Sustainable Landscapes: Food Security and adapting to climate change


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This presentation by Gernot Laganda shows the IFAD's point of view on landscapes: why they're so concerned with it, how climate change impact on agricultural landscapes and how the IFAD integrates land, food and climate systems.

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Sustainable Landscapes: Food Security and adapting to climate change

  1. 1. Gernot Laganda CoP19/ Global Landscape Forum Warsaw, 17 November 2013 Sustainable Landscapes: Food Security and adapting to climate change
  2. 2. Why is IFAD concerned about landscapes? Rural livelihoods depend on the services provided by the mosaic of natural and/or human-modified ecosystems: - Food & water quality/security - Energy services - Disaster mitigation - Carbon sequestration - Public health & wellbeing - Economic revenues Smallholder farmers are part of the social, ecological and economic transactions within these landscapes, sustaining or eroding these services
  3. 3. How does climate change impact on agricultural landscapes? 1. Directly, by altering the biophysical characteristics of landscapes: • Vegetation (composition, extent, health & productivity) • Topography (e.g. shorelines, ice bodies, permafrost, landslides, flooding, drought, erosion) • Ecosystem distribution & composition (e.g. loss of habitat, biodiversity, migratory shifts of species in forests, coral reefs, wetlands) • Natural cycles (e.g. hydrological cycle, seasonality, monsoon, ENSO)
  4. 4. How does climate change impact on agricultural landscapes? 2. Indirectly, by affecting the livelihood options, choices and cultural traditions of people living in landscapes: • Constructed features (responding to too much/too little water; influencing choice of materials and engineering designs) • Land use (e.g. encroachment on sensitive ecosystems; land use conversion; land zoning) • Crop types (e.g. crop/livestock ratio, mixed cropping, monocropping) • Farming practices (e.g. degree of diversification, storage, energy choices, fertilizer and pesticide use, mechanization)
  5. 5. How does IFAD engage in integrated land/food/climate systems? Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Programme (ASAP) - Grant co-financing programme focusing on climate resilient agriculture - 5 bilateral donors, 330 million US$ in contributions/pledges - Integrates climate risk management and adaptation actions into IFAD investment programmes (~ US $1 billion per year) - Centerpiece of a change management process to help IFAD become a ‘climate-smart’ organisation - 25 ASAP investments (2 under implementation, 9 in advanced design stage, 14 early/mid-design)
  6. 6. Some challenges in integrated land - food - climate systems (1) Challenge: Land is a scarce resource, under pressure from both human- and climate-induced stresses. There is limited room for expansion, more food needs to be produced on less land. Adaptation options / solutions: - Sustainable restoration of degraded lands (e.g. through farmer-based natural regeneration, improved rangeland management) - Improved land-use planning to optimize production (e.g. through participatory mapping, mosaic farming) - Promotion of alternative energy options to reduce forest degradation e.g. Morocco e.g. e.g. Mali Rwanda e.g. Mali
  7. 7. Some challenges in integrated land – food - climate systems (2) Challenge: Rising losses and damages in productive land and infrastructure through climate-related events Adaptation options / solutions: - Erosion control and soil stabilisation - Adaptive engineering of irrigation, storage & transport infrastructure - Climate information systems monitoring emerging hazards (e.g. salinity, pests & diseases) e.g. Nigeria e.g. Rwanda e.g. Mali e.g. Vietnam
  8. 8. Some challenges in integrated land - food - climate systems (3) Challenge: The yield gap between potential and actual production is widened by climate-induced shocks and stresses Adaptation options / solutions: - Sustainable intensification (e.g. conservation agriculture, use of fertilizer trees, integrated pest management) Diversification of risk across different crops and value chains Know-how and technology transfer to lowest yield-areas (e.g. drought-resistant varieties; efficient irrigation systems) e.g. Ghana e.g. Nicaragua e.g. Nigeria
  9. 9. Some challenges in integrated land - food - climate systems (4) Challenge: Local governance structures determine the abilities of smallholders to access and manage land and landscapes. The distribution of land ownership is determined by power structures Adaptation options / solutions: - Empowering farmer groups & connecting them with policy processes - Investing not only at farm-, but also at landscape-level (e.g. through watershed restoration, slope stabilisation) - Strengthening livelihoods of landless and seasonal workers through restoration of degraded communal lands e.g. Morocco e.g. Vietnam e.g. Bolivia e.g. Niger
  10. 10. Conclusion • Land, food and climate systems are interconnected. Investing in smallholder adaptation is a multiple-win strategy and a good point of departure • Agricultural landscapes are at risk from human- as well as climateinduced stresses. Adaptation investments should not isolate these from each other. Both need to be tackled concurrently. • Adaptation programmes should integrate investments at landscape as well as farm-level • Climate Change Adaptation is a process, not an Outcome. A key ingredient of a long-term strategy is the empowerment of local institutions with access to technologies, information and financing e.g. Morocco e.g. Mali
  11. 11. Thank you !