communicate what they really want to communicate, in a way they think is appropriate where the participants gain an understanding of their situation, as well as the confidence and ability to change that situation. it inverts the relationship between the researcher and the researched (Chambers, 1995), while recognizing that power imbalances still pervade this relationship. The underlying aim to reduce the gap between the concepts and models used by researchers and the reality of the targeted individuals and communities
‘Perhaps because of the multiple dimensions of communication involved in the videos, PV processes are able to validate people’s views in a way that a workshop or academic paper cannot’ (Ramella and Olmos, 2005).
- PV makes use of a so-called demystifying technology - they develop communication skills that increase their standing in the community and in their organizations. - The process helped the community to define their own capacity to change, and above all, to identify and articulate where and from who assistance is required As a tool for empowerment
- Encourage local knowledge and new perspectives - Papa et. al. (2000) found that women’s empowerment is linked to sharing emotions (connectedness), evaluating personal actions for relations and environmental impact (integrative thinking) and helping one another through collective action (cooperative enactment). An example can be found in the PV done in Estelí, Nicaragua. - PV provides for equalizing relationships, including gender, because video production is a new tool and skill-set for most - Researchers can intentionally choose marginalized members of community PV-makers can intentionally choose to interview marginalized people are more willing to listen to what others were saying when they watched it on video than they would have in face to face encounters (Ramella and Olmos, 2005). - linguistic expressions that are comprehensible and intelligible - PV has no aesthetic and technical rules - The participants’ worlds are recreated through a collective assessment of their lives - It can affirm the ingenuity and perspective of society’s most vulnerable groups community adaptation is essentially about change in human behavior, and such change is more likely to happen when people find both intellectual and emotional reasons to think and act differently.
- Video and film are now multiplatform and are accessible and available to more people.The result is that PV has been “enhanced” through this process - the international iGDP - the mass media as having great potential to promote the advancement of women and the equality of women and men
- does not require literacy - Bruner of New York University, who has described studies that show that people only remember 10% of what they hear and 20% of what they read, but about 80 percent of what they see and do - audiences are able to confront and contest representations of them - Due to the articulation points created during PV process, PV provides for a communication flow in which the coding and decoding will be more successful, with a no or a small gap between the messages created during encoding and during decoding.
- Through the direct recording of people’s emotions, expressions and gestures, PV allows for the inclusion of a so-called ‘extended language’ concerning a specific research topic and process
- PV helps create an opportunity for interaction between a group of people who might not otherwise have had the chance to interact, or have had the possibility or the willingness to listen to each other’s perspectives on a specific problem that affects them all
Through these articulation points the higher possibility of positive reception leads to a higher possibility of acceptance of the message.
Participatory video for inclusive research: Opportunities & challenges identified
PARTICIPATORY VIDEO FOR INCLUSIVE RESEARCH
Opportunities & challenges identified
With support from Jennifer Twyman, Iddo Dror, Simon Cook
CIAT Internal Conference, ICT4D
October 13th, 2015
• PV provides for clearer understanding of the
challenges the world's rural poor (men and
women) are facing.
• Adapt development strategies and policies to
local needs, knowledge and wants.
Summary of projects
• Financed by CIAT, CCAFS, Humidtropics and ILRI
• First pilot conducted in Somotillo, Nicaragua on young
farmers’ perspectives on agriculture & climate change.
• Second project in Estelí, Nicaragua, with young rural
• Currently, working on e-course, whiteboard animation
and information brochure on the use of PV for inclusive
research across the CGIAR. T
• Current project phase is funded by the Capacity
Development team of Humidtropics/ILRI, led by Iddo
PV as a communication tool in
• Allows to present assessment of their own words (Traber &
Lee 1989: 1).
• Support process of empowerment (Kindon, 2003).
• Create narratives through which can communicate what really
want to communicate, in a way they think is appropriate
• Participants gain understanding of their situation, as well as
the confidence and ability to change that situation (Servaes,
• Reduce gap between researchers and reality (Kane, 1995).
Improvements in the communication
framework through the use of PV
• PV provides for awareness-building of the PV-makers
• Inclusion of marginalized groups
• It can affirm the ingenuity and perspective of society’s most
• Linking intellectual and emotional reasons to reach
• Multiplatform and are accessible and available
• No literacy required
• 83% of learning occurs visually (Lester, 1996)
• Provide for interaction where otherwise impossible
• Quality of the video is less appealing
• How can we make sure to reach policy makers
• Small scale research information
• Workshops are quite time-consuming
• Eight days is the maximum amount of time of the
• Exercises need to be quick and inclusive. S
• When mixed, girls and women tend to be less
• Creative ways of separating by gender
• Sensitive to the ongoing criticism around PV, and
strengthening the academic use and viability of
this tool, and make it a truly inclusive research for
• PV is an adequate tool for (agricultural) research
• Higher degree of possible social change than
mainstream research approaches
• Allows understanding the local needs, wants and
knowledge of local and/or marginalized
• Cultural limitations, small scale, less esthetic
• Traber, M & Lee, P. (1989) Video for Animation and conscientisation. Media
Development 36(4): 1
• Kane, E., (1995). Seeing for yourself: Research handbook for girls' education in
Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank.
• Kindon, S. (2003) ‘Participatory Video in Geographic Research: A Feminist Practice
of Looking?’ Area. Vol 35 (2) pp142-153.
• Koningstein M., Azadegan S. (2014) Participatory Video in Somotillo, Nicaragua.
CCAFS Working Paper no. 100. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change,
Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. Available online at:
• T.J., Servaes, J. & White, S.A. (eds).Participatory Communication for Social Change.
New Delhi & London: Sage Publications, Ch. 11.
• Photocredits: Manon Koningstein (CIAT), Gian Betancourt (CIAT), Shadi Azadegan
• Youtube videos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mLsuRqCWdZI,
Nov. 25, 2021
Participatory Video for Inclusive Research.
By: Manon Koningstein