Taxonomy & food security      Tiina Särkinen, Morvah George              & Sandra Knapp
• PBI Solanum project funded by NSF• Family Solanaceae      •   Solanum               ~ 1500 spp      •   Cestrum, Lyciant...
• Tropical Andes:   Overview   – > 7000 km long and up to 7000 m high   – environmental heterogeneity linked with high div...
Why do we need taxonomy?             Identification!           Solanum americanum L.   INFORMATION: distribution, ecology,...
All biological research is   based on taxonomy       Solanum americanum L.             Genetics             Ecology       ...
1. How does taxonomy work?
Taxonomic work process       In herbaria …
Taxonomic work process                            OtherType    Descripcion        specimens        … in libraries …
Taxonomic work process
2. Issues in taxonomy
IDENTIFYING LIMITS OF NATURAL VARIATION                  Solanum                probolospermum                     Bitter
Taxonomic difficulties•   Variation within species = natural variation           SPECIES 1                       SPECIES 2...
A species is ahypothesisabout thedistribution ofvariation innature
Solanum umbelliferum      Eschsh.
Classification of S. umbelliferumSpecies and varieties       s d          s           Morphology  ySolanum umbelliferum   ...
Geographic and genetic distance   Solanum umbelliferum
Morphology with imposed genetic distancePCA
3. Secondary research
Phylogenetic work         • Family level           relationships         • Clades within           Solanum         • Recen...
Solanum melongena, Solanumaethiopicum, Solanum quitoense,Solanum sessiflorum, SolanumlasiocarpumSolanum betaceumSolanum sc...
N. exigua                                 Alatae         N. sylvestris                                       N. cavicola  ...
Fossil dating• Adding fossil data to the  family phylogeny• Modeling diversification  through time using  relaxed molecula...
Hoorn et al.Science (2010)
Biome mapping • Using herbarium   data to map biome   distribution through   modelling • Product: high   resolution maps a...
• sgsga
Morrones           Biogeographic               Map                             WWF                           EcoregionsAme...
Extinction risk in plants• IUCN categories  assessed using  geographic range• Role of ecological  specialisation in  extin...
Extinction risk in plants• Focus on Peru• Hunt for new populations  of endemic species• Comparison of ecological  and geog...
Tomato gap analysis• Long history of CWR  use in breeding• Extensive germplasm  collections for nearly  all CWR• Nearly al...
Recent species discoveries• Peralta et al. 2005:  Solanum peruvianum s.l. split into four  species     •   Solanum peruvia...
Species                    Traits introduced                                              Other known traitsSolanum pimpin...
Herbarium collections   Germplasm collections
36% of the estimated undescribed plant species are in                  Tropical Andes!   This translates to 7872 plant spe...
Thank you!
Taxonomic outputsKew Bibliographic Database http://kbd.kew.org/kbd/searchpage.do
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
Taxonomy & food security
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Taxonomy & food security

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Taxonomy & food security

  1. 1. Taxonomy & food security Tiina Särkinen, Morvah George & Sandra Knapp
  2. 2. • PBI Solanum project funded by NSF• Family Solanaceae • Solanum ~ 1500 spp • Cestrum, Lycianthes ~ 200 spp • Nolana, Jaltomata ~ 80 spp • Physalis, Lycium ~ 75 spp • Nicotiana ~ 70 spp • Brunfelsia ~ 45 spp • Capsicum ~ 27 spp
  3. 3. • Tropical Andes: Overview – > 7000 km long and up to 7000 m high – environmental heterogeneity linked with high diversity1. How taxonomy works?2. Issues in taxonomy: Case study of Solanum umbelliferum4. Secondary research • Phylogenetic work • Biome mapping • Conservation assessment • Gap-analysis of tomato
  4. 4. Why do we need taxonomy? Identification! Solanum americanum L. INFORMATION: distribution, ecology, etc…
  5. 5. All biological research is based on taxonomy Solanum americanum L. Genetics Ecology Agriculture Conservation Resource management …
  6. 6. 1. How does taxonomy work?
  7. 7. Taxonomic work process In herbaria …
  8. 8. Taxonomic work process OtherType Descripcion specimens … in libraries …
  9. 9. Taxonomic work process
  10. 10. 2. Issues in taxonomy
  11. 11. IDENTIFYING LIMITS OF NATURAL VARIATION Solanum probolospermum Bitter
  12. 12. Taxonomic difficulties• Variation within species = natural variation SPECIES 1 SPECIES 2 NATURAL NATURAL VARIATION VARIATION• Plants have a diversity of reproductive systems, and some of these can result in complex patterns of morphological variation = problems in species delimitation – Apomixis (= production of seeds without fertilisation) – Polyploidy (= duplication of the genome) SPECIES 1 SPECIES 2 DISCONTINUOUS DISCONTINUOUS VARIATION VARIATION
  13. 13. A species is ahypothesisabout thedistribution ofvariation innature
  14. 14. Solanum umbelliferum Eschsh.
  15. 15. Classification of S. umbelliferumSpecies and varieties s d s Morphology ySolanum umbelliferum m m Non-glandular trichomes, often r , nEschshh branched. .Solanum umbelliferum var. m m . Dendritic trichomes, forming a dense c , g ecalifornicum Parish m h tometose layer. e .Solanum tenuilobatum m m Short, non-glandular trichomes. , r .Parish h Hastate, linear lobed leaves. , r d .Solanum xanti Gray m i y Usually un-branched, often glandular y , n r trichomes. . Polymorphic leaves c sSolanum xanti var. m i . Often branched trichomes, similar to S. n d , r o .intermedium Gray m y umbell iferum. . Leaf morphology similar to that of S. f y r o t f . wal i laceiSolanum xanti var. m i . Glabrate. .glabrescens Gray s y Small leaves. l .Solanum wallacei Parish m i h Long, simple, glandular trichomes. , , r . Large corollas. e . Cordate leaves at the base, ovate at top e s t e , e t p of plant. f .Solanum wallacei var. viridis m i . s More glabrate than S. wall . e e n . acei.Parish h
  16. 16. Geographic and genetic distance Solanum umbelliferum
  17. 17. Morphology with imposed genetic distancePCA
  18. 18. 3. Secondary research
  19. 19. Phylogenetic work • Family level relationships • Clades within Solanum • Recent outputs: phylogeny and taxonomic monograph of the cultivated eggplant and its wild relatives (Vorontsova & Knapp, submitted)
  20. 20. Solanum melongena, Solanumaethiopicum, Solanum quitoense,Solanum sessiflorum, SolanumlasiocarpumSolanum betaceumSolanum scabrumSolanum lycopersicum, Solanumtuberosum, Solanum muricatumSolanum aviculare
  21. 21. N. exigua Alatae N. sylvestris N. cavicola N. tabacum 100 Repandae N. benthamiana N. stocktonii N. amplexicaulis N. repanda Suaveolentes 69 N. rotundifolia Nudicaules N. nudicaulis 99 53 N. debneyi N. linearis Acuminatae N. simulans N. attenuata 63 82 65 N. megalosiphon N. miersii N. umbratica N. bonariensis N. fragrans N. langsdorffii 82 N. longiflora N. alata Alatae Alatae 100 N. plumbaginifolia N. longifloraITS 80 71 N. bonariensis N. alata N. plumbaginifolia N. forgetiana 62 N. langsdorffii N. exigua N. forgetiana matK Repandae N. amplexicaulis 86 N. stocktonii N. megalosiphon 100 N. repanda N. cavicola Suaveolentes N. nudicaulis Nudicaules N. umbratica 61 N. sylvestris Alatae N. rotundifolia Acuminatae N. quadrivalvis N. simulans 70 N. miersii N. benthamiana 81 90 N. attenuata N. debneyi N. acaulis N. fragrans Noctiflorae N. glauca N. acaulis 78 Noctiflorae 72 N. noctiflora N. petunioides 56 100 N. petunioides N. noctiflora 69 N. linearis 64 71 N. glauca N. glutinosa Tomentosae Tomentosae N. glutinosa 80 N. undulata Undulatae Undulatae N. undulata 81 N. benavidesii N. benavidesii 53 Paniculatae N. knightiana N. knightiana Paniculatae 75 76 62 N. rustica N. paniculata 60 64 62 N. paniculata N. rustica 100 92 56 N. solanifolia N. solanifolia N. obtusifolia Trigonophyllae N. quadrivalis N .tabacum Trigonophyllae N. obtusifolia Tomentosae 100 Tomentosae N. otophora N. otophora 95 N. tomentosa N. tomentosa 61
  22. 22. Fossil dating• Adding fossil data to the family phylogeny• Modeling diversification through time using relaxed molecular clock models (BEAST)• OUTPUT: providing a time axis for studies on • chromosomal evolution • character evolution • crop domestication (in deep time)
  23. 23. Hoorn et al.Science (2010)
  24. 24. Biome mapping • Using herbarium data to map biome distribution through modelling • Product: high resolution maps at continental scaleSarkinen et al. BMC Ecology (2011)
  25. 25. • sgsga
  26. 26. Morrones Biogeographic Map WWF EcoregionsAmericas Eva et al. Base Land Cover Map Map Ecological Systems Map
  27. 27. Extinction risk in plants• IUCN categories assessed using geographic range• Role of ecological specialisation in extinction risk in plants currently unexplored
  28. 28. Extinction risk in plants• Focus on Peru• Hunt for new populations of endemic species• Comparison of ecological and geographic range sizes -> Are narrowly restricted species more ecologically specialised?
  29. 29. Tomato gap analysis• Long history of CWR use in breeding• Extensive germplasm collections for nearly all CWR• Nearly all resistance traits thus far have been introduced from CWR
  30. 30. Recent species discoveries• Peralta et al. 2005: Solanum peruvianum s.l. split into four species • Solanum peruvianum s.s. - coastal • Solanum corneliomulleri - mountains • Solanum huaylasense - Santa valley • Solanum arcanum - Marañon valley
  31. 31. Species Traits introduced Other known traitsSolanum pimpinellifolium Fruit shape and size; broad specturm root nematod Color and fruit quality; Drought & general abiotic resistance and other disease resistance traits stress tolerance; Leaf mold resistance; salt toleranceSolanum cheesmaniae Black mold resistance, introduction of the jointless pedicel Fruit qualities; Salt and drought tolerance; Viral gene pathogen and lepidoptera resistanceSolanum galapagense Salt tolerance Salt toleranceSolanum corneliomulleriSolanum pennellii Resistance to bacterial spot, fungal diseases, soil borne Drought & insect pest resistance; salt tolerance; diseases, insect resistance, salt tolerance,Solanum habrochaites Yield improvement, fruit quality, resistance to insect Cold and frost tolerance; Resistance to red spider predators, alfa-alfa mosaic virus, potyviruses, bacterial mites, general insect resistance, bacteria speck, canker, tomato leaf mold, tomato yellow leaf curl virus and root know nematode, fungal pathogens, viruses tomato mosaic virusSolanum chilense Broad spectrum disease resistance (bacterial, fungal, Drought tolerance; fruit quality (soluable solid viral; root knot nematodes; parasitic plants) content, firmness and viscosity)Solanum huaylasenseSolanum peruvianum Resistance to tobacco mosaic virus, tomato spotted wilt Drought resistance; Resistence to early blight, leaf virus, tomato yellow leaf curl virus, and corky root rot mould, fusarium wilt, septoria leaf spot, bacterial wilt, tobacco mosaic virus, root know nematodes, potato aphids, tomato leaf curl virusSolanum arcanum Cold resistance, resistance to bacterial and fungal Drought tolerance; Resistance to powdery mildew diseases, heat stable root nematode resistanceSolanum chmielewskii Fruit sugar content Flowering time; leaf number per nodeSolanum neorickii Inflorescences density Drought resistance; fruit qualitySolanum lycopersicoides Cold, pest and pathogen resistance Extreme abiotic stress toleranceSolanum sitiens Drought toleranceSolanum juglandifolium Cold and frost toleranceSolanum ochranthum Cold and frost tolerance
  32. 32. Herbarium collections Germplasm collections
  33. 33. 36% of the estimated undescribed plant species are in Tropical Andes! This translates to 7872 plant species waiting to bediscovered in the Andes, most of which are in Peru and Ecuador
  34. 34. Thank you!
  35. 35. Taxonomic outputsKew Bibliographic Database http://kbd.kew.org/kbd/searchpage.do

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