Brazilian Forests: back to landscapes? Challenges and Strategies for Forest Code Implementation

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This presentation by Arnaldo Carneiro Filho from the Nature Conservancy explains what the forest code is, how it relates to landscapes and how it can help ensuring sustainable forestry.

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Brazilian Forests: back to landscapes? Challenges and Strategies for Forest Code Implementation

  1. 1. Brazilian Forests:! back to landscapes!?! 
 
 Challenges and Strategies for Forest Code! Implementation Arnaldo Carneiro Filho! Brazil! November, 2013
  2. 2. Total Area: 850 MHa 534.4 Mha of natural vegetation ! 147 Mha of protected area called Conservation Units and APAs 105 Mha of indigenous reserves 251 Mha of natural vegetation on farms (APPs and Legal Reserve) 31.4 Mha of other natural vegetation areas 60 Mha of agriculture and planted forests ! 59 Mha of urbanization and other uses 198 Mha of pastures Sources: Projeto Monitoramento dos Biomas Brasileiros/Ministry of Environment (MMA); IBGE – PAM (2010) and Agricultural Census (2006); INPE – TerraClass; Agricultural Land Use and Expansion Model Brazil - AgLUE-BR (Gerd Sparovek, ESALQ-USP); AgroIcone
  3. 3. Deforestation Rates in Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado: Observed and Targets for 2020 Deforestation Rates NPCC Targets 3.000.000 Amazon • Amazon Cerrado • 2.250.000 • • • 1.500.000 • 942000 750.000 390700 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: INPE-PRODES (Amazon); UFG-LAPIG (Cerrado). NPCC: National Policy on Climate Change 2020 The scenario of uncontrolled Amazon deforestation has passed Illegal deforestation has strongly dropped (although no numbers on legal and illegal deforestation are available) Deforestation continues falling but at lower decreasing rates Current deforestation rate is close to the 2020 target No soybean is occupying recently cleared areas (Soy Moratorium) Cleared land is mainly occupied with pastures ! ! Cerrado • Different dynamic than Amazon. Level of legality is much higher: land conversion supported by official licenses and permits • Cerrado conversion rates are facing new increases, however no indication of deforestation peaks • Current deforestation rate is already below the 2020 target
  4. 4. Forest Code Implementation and its Implications for Native Vegetation Conservation 400 100 Mha 98,9102 Mha 319,9000 300 75 Current deforestation rate: 0.46 Mha 200 Current deforestation rate: 0.77 Mha 50 40,0000 100 25 19,6000 0,6000 0 Vegetation Stock 7,0000 1,8000 0 LR Deficit Vegetation Stock APP Deficit 3,6000 LR Deficit Amazon • Areas available for legal deforestation (vegetation stock - 19.6 Mha), although million of hectares, are equivalent to a small share of total forest areas • From current deforestations rates, it would be necessary 43 years to spend the 19.1 million ha • Soy Moratorium has shown that it is possible to manage deforestation process for productive purposes • Zero deforestation is a big challenge for Brazilian producers because it is an above and beyond law requirement Cerrado • Vegetation stock is much larger than Amazon • Very important agricultural region. Agricultural expansion brings large economic benefits and development • Several states are well organized and are demanding additional requirements to issue suppression permits • Future demand for agriculture land is much lower than the vegetation stock • Strong attention on biodiversity conservation • Land clearing can be managed in order to avoid wasting deforestation and minimizing impacts on biodiversity hop spots Common issues • Legal reserve deficits can deliver forest restoration and protection of current vegetation stock through the compensation mechanism Remaining Vegetation 1. Native vegetation excluding protected areas (APP and RL), conservation reserves, indigenous reserves. Can be interpreted as areas available for legal deforestation. 2. APP (permanent preservation areas): riparian vegetation, river buffer strips, top of hills and high slopes areas. 3. LR (legal reserve): set aside area 80% (Amazon biome), 35% (Cerrado biome in Legal Amazon area), 20% (Cerrado biome) and 20% for others biomes. 4. Remaining vegetation including vegetation stock and protected areas. Source: Ministry of Environment. Source: Soares-Filho, B. S. (2013). Impacto da Revisão do Código Florestal: Como Viabilizar o Grande Desafio Adiante? Desenvolvimento Sustentável DS. Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos.
  5. 5. Brazilian Forest Code – opportunity ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ ❑ Lei 4771 1965: Brazilian Forest Code defined 50% of the areal of a rural farm to be set aside as Legal Reserve (LR) Legal amendment No1511 of 25/07/1996 Legal Reserve in the Amazon Biome from 50% to 80% of total rural farm area; Legal amendment No 2166-67 de 24/08/2001: Legal Reserve for Social role for environmental services and climate change mitigation Degree Nº 6.321, 21/12/2007 – Priority Municipalities for control, prevention and monitoring the deforestation in the Amazon Degree Nº 7.029, 10/12/2009. Federal Program to support environmental regularization of rural farms “Programa Mais Ambiente” Degree of May 2012: New Brazilian Forest code obligates all rural farms in Brazil to perform Environmental Registry (CAR) Previous Law X New Law! ! Reduction of debt = 29± 6M ha
  6. 6. Código antigo X Código atual! ! Redução do passivo = 29± 6M ha
  7. 7. Delimitação das áreas de APP
  8. 8. Brazil’s forest code Legal reserves on private properties:! In the Amazon = 80%, other biomes 20%! plus! Preservation of riparian forest and vegetation ! on hilltops and steep slopes Obligation to restore Legal Reserve ! ≈ 16 Mha + 5 Mha riparian vegetation ! (Soares-Filho, SAE 2013)
  9. 9. Sustainable Harvest in the Amazon 1. Promoting environmental legislation compliance – Forest Code! 2. Enabling conditions for zoning and rural sustainable development policies! 3. Shaping Functional Productive Landscapes – Farms! 4. Supporting Responsible Sourcing Policies – Cargill! 5. Guarantee Effective Biodiversity conservation in Private Lands Foto: © Haroldo Palo Jr.
  10. 10. Strategic actions 1.Rural Farms environmental registry – CAR Legal Reserves (LR) and Areas of Permanent Protection (APP) 2. Land-tenure analysis (risks analysis) Avoid Potential conflict s and Land grabbing 3. Strategic Landscapes Planning – farm scale Ecological corridors connecting LR & APP to forest remnants 4. Environmental Regularization – LAR Degraded Areas Restoration Projects and LR regularization 5. Deforestation monitoring & Responsible Sourcing
  11. 11. Farms & Farmers GIS Database
  12. 12. Farm Environmental reports – CarGeo®
  13. 13. Agriculture Scenarios in Brazil PAM 2011 Current land use in Brazil
  14. 14. LIVESTOCK INTENSIFICATION >>>> FOREST OPPORTUNITIES
  15. 15. CHALLENGES OF FOREST LAW Forest restoration 22 Million hectares Forest compensation 8 Million hectares fonte: Britaldo Soares, UFMG
  16. 16. Largest CDM project in the World with the potential to sequester 2.5±0.5 billion tons of C
 Native vegetation in Brazil stores 67±13 billion of tons of Carbon Leite et al. GBC, 2012 Soares-Filho, 2013
  17. 17. THANKS! Arnaldo Carneiro Filho! ! acarneiro@tnc.org

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