) that needs to be cited  Incorporate your national policy domain, discuss your first draft with key stakeholders (contact CIFOR for the budget!)  Review processes are painful, but you will see your document flowering and you learn more  Provide references, avoid own personal statements, and if you use interview information, make clear that it is based on rigorous interview technique (transcribed interviews) – if you use grey literature as evidence, provide the document in the library (during your work we suggest you open a folder/ endnote library with all references you are using)
  36. 36. THINKING beyond the canopy Note for authors  Each section is linked to a set of indicators (see appendices), which should be completed after having finished a section.  The country profile requires an executive summary, an introduction and a short concluding section with policy recommendations.  Literature, including grey literature and documentation of conducted interviews, needs to be provided in a separate folder.  Ensure group work and regular meetings among authors to avoid overlap between sections, particularly between Sections 2 and 4.
  37. 37. THINKING beyond the canopy ! Some practical notes to ensure that you provide a reader-friendly document  Explain briefly to the reader the rationale for each section (see for example the justifications for the sections provided in these country profile guidelines).  Provide as much analysis and discussion (in all sections) as possible – see examples on the next slides
  38. 38. THINKING beyond the canopy Example Mit pot In the chapter on mitigation potential, most country profilers provided ‘only’ a list of measures undertaken by the government to address deforestation and degradation with little discussion as to whether or not the government will be able to implement them. Besides, the original intention of this question/paragraph was to identify which deforestation and degradation activity provides the greatest potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (i.e. provide answers to the question of which activity is currently causing the highest emissions – in absolute terms) in order to get a sense where REDD+ actions would have to focus (based on current knowledge). It can be assumed that this information will be difficult to get for many countries, but a discussion of this question is necessary to inform effective REDD+ policy priorities (and could serve as input to a REDD+ strategy assessment where discourse is compared to actual needs).
  39. 39. THINKING beyond the canopy Example pol ec  In the section on the political-economic context, country profiles sometimes list ‘key national policies’ and underlying power groups, yet the sections could be strengthened by a more explicit analysis of the various interests and interest groups at play. It would also be useful to know which (according to current literature) is the most powerful lobby group.
  40. 40. THINKING beyond the canopy Prioritisation and ‘big picture’:  Don’t forget that the reader needs to be shown the big picture from time to time.  Indicate the relative contribution and importance of the listed causes (e.g. in Sections 1 and 3)  Provide clear ‘take-home messages’ (priority action points or priority observations for REDD+).
  41. 41. 41 The End!
  42. 42.