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Bolivia & Cameroon A comparison of the development of community forests enterprises .   Charlotte Benneker  Peter Cronklet...
Introduction <ul><li>Comparing experiences  </li></ul><ul><li>Cameroon & Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>Forest reforms in 1994 ...
Background Bolivia Cameroon
Background ½-1 million ha ± 2 million ha. Com Forestry  15 million 9 million Inhabitants: 220,000 km 2 534,000 km 2  Fores...
S@me history <ul><li>Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>Logging for private  (Bolivian)  enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Few species,...
Policy reforms Similar Cutting cycle, minimal harvest diameter & harvest intensity <80%.  Rules CF areas require simple fo...
CF takes on
General similarities <ul><li>Costly & lengthy process </li></ul><ul><li>Several reasons to engage (land rights) </li></ul>...
Financing FMP
Types of contracts large FMP <ul><li>Private enterprises finances FMP:  </li></ul><ul><li>Long term contract </li></ul><ul...
Contract duration BACK
General differences <ul><li>Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>More extensive PR </li></ul><ul><li>FS cannot deny rights </li></ul>...
Options for timber extraction <ul><li>All trees may be extracted </li></ul><ul><li>No control </li></ul><ul><li>All farmer...
Type of logging permits used
Individual vs. communal <ul><li>Sustainability forest use? </li></ul><ul><li>Limited extraction capacity </li></ul><ul><li...
Market development .. Forest Services <ul><li>Mainly indigenous communities  </li></ul><ul><li>Large forest areas (objecti...
Thesis: Bolivia <ul><li>New market situation developed based on production networks ≠ integrated enterprises </li></ul><ul...
Discussion <ul><li>CF in Bolivia institutionalized, why? </li></ul><ul><li>Area under community ownership high! </li></ul>...
Conclusion <ul><li>Small-scale timber markets can evolve in valuable markets for communities and small holders. </li></ul>
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Bolivia and Cameroon: A comparison of the development of community forests enterprises

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Charlotte Benneker
Peter Cronkleton
Paolo Omar Cerutti
Verina Ingram
Abdon Awono

Presentation for the conference on
Taking stock of smallholders and community forestry
Montpellier France
March 24-26, 2010

Published in: Education
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Bolivia and Cameroon: A comparison of the development of community forests enterprises

  1. 1. Bolivia & Cameroon A comparison of the development of community forests enterprises . Charlotte Benneker Peter Cronkleton Paolo Omar Cerutti Verina Ingram Abdon Awono
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Comparing experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Cameroon & Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>Forest reforms in 1994 & 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms enable commercial timber production on community land / by communities </li></ul><ul><li>Some similarities & differences </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on ‘local’ markets </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by article: Murphy and Schindler (2009) in the Journal of Economic Geography </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background Bolivia Cameroon
  4. 4. Background ½-1 million ha ± 2 million ha. Com Forestry 15 million 9 million Inhabitants: 220,000 km 2 534,000 km 2 Forest area: 475,400 km 2 1,084,390 km 2 Total area: Cameroon Bolivia
  5. 5. S@me history <ul><li>Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>Logging for private (Bolivian) enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Few species, no management </li></ul><ul><li>Areas superimpose communities </li></ul><ul><li>No commercial forest user rights for rural inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>But also: </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel informal timber production chain </li></ul><ul><li>All rural people involved </li></ul><ul><li>Local economies thrive on timber exploitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cameroon </li></ul><ul><li>Logging for private (foreign) enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Few species, no management </li></ul><ul><li>Areas superimpose communities </li></ul><ul><li>No commercial forest user rights for rural inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>But also: </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel informal timber production chain </li></ul><ul><li>All rural people involved </li></ul><ul><li>Local economies thrive on timber exploitation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Policy reforms Similar Cutting cycle, minimal harvest diameter & harvest intensity <80%. Rules CF areas require simple forest management plan Areas > 200 ha require extensive forest management plans Forest use regulations Exclusive forest user rights for 25 year over requested forest areas < 5000 ha. in non permanent forest domain. Exclusive forest user rights for all private and collective landowners, no restriction in time or area. Forest user rights No legal recognition of customary land rights Devolution of land rights to farmers and indigenous people. (30 million ha demanded) Land reform Cameroon Bolivia
  7. 7. CF takes on
  8. 8. General similarities <ul><li>Costly & lengthy process </li></ul><ul><li>Several reasons to engage (land rights) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal rights just a start </li></ul><ul><li>Little state assistance & protection </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs play an important role (financing, TA & training) </li></ul><ul><li>Market starts to relate to CF </li></ul>
  9. 9. Financing FMP
  10. 10. Types of contracts large FMP <ul><li>Private enterprises finances FMP: </li></ul><ul><li>Long term contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts are vague & for duration of FMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities do not know the costs of the plan, timber prices or extracted volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprises does all the work, communities not involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to renegotiate or cancel the contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ONG or community finances the FMP: </li></ul><ul><li>Short term contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts are short (1yr) and specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community fells the trees (at least) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts are annually renegotiated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities learn and change contract conditions / yr </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buyers had to adjust </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Contract duration BACK
  12. 12. General differences <ul><li>Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>More extensive PR </li></ul><ul><li>FS cannot deny rights </li></ul><ul><li>Large forest areas in hands of farmers / indigenous people = resource owners </li></ul><ul><li>Access to timber through resource owners ≠ state </li></ul><ul><li>Market developed to deal with that situation </li></ul><ul><li>Official CF scheme = only one way to access timber </li></ul><ul><li>Cameroon </li></ul><ul><li>Only forest user rights </li></ul><ul><li>User rights can be withheld </li></ul><ul><li>Areas under community control potentially high but still limited </li></ul><ul><li>Access to timber mainly through state </li></ul><ul><li>Market to deal with that situation is developing. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited ways to access timber </li></ul>
  13. 13. Options for timber extraction <ul><li>All trees may be extracted </li></ul><ul><li>No control </li></ul><ul><li>All farmers </li></ul>5. Forest conversion <ul><li>Simple logging plan </li></ul><ul><li>prevent forest conversion </li></ul><ul><li>No control </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul>3. Forest area 3 ha. <ul><li>Simple FMP required </li></ul><ul><li>No control </li></ul><ul><li>All land owners </li></ul><ul><li>(private, collective, colonist, indigenous .. ) </li></ul>2. Forest area < 200 ha) <ul><li>Regionally applied </li></ul><ul><li>No control </li></ul><ul><li>FMP required </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial logging </li></ul>Observations <ul><li>Indigenous people </li></ul>4. Traditional commercial use <ul><li>Forest enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Private landowners </li></ul><ul><li>CFEs / ASL </li></ul>1. Forest areas > 200 ha. Actors Options
  14. 14. Type of logging permits used
  15. 15. Individual vs. communal <ul><li>Sustainability forest use? </li></ul><ul><li>Limited extraction capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Lower prices </li></ul><ul><li>High effort required to organize and decide </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits diffused </li></ul><ul><li>Limited access to trees for individual needs </li></ul>Disadvantage <ul><li>Productive activities traditionally individual </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits immediate and individual </li></ul><ul><li>Sale when necessary or wanted (trees as standing capital?) </li></ul><ul><li>No organization / meetings, discussions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient timber extraction system </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility to negotiate con enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Prices for timber higher </li></ul><ul><li>Collective defence of forest area? </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability forest use? </li></ul>Advantage Individual Communal
  16. 16. Market development .. Forest Services <ul><li>Mainly indigenous communities </li></ul><ul><li>Large forest areas (objectives NGO) </li></ul><ul><li>Previous contact between NGO and community </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale FMP > 200 ha. </li></ul><ul><li>Financing, TA, training and exchange activities </li></ul><ul><li>Communal benefits </li></ul><ul><li>High transaction costs </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Areas with valuable timber </li></ul><ul><li>High investments needed </li></ul><ul><li>Competition between buyers </li></ul><ul><li>More control Forest Service </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale FMP > 200 ha. </li></ul><ul><li>Felling and extraction of timber </li></ul><ul><li>Price per tree / per m3 </li></ul><ul><li>Individual / communal benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Low transaction costs </li></ul><ul><li>Large sawmills </li></ul><ul><li>Processing industry </li></ul><ul><li>Private and collective land owners </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible areas </li></ul><ul><li>Limited investments </li></ul><ul><li>Less control Forest Service </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale logging permits </li></ul><ul><li>Felling and extraction of trees </li></ul><ul><li>Price per tree / per m3 </li></ul><ul><li>Individual benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Low transaction costs </li></ul><ul><li>Service providers </li></ul><ul><li>Forest consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Timber traders </li></ul><ul><li>Local sawmills </li></ul>To whom and where What do they offer Who offers
  17. 17. Thesis: Bolivia <ul><li>New market situation developed based on production networks ≠ integrated enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation process of communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your buyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of 2 nd conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way flexibility & compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptation process of enterprises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upfront financing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with changing leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of social relations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result: less value adding, but more people are earning a living </li></ul>
  18. 18. Discussion <ul><li>CF in Bolivia institutionalized, why? </li></ul><ul><li>Area under community ownership high! </li></ul><ul><li>Interest of other stakeholders in society has become to collaborate with communities. </li></ul><ul><li>New chances have been spotted, especially by market actors </li></ul><ul><li>‘ New’ timber production chain has developed </li></ul><ul><li>Process strengthened by measures new government </li></ul><ul><li>Timber sale contracts have improved in areas where this market operates: accessible areas </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>Small-scale timber markets can evolve in valuable markets for communities and small holders. </li></ul>

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