The protected Moluccan cockatoo, a flagship species of the Manusela National Park, is often found in the human-modified forests surrounding the national park where local people practice ‘arboriculture’: modifying forests to cultivate and protect useful arboreal plants. The Moluccan cockatoo also finds these plants useful as forage and shelter. The villagers, in turn, occasionally trap the cockatoo for sale, particularly in times of hardship. The question is, what exactly is the nature of the relationship between the parrots, the people, and the human-modified forests? Are other species also benefiting from human-modified forests? And what role could human-modified forests then play in increasing conservation of biodiversity? CIFOR postdoc research fellow Masatoshi Sasaoka, CIFOR/CIRAD scientist Yves Laumonier, and CIFOR/FFPRI scientist Ken Sugimura gave this presentation at the 13th Congress of the International Society of Ethnobiology, held in Montpellier (France) on 20-25 May 2012.