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JIRCAS        Research Activities          at JIRCAS         Masa Iwanaga          PresidentJapan International Research C...
Contents1. Overall introduction of JIRCAS2. Research highlights
Structure of National Agricultural R&D System       Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF)         Agricul...
Focal point of Japanese agriculture research       for international collaboration  Intersection of international and dome...
GRiSP Coordinating Committee in Japan (GCCJ)                                 GRiSP                                        ...
On-going Research Activities        as JIRCAS-Partner Collaboration                      J                  J    4        ...
Research Highlight - Program A1. Climate change research2. Rural development using the Clean   Development Mechanism (CDM)...
Program A: Flagship ProjectDevelopment of agricultural technologies in developing regions to respond to C.C.       Impact ...
Control of GHG emissions from rice farming and ruminants                                      Demonstrate the effect of wa...
Formulation of a CDM project for introduction of biogas digesterA CDM project to introduce 917 units of biogas digester in...
Acquisition of CER by the small-scale reforestation CDM       project, formulated in low income communities in ParaguayA m...
Biological Nitrification Inhibition in Brachiaria                           Pastures can reduce N2O emissions       Brachi...
Sorghum releases two types of BNIs from rootsAutomated hydroponic system                                                  ...
Wild-wheat has high-BNI capacity                                                                                          ...
Can the high-BNI capacity of wild-wheat be                                   transferred/expressed in cultivated wheat?   ...
Research Highlight - Program B1. Genetic engineering for stress-   tolerant crops2. Phosphorus deficiency in rice
Development of Abiotic Stress Tolerant Crops by DREB Genes                                                       Molecular...
Evaluation for Drought Tolerance No of lines produced and evaluated.  No. of cali /   Positive         S ingle       S HGH...
Enhancing Tolerance to P Deficiency in RiceA. Assessing genotypic variation in field and greenhouse studies     P uptake a...
From Pup1 to OsPSTOL1                                                                                                 Natu...
Marker assisted introgression of Pup1                                                        Partners for Pup1            ...
Research Highlight - Program C1. Improving livelihood in the rural areas   of Indo-China2. Biofuel production from non-foo...
The Establishment of Sustainable and Independent Farm Household Economy in the Rural Areas of Indo-ChinaPurposeTo improve ...
2, Development of TechnologiesI The Improvement of Self-Sufficient Production                   for Stability and Sustaina...
3, Establishment of the Diversified Farming Systems   Combining the developed technologies in I and II       From the view...
“Asia Biomass Project”    Biofuel production from non-food biomass Bioethanol from sugarcane or corn                      ...
Sugar                                    Oil Palm Trunk              C 68%                             Cane               ...
Possible Amount of Ethanol Produced from Oil Palm Trunk                                                  Diameter:38cm    ...
JIRCASThank you for your attention!!     miwanaga@affrc.go.jp
Research Activities at JIRCAS
Research Activities at JIRCAS
Research Activities at JIRCAS
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Research Activities at JIRCAS

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Research Activities at JIRCAS

  1. 1. JIRCAS Research Activities at JIRCAS Masa Iwanaga PresidentJapan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS) CIAT, Cali, Colombia October 22, 2012
  2. 2. Contents1. Overall introduction of JIRCAS2. Research highlights
  3. 3. Structure of National Agricultural R&D System Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council (AFFRC) AFFRC Secretariat Forestry Fisheries Agency Agency National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) Forestry and Fisheries National Institute of Agrobiological Forest Research Sciences (NIAS) Products Agency Research (FRA) National Institute for Agro- Institute Environmental Sciences (NIAES) (FFPRI) Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)4 organization are planned to be merged in April2014.
  4. 4. Focal point of Japanese agriculture research for international collaboration Intersection of international and domestic research Oversea organizations Japanese organizations
  5. 5. GRiSP Coordinating Committee in Japan (GCCJ) GRiSP MAFF J-FARD JIRCAS JISNAS NARO NIAS NIAES Universities NICS NARC Others
  6. 6. On-going Research Activities as JIRCAS-Partner Collaboration J J 4 JJ
  7. 7. Research Highlight - Program A1. Climate change research2. Rural development using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)3. BNI (Biological nitrification inhibition)
  8. 8. Program A: Flagship ProjectDevelopment of agricultural technologies in developing regions to respond to C.C. Impact evaluation • Land suitability analysis using GIS Target countries • Supply-and-demand model of crops Impact evaluation of • World food model C.C. by model analysis Rain-fed, irrigated rice cultivating areas Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, B Adaptation angladesh, Philippines, Laos, Sri Lanka • Seasonal weather forecasting • Decision Support System for rain- Climate-change South America and East Africa fed rice adaptation technology in Paraguay and Ethiopia • Climate-proof rice rain-fed rice areas • Water management of inter- connected tank irrigation systems • Dyke system in high flood area GHG emission reduction Mitigation Non-conventional resources Reduction of methane (TMR, Silage) emission from ruminant Feeding management of ruminants Introduction of AWD to Water-saving rice cultivation dry-season rice cultivation GHG Alternate wet and dry (AWD) reduction Sustainable Biogas digester from rural VACB (Orchard, Fish, Pig and paddy Biogas) system communities field with low Use of Carbon sequestration GHG CDM GHG mitigation through emission afforestation and Agro-forestry Increase carbon sinks Forest • Agro-forestry CDM Carbon sequestration into farm • Organic fertilizer Project land (Long-term experiment)
  9. 9. Control of GHG emissions from rice farming and ruminants Demonstrate the effect of water Establishment of gas emission saving technologies for the Methane monitoring methods reduction of GHG emission Nitrous oxide Chamber method Livestock Tracer method Paddy fields Thai & AWD: Alternate Vietnam Vietnam SF6 Wet and Dry • CH4 reduction Reduce the • Control N2O by the timing and contribution of Improve feeding management, 480 amount of fertilizer application paddy field to Effect of feed additive global warmingCH4 Emission(kg CH4 /ha/crop) • Cost reduction by less use of pump Development of low GHG emission • Use organic matter in the plot livestock production system 320 • Keep yield Technologies for mitigating GHG emissions 160 Increase in Increase in 0 productivity farmers’ income Control AWD Sample data obtained in IRRI Rice straw 4t ha-1 crop-1
  10. 10. Formulation of a CDM project for introduction of biogas digesterA CDM project to introduce 917 units of biogas digester in 3 districts in Can Tho City. The GHGemission reduction is achieved by substituting fossil fuel and nonrenewable firewood with renewablebiogas. Annual GHG emission reduction is 1,045 tCO2/year (1.14 tCO2/year*917 units). Biogas Fruit garden Pig pen digester Vegetable Biogas Aquaculture Irrigation Excreta Leftover Effluent foods Sediments V:Vuon ( Orchard) Biogas digester contributes: A: ( Ao Pond) Farmer’s income by the reduction of fuel cost C:Chuong ( pen) Improvement of environment Pig B:Biogas Initial costs for Biogas digester Image of VACB system
  11. 11. Acquisition of CER by the small-scale reforestation CDM project, formulated in low income communities in ParaguayA model of rural development applying reforestation CDM in low income communities in Paraguay. Theacquisition of CER will be expected in 2013, followed by the verification activity in February, 2013. CER: Certified Emission Reduction CDM: Clean Development Mechanism Objective Increase of farmers’ income Until registration of CDM Formulation by JIRCAS Methodology of small scale AR-CDM (Approval of Gov. Formulation of PDD Approval of Gov. of Paraguay Activities of Validation of DOE: 7-10/Mar/2008 of Japan) Rural development based on CDM Validation of the project JIRCAS Approval of Paraguay: 25/Nov/2008 Capacity building Soil conservation Income Registration in and training of Approval of Japan: 6/Mar/2009 activities from CER UNFCCC farmers Registration of CDM Executive board Activities for land in UNFCCC (CDM-EB) : 6/Sep/2009 Female activities productivity increase Until issuance of CER for income Acquisition and production of CER Implementation by JIRCAS (area, generation diversification (Carbon credit) Monitoring location, diameter, etc.): Jul-Aug/2012 Introduction of Activities of Verification of carbon removals micro-credit reforestation CDM Verification of DOE by sinks February/2013 Certification of Certification of CERs by CDM-EBActual situation UNFCCC 2013 Serious soil Low productivity Low erosion & soil in agriculture and income Issuance of CERs by CDM-EB degradation livestock Issuance of CERs 2013 Rural development project using reforestation CDM Flow of procedure of CDMProducing seedlings Planting seedlings Grown trees Monitoring trees
  12. 12. Biological Nitrification Inhibition in Brachiaria Pastures can reduce N2O emissions Brachialactone High BNI capacity leads to low- identified as the major N2O emission nitrification inhibitor JIRCAS – CIAT collaborative study – CIAT field site atreleased from the roots of B. Colombia humidicola. 500 (PNAS 106, 17302, 2009) Patented by JIRCAS Con 400 C um ulative N 2 O em ission Soy (m g N 2 O -N m y ) 2 -1 300 PM BHM 200 BH-679 Root-produced nitrification 100 BH-16888 inhibitors 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -1 -1 B N I capacity of the species (A T U g root dry w t. d ) Nitrate Ammonium Nitrite Ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria Nitrite-oxidizing Bacteria (NO3-) (NH4+) (NO2-)G. V. Subbarao et al. (2012) Biological nitrification inhibition-Novel strategy to regulate nitrification in agricultural systems. Advances in Agronomy 114, 249-302
  13. 13. Sorghum releases two types of BNIs from rootsAutomated hydroponic system A droplet of yellow oily substance exuding from sorghum root hairs BNI activity released from sorghum roots Hydrophobic BNIs O OH O O Hydrophilic BNIs SorgoleoneRoot exudate collection in sorghum May confine to rhizosphere – movement is mostly due to diffusion May move farther from the roots – likely move with water
  14. 14. Wild-wheat has high-BNI capacity CIMMYT’s Collaboration 35 L. racemosus 30 N H 4 -N grow nB N I activity released from roots N O 3 -N grow n (A T U g root dry w t. d ) -1 25 20 15 -1 10 Nobeoka Chinese Spring 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 P lant species Releases about 150 to 200 AT units of BNI da-1 under optimum conditions
  15. 15. Can the high-BNI capacity of wild-wheat be transferred/expressed in cultivated wheat? Would this be the first step to develop low-nitrifying and low-N2O emitting wheat production systems? Yokohama city Univ. & Tottori Univ. and CIMMYT’s Collaboration Production of wheat-Leymus racemosus-addition lines BNI released from Chromosome-addition lines derived from L. racemosus and cultivated wheat (Chinese Spring) L. Genetic Stock L. racemosus BNI released Leymus racemosus Triticum aestivum 2N=4X =28; genome Ns NsXmXm cv. Chinese Spring 2N=6X =42; chromosome (ATU g-1 root dry Also, brings genome AABBDD introduced wt d-1) rust DALr-n Lr-n 24.6 sensitivity F1 hybrid Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring 2N=6X =42; genome AABBDD DALr-j Lr-j 13.5 DALr-I Lr-I 13.0 BC1F1 hybrid Controls DALr-1 Lr-1 6.4 Ammonium DALr-k Lr-k tolerance 5.5 BC7F1 hybrid DALr-F Lr-F 4.1 DALr-H Lr-H 3.7 DA2Lr-1 2Lr-1 3.2 DA5Lr-1 5Lr-1 6.6 DtA7Lr-1-1 7Lr-1-1 6.4 DtA7Lr-1-2 7Lr-1-2 4.9 A B LSD (0.05) 3.9Two Lr#n L. racemosus chromosomes in wheat detected by florescence in Efforts are underway to generate tranlsocations incorporatingsitu hybridization with probe of L. racemosus genomic DNA (green color) smaller segments of Lr#n, Lr#I or Lr#J to reduce problems associated with the linkage drag
  16. 16. Research Highlight - Program B1. Genetic engineering for stress- tolerant crops2. Phosphorus deficiency in rice
  17. 17. Development of Abiotic Stress Tolerant Crops by DREB Genes Molecular B L elucidation of stress tolerance Promoter B L and + Gene Expression of efficient method Identification and target genes of gene isolation of useful expression promoters and genes Constructs and their functions Expression of trans genes Wheat Low-land Rice Up-land Rice NERICA GH at CIMMYTTransformants Fixed lines SH at IRRI Rain-out shelter at CIAT
  18. 18. Evaluation for Drought Tolerance No of lines produced and evaluated. No. of cali / Positive S ingle S HGH*/Field Promising embryos events copy evaluation *SHGH: Screen house and/ or Green house 280,358 10671< 2766< 924< 92 Contained Filed at CG Centers and Fielder Fielder Dates of Approval Drought Irrigated CIAT: Palmira 2.0 ha 2008. 3 Santa Rosa 0.6 ha 2010. 12 CIMMYT: Tlaltizapan 0.4 ha 2009. 8 Wheat evaluation (Tlaltizapan, CIMMYT) IRRI: Los Banos 0.2 ha 2010. 1 Lowland Field Evaluation (IRRI) Upland Field Evaluation (Santa Rosa, CIAT)
  19. 19. Enhancing Tolerance to P Deficiency in RiceA. Assessing genotypic variation in field and greenhouse studies P uptake and biomass accumulation on a Root anatomy and architecture and how these P deficient field (Tsukuba & Ghana) traits are related to P uptake (Tsukuba)B. Conventional QTL mapping and Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) A major QTL for P uptake, Pup1, was fine- mapped to chromosome 12 Pup1 Through GWAS new sources of tolerance are identified
  20. 20. From Pup1 to OsPSTOL1 Nature, 2012Sequencing of the Pup1 QTL region in donor ‘Kasalath’ revealed a large Indel region absent in Niopponbareand most modern lowland varieties. The main gene at Pup1, OsPSTOL1, is located in this unique region. Transgenic lines strongly expressing PSTOL1 PSTOL1 expression is detected in the crown, particularly in out-compete control lines under P deficiency developing crown root primordia > root number increases
  21. 21. Marker assisted introgression of Pup1 Partners for Pup1 MAS • Collaborations for Pup1-MAS with IRRI and AfricaRice and their NARES partners as part of GRiSP • Collaboration with AfricaRice on fine-mapping a new QTL (Pup2) from Oryza glaberrimaPup1 locus introgressed into IR74 • New JIRCAS and GRiSP projects to enhance P use efficiency, not just P uptake
  22. 22. Research Highlight - Program C1. Improving livelihood in the rural areas of Indo-China2. Biofuel production from non-food biomass
  23. 23. The Establishment of Sustainable and Independent Farm Household Economy in the Rural Areas of Indo-ChinaPurposeTo improve the farmers’ livelihoods in upland areas in Lao PDR,by the establishment of sustainable and profitable farming systemsStable and Sustainable Sufficient Utilization andProductivity Appropriate Management offor self-sufficiency Rural Natural Resources Improvement Compatible of the farmers’ livelihoodsIncreasing Cash Income Supported by(Profitability) Simple and Nature-friendlythrough commercialization Technologies
  24. 24. 2, Development of TechnologiesI The Improvement of Self-Sufficient Production for Stability and Sustainability Component : Rice, Fish, NTFP’s (Non-Timber Forest Products)II The Promotion of Commercial Production with Sustainability Component : Upland Crops, Livestock, Fruits, Aquaculture
  25. 25. 3, Establishment of the Diversified Farming Systems Combining the developed technologies in I and II From the viewpoint of ・Appropriate land and water use ・Low inputs ・Ecosystem management ・Sufficient use of organic resources Improvement of the farmers’ livelihoods according to farmers’ economic conditions
  26. 26. “Asia Biomass Project” Biofuel production from non-food biomass Bioethanol from sugarcane or corn Compete with food consumption and Steep rise in food prices Utilization of Non-food biomass Felled oil palm Promising non-food biomass 8~10mOil palm trees have an Old trees are felled Felled oil palm trunks containeconomic life span of and replanted. large quantity of sap.approximately 25 yrs.
  27. 27. Sugar Oil Palm Trunk C 68% Cane ( after proper aging) B 75% A B C (Inner) (Middle) (Outer) 15-25cm Moisture content 68% 70% 83% 75% A 83% ×0.8 Sugar content in 16% 16% 14% 15%Moisture content of trunk juice or sap (Moisture; w%) Amount of sugars 112g/kg 95.4g/kg ⇒ 107.8 kg/trunk contained Cane or trunk 60-90 154-168 ton/ha produced per area ton/ha (136-148 trunks/ha) Possible ethanol 4.5-7.2 9.5-10.3 yield kL/ha kL/ha Ethanol production from oil palm sap 80 80 Reducing sugar (g/L) Ethanol (g/L) Parenchyma Reducing 60 60 sugar 40 40 Ethanol 20 20 0 0 Oil palm sap 0 1 2 3 4 5 Vascular Bundles Time (days)
  28. 28. Possible Amount of Ethanol Produced from Oil Palm Trunk Diameter:38cm Length: 10m Specific gravity: 1.0 Sap (731L) トランク trunk From one 1本からsugar (inner) 16.8kg Solid materials (317kg) (middle)39.7kg (outer) 51.3kg Parenchyma (174kg) Vascular Bundles (143kg) burning Sugar 発酵糖 (107.8kg) (107.8kg) Monosaccharide (102kg) Monosaccharide (87kg) Ethanol: 69.8L 発酵糖 Sugar Sugar 41.4L (63.9kg ) 63.9kg) (59.6kg) Potential of ethanol production Indonesia 4.4 Million kL /year Malaysia 2.7 Million kL /year
  29. 29. JIRCASThank you for your attention!! miwanaga@affrc.go.jp

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