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Are women more vulnerable to climate change and other interacting stressors in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa? 
Sheo...
Introduction
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Introduction Purpose of this paper 
• 
To illustrate that the quest...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Introduction and conceptualisation Gender, multiple stressors and v...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Introduction and conceptualisation Gender, multiple stressors and v...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Introduction and conceptualisation Gender, multiple stressors and v...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
More subtle and nuanced treatment of gender in this study 7 
EXAMPL...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Introduction Aim and research questions 
Aim: 
• 
To investigate di...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Approach to the study 
Questions answered through a gendered analys...
Study area and methods
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 11 
Study site location
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Worked in two settlements (Willowvale/Gatyana and Lessyton) in the ...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Methods 
• 
Multiple studies and mixed methods (10 student disserta...
Findings
Livelihoods and income sources (sensitivity and adaptive capacity) 15
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Livelihoods and income sources 16 
Differences in mean (± standard ...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Livelihoods and income sources 17 
Differences in mean (± standard ...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Livelihood and income sources by HH gender structure 18 
Willowvale...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Livelihood and income sources by HH gender structure 19 
Natural re...
Assets - access and stocks (adaptive capacity) 20
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Asset access, stocks, adaptive capacity 21 
Lesseyton 
Gatyana 
Mal...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Asset access, stocks and adaptive capacity 22 
Social Capital 
Tabl...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Asset access, stocks and adaptive capacity 23 
Natural capital: Lan...
Shocks and stresses experienced and local perceptions of what makes people vulnerable (exposure to risk) 24
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability 
25 
Peo...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability 26 
Soci...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability: Multipl...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 28 
Mental map - men in Lesseyton 
Perceptions and experiences of st...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability: HIV/AID...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability: Food se...
Responses to shocks and stressors and reliance on climate sensitive sectors 31
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Responses 32 
• 
All HHs experienced greater than one shock in the ...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Responses – NR as a safety net 
Pair-wise ranking* of coping strate...
What does this all mean? Conclusions and implications
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Key conclusions – re women in general 
• 
Women’s higher reliance o...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Key conclusions – re different female headed HH 
• 
Lower income an...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Key conclusions – re men and male headed HH 
• 
Men also vulnerable...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
How do local people see it? 38 
Men and women cope differently 
Les...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
What does this mean for vulnerability and adaptation policy? 
• 
Ne...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
What does this mean for vulnerability and adaptation policy? 
• 
Bu...
Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 
Thank you! Acknowledgements 
• 
IDRC Ecohealth Programme 
• 
The ID...
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Are women more vulnerable to climate change in rural South Africa?

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This presentation from the 2014 IUFRO World Congress examined the question, "Are women more vulnerable to climate change and other interacting stressors In the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa?"

This presentation was part of a session that focused on challenges, opportunities, and outcomes of securing women’s participation in forest governance, linking them with issues and experiences in climate change adaptation and mitigation.

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Are women more vulnerable to climate change in rural South Africa?

  1. 1. Are women more vulnerable to climate change and other interacting stressors in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa? Sheona Shackleton Department of Environmental Science, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa 1 With acknowledgement to the entire IDRC project team, particularly Leigh Cobban, Georgina Cundill and Marty Luckert who contributed specifically to this paper
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Introduction Purpose of this paper • To illustrate that the question “are women more vulnerable?” is not necessarily easy nor straightforward to answer. • In fact, it is a complex question with complex answers given:  the range of interacting stressors and shocks that people and the ecosystems they depend on face;  the heterogeneity that exists locally amongst individuals, households and communities; and  different conceptual understandings and framings of vulnerability and gender. •We have a tendency to make assumptions and rely on stylised views, while the notion of vulnerability requires more nuanced exploration. 3
  4. 4. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Introduction and conceptualisation Gender, multiple stressors and vulnerability 4 FRAMING OF VULNERABILITY In this paper I use both a risk-hazard and entitlements-livelihoods/ political ecology framing (Ribot, 2014). The combination of underlying cause and susceptibility in the conceptualisation of vulnerability makes it important to analyse the socially constructed factors that influence exposure to stresses and ability to respond. Gender is an important one of these.
  5. 5. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Introduction and conceptualisation Gender, multiple stressors and vulnerability • Climate change does not occur in isolation from a host of other social, political, economic and biophysical factors across scales that affect livelihoods and vulnerability, such as: – poorly conceived policies and weak governance – poverty and inequality – HIV/AIDS – institutional breakdown – crime – ecosystem degradation • These multiple risks and stressors have differential impacts across different communities, social groupings and households, with each also having differential ability to respond based on their context, livelihood activities, assets and capabilities. •Gender differences are often particularly stark. 5
  6. 6. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Introduction and conceptualisation Gender, multiple stressors and vulnerability Gender is often treated in a simplistic binary fashion. There is a need for studies that: • Consider gender in terms of its interactions with other intersecting social categories (age, income, ethnicity). • Move beyond simple male and female headed HH, to capture the heterogeneity that exists in these. Households vary in terms of the gender and ages of other members, with implications for production and adaptive capacity. •Consider women less as helpless victims but as active agents with some influence on their own lives. •Recognise men may also be vulnerable in different ways and how this intersects with women’s vulnerability. 6
  7. 7. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action More subtle and nuanced treatment of gender in this study 7 EXAMPLES OF INFLUENCE OF GENDER OF HH MEMBERS BEYOND HEAD Some external gendered constraints faced by female-headed HH, e.g. limited property rights, may be alleviated by the presence of an adult male in the household. Conversely, adult males in female-headed HH may impose internal constraints on innovation through reinforcement of restrictive gender-related norms. Male only HHs may face a unique set of constraints related to, for example, food production and, in SA, access to grants. In recognition of this, we considered four gender categories of HH: • only male adults, • male-headed with adult females (typical family structure), • female-headed with adult males (widowed, divorced or single women with a son, brother or other adult male in the HH) • only single, widowed or divorced female adults. • We also considered aspects related to men and women as individuals.
  8. 8. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Introduction Aim and research questions Aim: • To investigate differentiated vulnerability and responses among men and women and households with different gender structures paying attention to the many interacting stressors that influence local livelihoods. Embedded in this are the following questions: •What makes rural women more/less vulnerable, i.e. what determines or influences their vulnerability? •How are rural women responding? •What role do ecosystem services play in women’s responses? 8
  9. 9. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Approach to the study Questions answered through a gendered analysis of: •Household livelihoods and asset holdings (indicators of sensitivity and adaptive capacity). •Perceptions and ‘lived experiences’ of vulnerability in relation to multiple stressors (exposure). •Types of responses employed when faced with risk, and how these may be impacted by CC. 9 Shackleton et al. 2014. AGENDA
  10. 10. Study area and methods
  11. 11. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 11 Study site location
  12. 12. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Worked in two settlements (Willowvale/Gatyana and Lessyton) in the Eastern Cape of South Africa Willowvale – remote, rural, NR dependent, wetter. poorer Lesseyton, peri-urban, formal layout, dry, near Queenstown Study area
  13. 13. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Methods • Multiple studies and mixed methods (10 student dissertations from larger IDRC funded project). •HH survey of 340 hh (demographics, livelihood assets, HIV proxies, welfare perceptions, shocks and responses, livelihood activities, income – cash and in kind) •Focus group discussions linked to a social learning process (in-depth discussions of vulnerability – stories - and means of coping) •Participatory workshops with different gender groups (mental maps of stressors, choices for responses) •20 life histories narrated by vulnerable men and women 13
  14. 14. Findings
  15. 15. Livelihoods and income sources (sensitivity and adaptive capacity) 15
  16. 16. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Livelihoods and income sources 16 Differences in mean (± standard error) quarterly household income (ZAR) of gender headship types in Lesseyton Lesseyton Only male adults (N = 47) Male headed with female adults (N= 45) Female headed with male adults (N= 53) Only female adults (N = 25) P value Total quarterly income 6952± 735 7869 ± 770 7926± 794 4905 ± 660 0.077 Formal employment 1433± 324 3566 ±725 1928 ±458 573 ±298 0.007 Lower income and formal employment Self- employment 214 ± 109 350 ±157 168±88 504 ±285 0.852 Higher self- employment – shows ability to adapt
  17. 17. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Livelihoods and income sources 17 Differences in mean (± standard error) quarterly household income (ZAR) of gender headship types in Gatyana/Willowvale Only male adults (N = 36) Male headed with female adults (N= 41) Female headed with male adults (N= 43) Only female adults (N = 48) P value Total quarterly income 9157.35 ± 1776.84 8162.87 ± 629.12 7005.67 ± 851.91 5505.06 ± 521.79 0.012 Formal employment 2630.33 ± 1553.35 526.83 ± 275.95 837.21 ± 565.41 1000.00 ± 399.50 0.431 Only HH with adult males only have high employment in Willowvale
  18. 18. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Livelihood and income sources by HH gender structure 18 Willowvale Natural resources9% Formal employment29% Casual employment2%Self- employment1% Grants 44% Remittances3% Crops1%Livestock11% Figure 8.2.2 e: Average livelihood portfolio of households with only adult males in GatyanaNatural resources7% Formal employment6%Casual employment2% Self- employment4% Grants 64% Remittances1% Crops2% Livestock14% Figure 8.2.2 f: Average livelihood portfolio of male headed households with adult female in GatyanaNatural resources8% Formal employment12% Casual employment4% Self- employment4% Grants 54% Remittances8% Crops2% Livestock8% Figure 8.2.2 g: Average livelihood portfolio of female headed households with adult males in GatyanaNatural resources10% Formal employment18% Casual employment1% Self- employment3% Grants 51% Remittances6% Crops1%Livestock10% Figure 8.2.2 h: Average ilivelihood portfolio of households with only adult females in Gatyana Remittances higher in female HH More reliance' on NRs in female HH Gants similar across gender groups Stadler 2012
  19. 19. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Livelihood and income sources by HH gender structure 19 Natural resources3% Formal employment21% Casual employment11% Self- employment3% Grants 50% Remittances3% Crops0% Livestock9% Figure 8.2.2 a: Average livelihood portfolio of households with only adult males in LesseytonNatural resources3% Formal employment45% Casual employment8% Self- employment5% Grants 29% Remittances4% Crops0% Livestock6% Figure 8.2.2 b: Average livelihood portfolio of male headed households with adult females in LesseytonNatural resources7% Formal employment24% Casual employment4% Self- employment2% Grants 50% Remittances8% Crops0% Livestock5% Figure 8.2.2 c: Average livelihood portfolio of female headed households with adult males in LesseytonNatural resources5% Formal employment12% Casual employment6% Self- employment10% Grants 59% Remittances7% Crops1% Livestock0% Figure 8.2.2 d: Average livelihood portfolio of households with only female adults in Lesseyton Employment highest in Males with adult female HH Self-employment highest for female only HH Highest grants in female only HH Lesseyton “I cannot afford to build a decent dwelling for my family due to financial constraints. And to raise children on a social grant is very hard for me. It was better when my husband was alive” (Gatyana, female, 52 years). Stadler 2012
  20. 20. Assets - access and stocks (adaptive capacity) 20
  21. 21. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Asset access, stocks, adaptive capacity 21 Lesseyton Gatyana Male only M+F adults F+M adults Female only Male only M+F adults F+M adults Female only Demo. (4) Most adults Most pensioners Fewest pensioners Fewest in total Most in total Fewest adults Most adults Most pensioners Fewest adults Fewest pensioners Human (4) Skills high Lang. high Content high low low low Social (5) High trust/ cohesion Natural (7) More land More river and medicinal plants More land Less bushmeat Less land (than male) Less bushmeat Less land (than male) Physical (3) Most kraals Least kraals Less hh items than male Kraals most fewest Financial (2) Less savings and debt (than male) Less savings (than male) Stadler 2012
  22. 22. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Asset access, stocks and adaptive capacity 22 Social Capital Table 9: Mean (± standard error) cognitive social capital scores of different groups in Lesseyton and Gatyana Lesseyton Gatyana Only male adults Mean 20.9±0.5 22.2±0.4 N 47 37 Male headed with female adults Mean 20.7±0.5 22±0.5 N 45 41 Female headed with male adults Mean 20.9±0.7 22.7±0.5 N 53 43 Only female adults Mean 21.2±0.7 22±0.5 N 25 48 P = 0.007 P = 0.699 Higher social capital 20.00 20.50 21.00 21.50 22.00 22.50 23.00 Male headed households (n=170) Female headed households with adult male (n=83) Female headed households without adult male (n=85) Social Capital Stadler 2012
  23. 23. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Asset access, stocks and adaptive capacity 23 Natural capital: Land Table 2: Differences in mean (± standard error) area of garden (m2) of households in different groups in Lesseyton and Gatyana Lesseyton Gatyana Only male adults Mean N 259.3±78.3 46 6018.5±1644.4 35 Male headed with female adults Mean N 123.9±31.9 45 6303.48±765.04 40 Female headed with male adults Mean N 119±33.7 50 3885.05±646.5 40 Only female adults Mean N 47.1±18.7 25 4418.49±678.39 47 P = 0.053 P = 0.095 About ½ land area
  24. 24. Shocks and stresses experienced and local perceptions of what makes people vulnerable (exposure to risk) 24
  25. 25. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability 25 People’s own understandings of what makes them vulnerable - social-learning process Lesseyton, Lukanji Municipality Gatyana, Mbashe Municipality Education and capacity If you cannot do anything for yourself /dependency; not having skills to deal with opportunities Lack of education Crime Women fear rape when walking alone Women being vulnerable, rape theft and crime – takes away, affects farming Socio-economic/ development Access to police stations, distance to clinics and not getting medication, lack of knowledge about socio-economic rights, social grants Unemployment, HIV/AIDS, Poverty Household dynamics Lack of parental care and guidance for children, relying on remittances that do not come on time or at all Lack of parental care, infidelity, rrugs and alcohol Climate Drought effect on livestock/vegetables The weather is changing
  26. 26. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability 26 Social learning story Women used to rely on their crops for food and remittances. But can no longer do this because of > drought, > variability in the weather and increasing unemployment. Structural and social drivers of vulnerability - lack of education, low levels of skill, corruption, job loss, dependence on others and grants, lack of electricity, and drug and alcohol consumption by men. Social Learning Stories • HIV: Women susceptible of sudden loss of income through death of breadwinners. • Shoulder responsibility for orphaned children and have difficulty in maintaining authority • Home based care groups – child headed households and elderly Social learning story Trend toward buying food Less self-reliance
  27. 27. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability: Multiple stressors 27 Mental map: Women in Lesseyton
  28. 28. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action 28 Mental map - men in Lesseyton Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability: Multiple stressors
  29. 29. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability: HIV/AIDS 29 Table 7: Percentages of households experiencing different types of HIV/Aids impacts across gender headship types and differences in mean (±standard error) number of HIV/Aids impacts Lesseyton Only male adults (N = 47) Male headed with female adults (N= 45) Female headed with male adults (N= 53) Only female adults (N = 25) P Value Type of HIV/Aids impact Non affected 40.4 66.7 28.3 32 0.001 Chronic illness and receiving free care 46.8 28.9 58.5 48 0.034 Illness-related death in previous 10 years 17 8.9 26.4 20 0.164 Presence of de facto orphans 25.5 13.3 30.2 28 0.242 Total Mean (±standard error) 0.89±0.133 0.51±0.126 1.15±0.136 0.96±0.158 0.007 High % of female headed hh with each of the HIV proxy indicators - 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 Male headed households (n=170) Female headed households with adult male (n=83) Female headed households without adult male (n=85) Household Health Index Adult Health Index
  30. 30. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Perceptions and experiences of stressors and vulnerability: Food security 30 Table 5: Differences in mean (± standard error) weighted perceptions of food security for households in different groups in Lesseyton and Gatyana Lesseyton Gatyana Only male adults Mean 0.91±0.121 0.65±0.124 N 47 37 Male headed with female adults Mean 0.91±0.122 0.70±0.120 N 45 40 Female headed with male adults Mean 1.00±0.111 0.69±0.138 N 53 42 Only female adults Mean 1.08±0.162 0.75±0.121 N 25 48 P = 0.810 P = 0.108 Female headed hh despite having lower income saw themselves as more food secure than other hh types Dietary studies showed that only young men were not obtaining their full calorific needs (lowest perception of food security).
  31. 31. Responses to shocks and stressors and reliance on climate sensitive sectors 31
  32. 32. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Responses 32 • All HHs experienced greater than one shock in the previous two years (>20 % had death in the hh; 2010 drought; loss of job, etc.) • Financial assets (average savings < R500) cannot generally provide a safety net. Regarding responses: • A lower % of female only HH reported doing nothing. Female only HH had more self-employment – more innovation. • More female only HH turned to kin for support compared to other gender categories. • Women in general took in orphans, and started care and gardening groups. • A large proportion of FHH indicated natural resource gathering as a response. Shackleton et al. 2014, Clarke 2012
  33. 33. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Responses – NR as a safety net Pair-wise ranking* of coping strategies by women in Gatyana Coping strategies using assets Assistance (S) Change role (H) Harvest NR (N) Sell assets (P) Loan (F) Assistance (S) Change role (H) Harvest NR (N) Sell assets (P) Assistance (S) Assistance (S) Harvest NR (N) Sell assets (P) Change role (H) Harvest NR (N) Change role (H) Harvest NR (N) Harvest NR (N) *Items in columns are compared against items in rows and the better of the two indicated in the table Pair-wise ranking* of coping strategies by men in Gatyana Coping strategies using assets Assistance (S) Change role (H) Harvest NR (N) Sell assets (P) Loan (F) Loan (F) Loan (F) Loan (F) Loan (F) Assistance (S) Assistance (S) Assistance (S) Sell assets (P) Change role (H) Change roles (H) Change roles (H) Harvest NR (N) Harvest NR (N) *Items in columns are compared against items in rows and the better of the two indicated in the table 5 2 Stadler 2012
  34. 34. What does this all mean? Conclusions and implications
  35. 35. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Key conclusions – re women in general • Women’s higher reliance on ecosystem services and their greater use of natural resource safety nets in response to shocks may make them more susceptible to CC. •Women’s higher exposure to multiple risks in relation to crime, violence, rape and HIV undermines their adaptive capacity. •Women take on the burden of caring for the sick and children – erodes assets. •Women are susceptible to sudden loss of income due to the death of breadwinners. •This may be countered by women’s greater levels of collective action in response to stressors – care groups, gardening groups. 35
  36. 36. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Key conclusions – re different female headed HH • Lower income and inability to access to formal employment makes them FHH’s (esp female only) more vulnerable, and more reliant on local climate sensitive safety nets. •Low access to land may threaten food security in the future esp for female only HH. •Female only HH’s slightly lower human capital, higher child dependence, and lower health scores affects their adaptive capacity. •FHH’s lower savings limits their responses. •FHHs use more child labor, may be inter-generational costs. •Female only HH’s higher reliance on social grants undermines their resilience as these are not permanent. •Some of this vulnerability may countered by female only HH’s higher food security and cognitive (bonding) social capital. 36 Main gender differences in terms of livelihoods relate to flow or income rather than assets. Female only HH clearly have lower adaptive capacity.
  37. 37. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Key conclusions – re men and male headed HH • Men also vulnerable – job loss, impacts on livestock production. •Male only HHs are food insecure and lack access to social grants. •Male headed HH consume more alcohol with associated social ills. 37 CONTEXT MATTERS Seeing heterogeneity within and between different areas/contexts. Different contexts can result in the reverse of findings across gender groups.
  38. 38. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action How do local people see it? 38 Men and women cope differently Lesseyton % Willowvale % Examples Yes 74 46 Men are stronger, more active No 20 54 Women are more caring, look after money, weaker, less skills Women are more vulnerable to shocks Lesseyton % Willowvale % Examples Yes 50 46 Men bring home the income No 44 54 Women left to look after family Men and women are both seen as vulnerable by community members Almost ½ - ½ Clarke 2012
  39. 39. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action What does this mean for vulnerability and adaptation policy? • Need to recognise multiple sources of shocks and stress and vulnerabilities. Facilitate ‘learning how to be prepared’. • Address basic development, services and infrastructural needs (education!). Can’t separate CCA from development and structural inequalities. •Recognise different contexts have different pros and cons for vulnerability and adaptive capacity – different strengths to build on; understand background of long term changes . •Need profiling and targeted support for different types of individuals and households –Recognise that the youth are the dominant demographic. –Recognise men and women may respond differently and have different assets –Recognise where men can be involved in reducing women’s vulnerability (gender based violence, health care). –Provide support to women where they have taken initiative. •Need to support longer term asset building and improved access to assets – issues of justice wrt to land, loans, insurance, so assets aren’t eroded following shocks. 39
  40. 40. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action What does this mean for vulnerability and adaptation policy? • Build local agency and community institutions/ support systems. Many of the stressors highlighted are social and behavioural – partly within the hands of people themselves. Find opportunities for intergenerational and inter-gender communication. More involvement of women in decision-making. • Improve natural resource governance. • Address social concerns like alcoholism, rape, domestic violence, corruption Social workers need to get more involved in adaptation. • New forms of social protection. • Provide information and extension. Currently extension services not working optimally. Support women’s agricultural groups and home gardens. • Identify barriers to responses and adaptation and seek ways to overcome these - especially the less obvious barriers such as cognitive/cultural that could increase vulnerability of specific groups. 40
  41. 41. Gender and Climate Change: Women, Research and Action Thank you! Acknowledgements • IDRC Ecohealth Programme • The IDRC project team •Communities of Willowvale and Lesseyton and specifically members of our two social learning groups •Ross Shackleton for the beautiful portraits of the women of Willowvale (all given back to them) •Rhodes University, SA National Research Foundation and CIFOR for making it possible for me to be here today 41

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