CLIMATE SMART LANDSCAPE‐BASED 
INTEGRATED  WATERSHED 
DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCES FROM 
DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCES FROM
INDIA 
Scale of Operations

People impacted

> 1 million

Watershed Villages
W t h d Vill

1,265
1 265

Project Villages

2,776

...
THEMATICWOTR’s Competencies
AREAS & COMPETENCIES
• Watershed/ Ecosystems Development and Natural
Resource Management
• Cli...
T
The Co
ontex
xt

Chan
nge

Clima
ate

Market

Forces

Depleted  Natural Resources

Fractured Vulnerable Communities
The Effects of Water Scarcity
Women and Children are not spared
Long distances to fetch fire wood

Malnourished children

...
Per
rspec
ctive and Ap
a
pproa
ach

The WOTR Engine for Adaptive Sustainable Development
Watershed/ Ecosystems
Development - A ClimateClimate
Smart Strategy for
Sustainable Agricultural
Development
MEASURES -AREA TREATMENTS

Stone Bunds
DRAINAGE TREATMENTS/LAND USE CHANGES
Integrating Bio‐Diversity
g
g
y
FOOD & WATER
Conserv
C
vation, Management, Use Eff
ficiency
y

Adaptive Sustainable Agriculture
Water 
Water
Availability...
On Field Interventions – Learning By Doing 

Water Efficiency Enhancing Systems

Farmer Field Schools

Agro Advisories

Sc...
Locale‐ Specific Meteorological Information

Automated Weather Stations installed in 51 villages
Automated Weather Station...
Weather based, Crop and Locale Specific Agro-Advisory
Provisioning: A Systems Diagram
Climate Smart Community Adaptation: Scaling Up with Feet 
on the Ground 
WOTR has developed/ adapted the following Tools a...
IMPACTS
Strategies & Approaches
Darewadi 
Darewadi ‐ 1996

Darewadi ‐ 1999

Darewadi ‐ 2009

Rejuvenates & Diversifies Natural Res...
Impact Details
Income From Agriculture (1996 –
Income From Agriculture (1996 – 2009)

60

% of Change=427% over 13 Years :...
The Impacts of Watershed Development
Barren land
decreased by 74%
despite a 32%
decline in rainfall.

A study of 15 villag...
Water Shortages : Fading Memories
Increased Resilience to Climate Change
Some Policy Impacts  
• Capacity Building as a distinct and preparatory phase included in 
all Government and large‐scale ...
HOW IT IS DONE: PUTTING
DONE
PEOPLE AT THE CENTRE
An Inclusive Community Involvement
• The Village chooses to implement the project (self‐selection)
• Agree to non‐negotiab...
What is done: Community Engagement
Community Engagement








Village Envisioning 
Capacity Building
Participator...
What is done: Important Aspects for continued 
Important Aspects for continued 
Community Engagement & Sustainability
Key ...
Managing It All
IT‐ enabled, GIS and Remote Sensing –
supported Decision Support , 
supported Decision Support
Documentati...
Str
rategies & Appr
roaches

Project Area – LISS-IV satellite images

Transition area

Akole Cluster

Rainshadow area

Pat...
Socio Technical Approach

Using Technology for Context Assessment & Decision making
Net Planning using Mobile GPS
Socio-Economic
Data

Net Plan Data
Crop Mapping within single gat  using mobile GPS
p
pp g
g g
g
Pre‐Treatment Scenario(Dec 1992)

Kumbarwadi Watershed
988 ha/ 500 mm rainfall for all images

Dec 2000

Post‐Treatment Sc...
Programs, Funders & Partners
•
•
•

Climate Change Adaptation Program
Indo German Watershed Development Program
p
g
Sujala...
Knowledge Partners
World Agroforestry
Centre

India Meteorological
Department

Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth,
MPKV
Centr...
Concluding Considerations
• Climate Change impacts ecosystems, water resources,
Climate Change impacts ecosystems, water r...
Thank You!
Catching Rain Everywhere…
Climate Smart Landscape-Based Integrated Watershed Management: Experiences from India
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Climate Smart Landscape-Based Integrated Watershed Management: Experiences from India

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This presentation focuses on watershed management which also takes climate change and the landscape approach into consideration. It shows measurements, drainage treatment, adaptive sustainable agriculture and much more.

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Climate Smart Landscape-Based Integrated Watershed Management: Experiences from India

  1. 1. CLIMATE SMART LANDSCAPE‐BASED  INTEGRATED  WATERSHED  DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCES FROM  DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCES FROM INDIA 
  2. 2. Scale of Operations People impacted > 1 million Watershed Villages W t h d Vill 1,265 1 265 Project Villages 2,776 States S Area covered People trained p 6 > 7,23,605 ha > 320,000 , Support provided to Projects in Somaliland,  Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi . Kenya Tanzania and Malawi
  3. 3. THEMATICWOTR’s Competencies AREAS & COMPETENCIES • Watershed/ Ecosystems Development and Natural Resource Management • Climate Change Adaptation • Integrated Water Resources Management • Sustainable Adaptive Agriculture and Food Security • Rural Livelihoods • Health, Sanitation, Hygiene, Nutrition , ( q y) p • Gender, Inclusion (equity) and Women’s Empowerment • Renewable Energy • Capacity Building and Training • Institutional and Systems Development • Knowledge Management-Action Research , Development Communication • Policy Dialogue
  4. 4. T The Co ontex xt Chan nge Clima ate Market Forces Depleted  Natural Resources Fractured Vulnerable Communities
  5. 5. The Effects of Water Scarcity Women and Children are not spared Long distances to fetch fire wood Malnourished children Tanker fed Villages a e ed ages Cattle sheds during droughts
  6. 6. Per rspec ctive and Ap a pproa ach The WOTR Engine for Adaptive Sustainable Development
  7. 7. Watershed/ Ecosystems Development - A ClimateClimate Smart Strategy for Sustainable Agricultural Development
  8. 8. MEASURES -AREA TREATMENTS Stone Bunds
  9. 9. DRAINAGE TREATMENTS/LAND USE CHANGES
  10. 10. Integrating Bio‐Diversity g g y
  11. 11. FOOD & WATER Conserv C vation, Management, Use Eff ficiency y Adaptive Sustainable Agriculture Water  Water Availability Cropping Pattern Pilot Crop  Demos/ Farmer  Field Schools Soil Health and   Environmentally  safe Practices Water Budgeting Water  Conservation  Technologies g Integrated Pest  Management Integrated  Water‐Nutrient  Management
  12. 12. On Field Interventions – Learning By Doing  Water Efficiency Enhancing Systems Farmer Field Schools Agro Advisories School Exposure Trips for Learning & Validation
  13. 13. Locale‐ Specific Meteorological Information Automated Weather Stations installed in 51 villages Automated Weather Stations installed in 51 villages Weather information displayed on boards in villages Awareness creation amongst villagers Agro‐Meteorology software development is in  g gy p process Training for villagers
  14. 14. Weather based, Crop and Locale Specific Agro-Advisory Provisioning: A Systems Diagram
  15. 15. Climate Smart Community Adaptation: Scaling Up with Feet  on the Ground  WOTR has developed/ adapted the following Tools and  Frameworks for Context Assessment and Decision Making: Frameworks for Context Assessment and Decision Making: • CoDriVE‐ PD: A Vulnerability Assessment Tool • CoDriVE – PA and Livelihoods: A Project and Livelihoods  Adjustment Tool • Modified People’s Biodiversity Register (M‐PBR) • Children’s Biodiversity Register (C PBR) Children s Biodiversity Register (C‐PBR) • Participatory 3‐D Modeling (P3DM) • Community Disaster Risk Management (C‐DRM) • IT‐enabled GIS and RS – supported Decision Support Systems IT enabled, GIS and RS  supported Decision Support Systems
  16. 16. IMPACTS
  17. 17. Strategies & Approaches Darewadi  Darewadi ‐ 1996 Darewadi ‐ 1999 Darewadi ‐ 2009 Rejuvenates & Diversifies Natural Resources j Revitalizes Local Economies Strengthens Relationships
  18. 18. Impact Details Income From Agriculture (1996 – Income From Agriculture (1996 – 2009) 60 % of Change=427% over 13 Years : for one year =33% 50 ROI : 600% over 13 Years : for one year =46% Rs. In Million n 40 30 20 10 - Cash Crops Cereal Oil seed Pulses Vegetable Milk Fodder Total 1996 - 1.27 0.32 2.41 2.61 - 4.01 10.61 2001 15.10 1.93 0.02 0.75 5.25 1.06 8.54 32.65 2009 32.53 4.13 0.04 0.92 2.63 0.82 14.88 55.93
  19. 19. The Impacts of Watershed Development Barren land decreased by 74% despite a 32% decline in rainfall. A study of 15 villages revealed th f ll i t d f ill l d the following: • • • • • • • • Productive wells increased by 29% Area under irrigation increased by 233% Cropped area increased by 25% Agriculture employment went from 4 to 10 months /year locally (150% increase) Distress migration declined by 84% Milk production increased by 143% Production of Food crops by 65% Vegetable production by 64%
  20. 20. Water Shortages : Fading Memories
  21. 21. Increased Resilience to Climate Change
  22. 22. Some Policy Impacts   • Capacity Building as a distinct and preparatory phase included in  all Government and large‐scale WSD Programmes in India all Go ernment and large scale WSD Programmes in India • The Watershed Development Fund (NWDF) set up by Govt. of  India based on this approach developed under the IGWDP. I di b d hi hd l d d h IGWDP • Participatory Net Planning (PNP) adopted in Govt. Programs   • Secured permission to treat Govt. Forest land  • Government of Maharashtra adopted the handholding approach Government of Maharashtra adopted the handholding approach  of WOTR involving NGOs and facilitating agencies‐ “Mother NGO/  Resource NGO”  • The Rajiv Gandhi Watershed mission (MP) adopted the PNP &  Village Envisioning methodology g g gy
  23. 23. HOW IT IS DONE: PUTTING DONE PEOPLE AT THE CENTRE
  24. 24. An Inclusive Community Involvement • The Village chooses to implement the project (self‐selection) • Agree to non‐negotiable disciplines • Village institutions involved: • General Village Body (Gram Sabha of all adult members) General Village Body (Gram Sabha of all adult members) • Village Council and the Village Development Committee   ( p (representative of all communities including landless poor)  g p ) • Women’s Self‐Help Groups & their Apex Body  • Forest Protection Committee & others 
  25. 25. What is done: Community Engagement Community Engagement        Village Envisioning  Capacity Building Participatory Net Planning (PNP) Adopting a “Systems Approach” Implementation  Implementation Maintenance of Accounts, Records  and Reporting Participatory Impact Monitoring & Peer Group  Assessment
  26. 26. What is done: Important Aspects for continued  Important Aspects for continued  Community Engagement & Sustainability Key Issues consciously addressed:  Inclusiveness and equity (community takes responsibility) q y( y p y)  Gender Sensitivity  Transparency Plan for Sustainability:  Maintenance Fund  Water Budgeting  g g  Quality Education & with an eco‐systems focus  Linkages with government and other service providers Linkages with government and other service providers  Addressing related issues (eg renewable energy; rural tourism) 27
  27. 27. Managing It All IT‐ enabled, GIS and Remote Sensing – supported Decision Support ,  supported Decision Support Documentation and Monitoring  Systems 
  28. 28. Str rategies & Appr roaches Project Area – LISS-IV satellite images Transition area Akole Cluster Rainshadow area Pathar I & II
  29. 29. Socio Technical Approach Using Technology for Context Assessment & Decision making Net Planning using Mobile GPS
  30. 30. Socio-Economic Data Net Plan Data
  31. 31. Crop Mapping within single gat  using mobile GPS p pp g g g g
  32. 32. Pre‐Treatment Scenario(Dec 1992) Kumbarwadi Watershed 988 ha/ 500 mm rainfall for all images Dec 2000 Post‐Treatment Scenario (Dec 2011) Class Dec 1992 (ha) Dec 2011 (ha) % Change Wasteland Water spread  area 362.45 255 ‐42 2.48 3.64 +32 Cropland 290.92 328.15 +11 81.85 81 85 114.47 114 47 +29 988.33 988.32 Canopy Cover Canopy Cover Total
  33. 33. Programs, Funders & Partners • • • Climate Change Adaptation Program Indo German Watershed Development Program p g Sujala Watershed Development Program SHMM Trust Fund Government of Maharashtra Government of Andhra Pradesh Gove Government of Madhya Pradesh e t o ad ya ades
  34. 34. Knowledge Partners World Agroforestry Centre India Meteorological Department Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, MPKV Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, CRIDA g , Bharati Vidyapeth Institute of Environment Education and Research
  35. 35. Concluding Considerations • Climate Change impacts ecosystems, water resources, Climate Change impacts ecosystems, water resources,  communities, livelihoods and economic activities – all are  rooted in and interact within and across watersheds • Building adaptive capacities needs to take into consideration  the inter‐relationships between these components, identify  p p , y vulnerabilities and undertake measures that ameliorate risks  to them • In rural economies, developing contexts, livelihoods and well  being depend upon nature and the quality of environmental  g p p q y services • Watershed based sustainable landscape management,  p g , improved water use efficiency, climate smart agriculture,  better value chain management and increased market access  will help build adaptive capacities, mitigate risks and reduce  vulnerabilities of the poor 
  36. 36. Thank You! Catching Rain Everywhere…

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