PABRA Seed systems: Delivering the right product with right processes to the right users


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  • (ADD NOTES) The pollination/propagation pattern which is linking to next crop generation affect the seed business/ demands For instance Hybrid maize which deteriorates/looses hybrid (genetic quality) will push farmers (able) to buy fresh seeds while OPV (Open pollinated varieties) maize which has less genetic quality deterioration will be less demanded than Hybrid. Once farmers acquire them OPVs they can recycle seeds without economic losses for a certain period. The regular demand of fresh seeds shrinks further when the crop is self pollinated or vegetatively propagated (keeps its original genetic materials). Unless there is a disease outbreak which requires a replacement of the genotypes/clones e.g. Cassava Mosaic Virus . For instance, some farmers have used some varieties of beans as long as 30 years and they are still satisfied (GLP 92 –Mwetemania in Kenya)
  • Diversification of seeds outlets channels both local and formal depending of the context and clients conditions
  • Sustainable (business opportunity Equitable and relatively well distributed (368 338 households Efficient systems One example of
  • PABRA Seed systems: Delivering the right product with right processes to the right users

    1. 1. PABRA Seed systems: Delivering the right product with right processes to the right users Jean Claude Rubyogo PABRA Seed System Specialist [email_address]
    2. 2. DONORS GOs CIDA, SDC, USAID, BMGF, McKnight, ASARECA, KHT, SADC-FANR , AGRA , NGO, Private Sector WECABREN 10 9 11
    3. 3. Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance (PABRA) Member Countries (26)
    4. 4. Partnerships (e.g. PABRA’s ) Complementary and efficient use of resources CIAT Biophysical Social NARES: Management Scientists Development Partners and Policy makers Users <ul><li>- Priority setting, </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Research, </li></ul><ul><li>Technology development </li></ul>Technology adaptation and policy support Catalyze links and partnerships to reach users .
    5. 5. Ultimate Clients (Bean farmers) <ul><li>Subsistence, ‘incipient-commercial’ (99.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium y small-scale farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Bean Crop systems </li></ul><ul><li>Intercropping </li></ul><ul><li>Low external input use </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on local seed systems (farm saved, other farmers and local market ) </li></ul><ul><li>Low purchasing power </li></ul><ul><li>Need HIGHLY adapted varieties </li></ul>
    6. 6. Bean Seed Systems Thrusts <ul><li>Facilitate access to varieties into the hands of millions farmers across Africa (E, S, C and West) </li></ul><ul><li>Support efficient production and delivery systems (public and/or private ) considering sustainability/quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Engager policy makers to solve any seed policy bottleneck </li></ul><ul><li>Carry action research on seed production/delivery </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why Research on Delivery Systems <ul><li>Research on delivery processes are equally important as generation of genomics tools/Technology generation </li></ul><ul><li>In order to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt the tools/process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test best-bet options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutionalize </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Characteristics of efficient Seed System (beans) <ul><li>Provide farmers with crop varieties of their choice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordability /equity (gender and wealth responsiveness ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>timely availability in the farmers’ proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to adequate information on varieties and their agronomic management </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced lap times between variety release and use by farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous supply of new varieties and fresh quality seeds based on demand </li></ul>
    9. 9. Seed Systems Trends in PABRA 2003-2008 <ul><li>Programmatic and impact oriented seed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Target 2.5 million households but reach 7.5 households </li></ul>
    10. 10. 2003 2013 24.0 M 7.5 M 0 a Households reached 13 a 2008 b Target and step wise REU (2003-8, 2009 - 13) Years 16.5 million From 35,000,000 to 82,500,000 farmers/families
    11. 11. How crop breeding/pollination pattern affect the seed demands for regular fresh seeds Crop Breeding pattern /propagation Variety deterioration Loss of desirable traits Carry over diseases Commercial interest Maize Hybrid High Easy with recessive genes Low High Maize Open pollinated varieties Medium Low Low Medium Beans Self pollinated Low Low Medium Medium Cassava Vegetative Low Low High Low
    12. 12. 1 2 3 4 Certified seeds (large and small packs) using market and non market channels Farmers Quality seeds by local seed producers (individual or groups –supported by Development partners (GOs, NGOs-CBOs etc) Basic Seed 2 (Private Seed producers) Basic seeds 1 (NARS/Private sector ) Breeder seeds (NARS) Farmers 5 Traders Integrated Seed System for wider impact
    13. 13. Bean Seed Production Approaches
    14. 14. Production approaches (PA) : (1) Farmer based production of accepted quality seed <ul><ul><li>Supported by NGOs/GOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of seeds - dual purpose (grain/seeds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on local market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety injected in local to increase bean germplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injection of new varieties or fresh seeds is always facilitated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It deepens local impact seeds can move far with traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable quality (‘ social certification’) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. PA: (2) Quality Declared Seed (QDS) Production (TZ) <ul><li>In collaboration with extension staff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum inspection supported by district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes bureaucratic limitations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lack of funds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transport means </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time availability </li></ul></ul></ul>Can farmers sustain the cost of minimum inspections? Does inspection pay off?
    16. 16. PA : (4) commercial seed production under certification <ul><ul><li>Business orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate seed production and marketing infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on big (relief) market from GOs/GOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibility of seed adulteration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited local use of varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injection of new varieties or fresh seeds/breeder in big volume –not easy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No seed marketing problem-good linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to withstand seed business uncertainty </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Seed Marketing Approaches
    18. 18. MA :(1 )Encourage farmer to farmer seed exchange <ul><li>Partnering with selected instrumental target groups (community based seed bulkers) who share the harvested seeds with their neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of seed quality traceability through ‘ social certification’ </li></ul>
    19. 19. MA: (2) Open Market (grain-seeds ) <ul><li>Some traders stock and sell preferred varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes -grain market may supply inadequate quality seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Many traders lack knowledge on seed and varieties </li></ul>
    20. 20. MA : (3) Seed Marketing <ul><li>Local Agro-input suppliers linking to small scale producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer oriented seed packs/sale – local market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. small packs or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scoop from the gaps </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. MA :(4) Empowering small seed entrepreneurs (SHT) <ul><li>Small seed entrepreneurs (own production/contract) marketing small packs in SHT and sell through Agricultural shows </li></ul>
    22. 22. MA : (4)Large/commercial seed suppliers <ul><li>‘ Donor’ oriented packs- limiting small seed accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative small packs in some areas </li></ul><ul><li>Give equal to all farmers particulary women </li></ul>70 g 10Ksh ($ 0.13) 400g 50ksh ($ 0.62
    23. 23. MA : (5) Engaging large scale ‘ able’ seed private suppliers <ul><li>e.g. in 2010 Demeter seed company in Malawi close to 400 T through MG TIP (about 230,000 households)- </li></ul>
    24. 24. Information/skills and knowledge <ul><li>Farmers need more than brochures ‘ seeing is believing’ –Demos/field days on grain legumes are rare </li></ul>
    25. 25. Improved awareness/information tools : Decentralized field days <ul><li>Photo of decentralized facilitated by local partner organization </li></ul><ul><li>e.Nicholas Odanga takes a section of farmers round his KAT B9/Maize farm during field day in Kenya </li></ul>
    26. 26. Support the use of complementary inputs to increase bean productivity
    27. 27. Climbing Bean: 71% Increase
    28. 28. Research Results –on staking Techniques <ul><li>Effects of different staking techniques on yield (kg/ha) of different climbing beans varieties 2009-2010 (ISABU-SN) </li></ul>non significant differences between the use of wood and strings stakes Staking techniques Vunikingi AND 610 G13607 Woods 2916 2266 3906 Strings (sisal) 3100 2266 4272
    29. 29. Bean yield (kg/ha) of different bean varieties in Southern Ethiopia using ICM (Unit Plot SIZE 100 m 2 ) in 2010 Variety Maximum yield (kg/ha) Minimum (kg/ha) Average (n=45) Hawassa Dume 4600 1300 2770 Nassir 3400 1200 2080 Dimtu 3000 900 1728 Ibado 2800 900 1557 Omo 95 2500 700 1471
    30. 30. Seed System -Monitoring + Evaluation: Variables for Compare/Contrast Cost to implem. Cost to enduser Scale Speed Type of farmer reached Acc. Info. Marketing Farmer to farmer CBSS/Farmers Small packs through agro-input suppliers Small packs through health/Nutrition Clinics Women’s Groups
    31. 31. Seed Quality Assessment : Result at farm level Sorted Seeds vs. Non Seed (n=91)
    32. 32. Continuous seed quality assessment –Farmers’ seed in Kenya 2010 <ul><li>Germination: 86.70% </li></ul><ul><li>Vigor : 84.19 % (very good vigor) </li></ul>
    33. 33. ISTA Lab Results (200 g randomly sampled)
    34. 34. Seed sorting (usual farmer practice) Farmer sorting seeds
    35. 35. M+E monitoring the reach e.g. Kenya NSWP
    36. 36. Small pack purchase by gender LELDET Company CRV/Western Kenya: August-November 2009 <ul><li>15890 Customers </li></ul><ul><li>9,027 (56.81% ) were female buying <100- 400 g packs </li></ul><ul><li>6863 ( 43.18% ) were male buying mainly buying between 400-2000 g </li></ul>
    37. 37. Amount of seeds commercial/quality seeds produced (t) and seed access in 2010/11 in some PABRA Countries Country Amount (t) Number of Households accessed seeds Female Male DRC-East 601.50 158,645 55,470 Ethiopia 1111.34 42,713 128,140 Kenya 237.80 213,425 168,635 Rwanda 551.2 42,713 128,140 Southern Tanzania 133.8 64,188 27.509
    38. 38. Bean Area Trend (000 ha) between 2002-6 in some countries Country Area under bean in 000 ha Change (0/0) (06/02*100) 2002 2008 Ethiopia 181 241 131.0 Tanzania 370 380 102.0 Uganda 765 849 110.9 (increasing)
    39. 39. Bean Production Trends (000 tons) between 2002-6 in some countries FAO (2008) FAO STAT- Data Country Production Change (0/0) (06/02*100) 2002 2006 Ethiopia 117.5 176 150.4 Tanzania 270 290 107.0 Uganda 535 424 79.2 (declining)
    40. 40. Bean Yield Trend of beans (kg/ha ha) between 2002-6 in some countries FAO (2008) FAO STAT- Data Country Bean yield trend (kg/ha) Change (0/0) (06/02*100) 2002 2006 Ethiopia 490 730.2 149.0 Tanzania 729.7 763.1 104.5 Uganda 699.3 499.41 71.4 (declining )
    41. 41. Haile Wako IMPACTS at different levels
    42. 42. Increased private investment
    43. 43. Some challenges <ul><li>Availably of foundation seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Some countries have unfavorable policies especially for local seed systems development </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture partnership is long term process, time process –competition with research work </li></ul>
    44. 44. Methodology for developing farmer seed enterprises Establish demand for seed Seasonal planning and production Train seed producers Identify seed producers Stakeholder meetings Establish 2nd order associations Market assessment by seed producers Training Planning Capacity building
    45. 45. Next steps: Seed Systems <ul><li>Further scaling up of impact oriented seed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Big vision : </li></ul><ul><li>Moving to Predict and Recommend which types of seed production and delivery will work where: (shaping macro strategy- and policy ) </li></ul>
    46. 46. Strategies to build a sustainable seed systems to deliver GCP? <ul><li>Integrate Participatory variety selection/plant breeding and seed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Support integrated seed systems (formal and informal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both public, private , intermediaries and local seed systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Build skills, knowledge enhancement of chain actors </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce barriers to for private investment when it is required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross borders policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional variety registration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embed M+E systems to track, to build a community of practices and learn-and asses cost efficiency of product delivery </li></ul>
    47. 47. Thank You