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3 dimensional equity framework forest rights, participation, redd+ benefit sharing, and more

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Presentation by Phil Franks and Andrea Quesada at the Global Landscapes Forum 2015, in Paris, France alongside COP21. For more information go to: www.landscapes.org.

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3 dimensional equity framework forest rights, participation, redd+ benefit sharing, and more

  1. 1. 3-dimensional equity framework: Forest Rights, Participation, REDD+ Benefit Sharing, and more Phil Franks Andrea Quesada
  2. 2. The Big Picture: Equity is a diverse landscape Land Tenure Benefit Sharing Participation Stakeholders Access to justice Social Benefits Access to information Respect and protection of rights
  3. 3. How to understand to diverse landscape of equity
  4. 4. 3 Dimension Framework RECOGNITION PROCEDURE DISTRIBUTION CONTEXT
  5. 5. RECOGNITION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION • Benefits equally • Benefits according to contribution to mitigation • Benefits according to rights • Benefits to reflect costs • Benefits according to basic needs RECOGNITION DISTRIBUTION PROCEDURE • Effective participation • Access to information & capacity building • Access to justice 3 Dimension Framework: Principles PROCEDURE DISTRIBUTION RECOGNITION • Recognition & respect of rights • Respect for knowledge and institutions
  6. 6. 3 Dimension Framework in the real world
  7. 7. Action Research HOW Identified how the 3 dimensions of equity are reflected in: • International Policies and Mandates • National Policies and Strategies • Perceptions of diverse stakeholders • Implementation of REDD+ activities WHERE: Yucatan, Mexico (2014) San Martin & Lima, Peru (2015) QUESTIONS ASKED: a) What does equity mean and how does it relate to REDD+? b) How is equity addressed in REDD+ processes? c) How can equity be strengthen in REDD+ processes nationally and regionally?
  8. 8. International Policies and Mandates Human rights law relevant to REDD+: equity principles mainstreamed throughout CBD: explicitly includes equity as a core principle of the convention and in a number of decisions e.g. Addis Ababa Principles, Programme of Work on PAs UNFCCC, although the words equity and equitable are not mentioned in decisions related to REDD+, these have incorporated equity principles since COP 13 e.g. COP 15 recognizes need for full engagement of IPs and LCs in MRV
  9. 9. D R R P D R P P P P P International Policies and Mandates Decision Equity Dimension Decision CP 2/CP.13 Focuses on the importance of providing access to information and capacity building Mentions the importance promoting co-benefits and recognizing that the needs of local and indigenous communities Decision 4/CP.15 Recognizes the need for a full and effective engagement of IPs and LCs in, and the potential contribution of their knowledge to MRV Encourages the development of guidance for their effective engagement in MRV Decision 1/CP.16 para 72 Strong focus on the recognition and respect of rights and on effective participation Decision 1/CP.16 Para 73 & 76 Mandates on capacity building Decision 2/CP.17 Recognizes that policy approaches and positive incentives associated to REDD+ can promote poverty alleviation SIS should provide transparent and consistent information that is accessible by all relevant stakeholders Decision 11/CP.19 Decision 14/CP.19 Consistent with the methodological guidance provided in decision 4/CP.15
  10. 10. When undertaking REDD+ activities, the following safeguards should be promoted and supported: (a) Complement or consistent with the objectives of national forest programmes and relevant international conventions and agreements (b) Transparent and effective national forest governance structures (c) Respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and members of local communities (d) Full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders (e) Consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity ● not used for conversion of natural forests ● protection and conservation of natural forests and their ecosystem services, ● enhance other social and environmental benefits (f) Address the risks of reversals (g) Reduce displacement of emissions Cancun safeguards from an equity perspective Recognition Procedure Distributio n
  11. 11. • Address equity in national policies and in their REDD+ related strategies • Include equity as an overarching principle in national environmental laws and strategies • Recognise more specific principles such as participation, access to information and capacity building, recognition of land tenure rights and recognition and respect of indigenous peoples’ rights. National Policies and Strategies in Mexico and Peru
  12. 12. Equity Perceptions in Mexico and Peru • Definitions of equity are complex and multidimensional • Perceptions of what is equitable vary depending of the stakeholders and the initiatives. • Equity as a concept is associated with justice, wellbeing/adequate social conditions and addressing inequalities • In Peru, equity discussions focused on happiness and in Mexico they focus on achieving an inclusive society with social cohesion and substantive equality
  13. 13. Implementation of REDD+ activities
  14. 14. Equity in Recognition Recognition of key right-holders and stakeholders Equity in Procedure Participation in decision-making on benefit sharing Equity in Distribution Benefits equitably shared Equitable REDD+ benefit-sharing REDD+ benefit sharing – what looks equitable may not be Policy recognises rights-holders but not other forest stakeholders on whom effective REDD+ depends Policy recognises rights-holders + stakeholders but there is elite capture in decision-making Good governance but social norms prevent equitable strategies being implemented Equitable sharing of benefits but overall benefit reduced by high transaction costs of participatory processes Policy recognises rights-holders + stakeholders but policy is not implemented
  15. 15. Lessons Learned • REDD+ policies and strategies should recognise all three dimensions of equity — recognition, procedure benefit/cost distribution — as crucial and interdependent. • Secure land/forest tenure is always highly desirable but where this is not possible in the foreseeable future equitable outcomes may still be achieved. • REDD+ initiatives should consider all rights-holders and stakeholders who have a role in ensuring success, including stakeholders without formal tenure rights • Women’s and youth’s interests and rights should be integral to REDD+, not an add-on or separate agenda
  16. 16. How to address equity
  17. 17. Ten building blocks for equitable REDD+ Recognising stakeholder groups, and their characteristics Recognising and protecting stakeholders’ rights Recognising which REDD+ activities have positive or negative social impacts Ensuring effective participation, access info/CB & involvement decision-making Sharing information in gender and culturally appropriate communication strategy Considering principles/criteria to balance rights, contributions, and needs Proposing actions to include marginalised groups, & ensure benefit control Designing & implementing community monitoring Designing and implementing accountability mechanisms Ensuring people affected by the scheme have access to grievance mechanism
  18. 18. MUCHAS GRACIAS!!!

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