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From Not-Want to Waste-Not: cassava peels as product

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Presentation at the Cassava Value Chains Workshop
CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 24-26 August 2016
Speakers: I Okike, A Samireddypalle, ML Fadiga, D Enahoro, P Kulakow, G Thiele, C Fauquet, M Blummel

Published in: Science
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From Not-Want to Waste-Not: cassava peels as product

  1. 1. From Not-Want to Waste-Not: cassava peels as product I Okike, A Samireddypalle, ML Fadiga, D Enahoro, P Kulakow, G Thiele, C Fauquet, M Blummel Presentation at the Cassava Value Chains Workshop CIAT, Cali, Colombia 24-26 August 2016
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Section I 2
  3. 3. Summary of contents (sections) I. Introduction II. The Problems : A case study in Oyo, Nigeria III. Circumventing drying constraints IV. The competitiveness of HQCP mashes against maize in energy content V. Implications of scaling the innovation VI. Scaling pathways and business models VII.Closing
  4. 4. Introduction • Africa produces about 150 million tons of cassava per year and Nigeria 50 million as world’s largest producer • Human population growing faster than animal source food supply which is constrained by feed scarcity. • Food grains, especially maize – in short supply – constitute about half the total feed supply for commercial feed production • So, finding ways of reducing the competition for food between man and livestock is imperative
  5. 5. Introduction • At least 95% of the uses of cassava require peeling • Peeling is inefficient such that ‘peels’ (often containing substantial amount of cassava flesh) constitute 20% or more of the fresh tuber weight • Hence the focus of the research on cassava residues/waste (peels, under-size tubers at harvest, waste water during dewatering)
  6. 6. Introduction • For Africa, an estimated 50 million tons wet cassava peels and under-sized tubers is wasted annually • As the study has shown, 3 tons of cassava peels yield 1 ton of high quality (energy) ingredients for animal feeds, • So, cassava residues could produce more than 15 million tons of high quality livestock feed ingredients annually from Africa’s production.
  7. 7. Introduction • At an industry-assessed price of US$150/ton, this is potentially US$2.25 billion from product price to the agricultural sector; and at least US$4.5 billion to the overall economy (multiplier effects) annually • 500,000 new jobs created with 400,000 of the employees being women • Feed scarcity is mitigated by 32 billion Kcal ME and 10 million tons of maize released by the feed industry.
  8. 8. THE PROBLEMS : A CASE STUDY IN OYO, NIGERIA Section II 8
  9. 9. In a case study in Oyo State, 70 vans bring in 1.3 tonnes of cassava & 20 pick- ups bring in 2.5 tonnes of cassava, twice daily amounting to approx. 250 tonnes daily for processing into garri
  10. 10. Processing of 250 tonnes is done by 1300 persons - 85% Female & 15%. 4 persons peel a ton/day @ US$12 = US$3/person/day. Peeling is manual and inefficient resulting in wastage.
  11. 11. Drying of peels is on bare floor. Drying is done over a 3- day period in the dry season
  12. 12. When drying is 100% successful, one van load of wet tubers (1.3 tonnes) yields about 220 kg of dried peels (6 bags of the type in photo; about 35kg each)
  13. 13. but…..drying of peels is probably the biggest constraint. Even in the dry season, floor space for drying is a constraining factor.
  14. 14. Waste is available in large quantities around garri processing centres
  15. 15. Unsuccessful attempts to eliminate cassava peels through burning and natural decomposition
  16. 16. Unsuccessful attempts to eliminate cassava peels through burning and natural decomposition
  17. 17. CIRCUMVENTING DRYING CONSTRAINTS Section III 17
  18. 18. GRATER HYDRAULIC PRESS PELLET MAKER MECHANISED SIEVE DRYING IN THE SUN & BY TOASTING 18 Commonly available equipment adapted for processing cassava peels
  19. 19. Processing into High Quality Cassava Peel (HQCP) Mashes at ILRI 5-min clip
  20. 20. A recap of the steps in processing fresh cassava peels into HQCP mashes See also Okike et al. (2015) http://www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/pdf/10.3362/2046-1887.2015.005
  21. 21. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF HQCP MASHES AGAINST MAIZE IN ENERGY CONTENT Section IV 21
  22. 22. 3 bags of HQCP mash (3 x 2200 Kcal/kg DM) 2 bags of maize (2 x 3300 Kcal/kg DM) = 22
  23. 23. Nutrient composition of HQCP mash (CassaPeelMashTM) Starch1 73.2 g/100g Crude protein1 3.1 g/100g Crude fibre1 6.3 g/100g Crude ash1 5.1 g/100g Crude fat1 1.0 g/100g Hydrocyanic acid1 90 mg/kg Aflatoxins (B1)2 1.35 ppb Aflatoxins (B2)2 0.00* Aflatoxins (G1) 2 0.00 Aflatoxins (G2) 2 0.00 1Analytical results from masterlab of The Netherlands – masterlab@nutreco.com 2Analytical results from the Nutrition Laboratory of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) *Zero means that Aflatoxin level is below detection limit
  24. 24. Contexts for the comparison • Energy fractions – HQCP mash contains 2200 – 2300 kcal ME/kg DM; Maize 3200 – 3300 kcal. About 2/3rd energy equivalent. • Evolution of maize prices during 2009-2014 period (historical) complemented by maize futures prices for 2014-18 (Chicago Board of Trade) show Maximum US$530/t, average US$367/t and historical low (US$240/t).
  25. 25. Contexts for the comparison • At its energy equivalent price, HQCP mash has a potential average market price of US$240/t • The feed industry has so far indicated willingness to pay about half the price of maize or a market price of about US$180/t • Calculations based on practices at existing garri processing centres indicate a production cost of US$150/t
  26. 26. Feeding trials in commercial broilers & layers with Amo Byng (Nig.) Ltd. • 5 treatments with 500 broilers (control diet, 50kg/t, 75kg/t, 100kg/t, and 125kg/t) • 100kg inclusion had the best performance – Best FCR across experiment – Very good %DW against control – Very good growth rate with lower feed intake – Low mortality (%) compared to other treatments • Trial with 22,000 broilers for comparison against previous batches produced with control diet proved equally encouraging
  27. 27. HQCP Mash remains competitive into the future even at 50% the price of maize
  28. 28. Sensitivity analysis showing that HQCP mash remains competitive even when maize prices fall by 30% and its production costs increase by 20%, for example.
  29. 29. IMPLICATIONS OF SCALING THE INNOVATION Section V 29
  30. 30. NUMBER OF ANIMALS AND PRODUCTION SUPPORTED 30
  31. 31. Energy from 4 million tons of HQCP mash @ 2200 kcal and 40g CP/kg DM (Nigeria only) • Poultry: 1 million tons of fine HQCP mash would support energy demands of 300 million birds @ 10% and 15% inclusion in broiler and layer diets (2ce Nigeria’s current commercial production needs!) 0 5 10 15 20 25 Dairy cattle Beef cattle Sheep & goats Pigs No. of animals supported (millions) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Milk Beef Chevon/Mutton Pork Qty. of production supported (million tons)
  32. 32. Employment created (women favoured 80%) • 8 women and 2 men produce 1 ton/day • 10 mandays per ton = 150 million mandays for 15 million tons • @ 300 working days/year = 500,000 jobs created, involving at least 400,000 rural women.
  33. 33. Decentralized and Centralized Uptake and Scaling Options Small scale processors Pressed peel cake HQCP mashes Feed Industry Flash dryer Decentralized – production by mass(es) 500,000 direct workers Centralized – production in mass
  34. 34. How could this fit in the IMPACT model??? The cassava/cassava peel/livestock value chain activity-commodity framework
  35. 35. Related questions • Livestock production has cassava crop but not its peel as feed. Would IMPACT improvement work make peel inclusion possible? For example in the crop residue category? • Cassava peels will need to be specified as one of these ‘new commodities’ and appropriate parameters provided by country/production unit. How would this be done? Data sources?
  36. 36. Potentials explored (even broadly) • the potential for an untapped feed resource that could serve multiple developing countries; • Competitive and complementary links of the cassava VC to the livestock sector and to other feed and food resources; • country-level impacts on food security and natural resources
  37. 37. Another product of potential interest (carrier/substrate for AflasafeTM) Sorghum grains CassanulesTM - Granules from cassava peels
  38. 38. CLOSING Section VII 38
  39. 39. Closing • The drying period of fresh cassava peels can be reduced from 3 days to 6-8 hrs. sunshine period or alternatively toasted or flash dried to achieve high quality products that are competitive against existing ones. • Processing is done by simple machines that are easy to operate by youths and women
  40. 40. Closing • The drying period of fresh cassava peels can be reduced from 3 days to 6-8 hrs. sunshine period or alternatively toasted or flash dried to achieve high quality products that are competitive against existing ones. • Processing is done by simple machines that are easy to operate by youths and women
  41. 41. Closing • Different modules exist for entry into the business, each shown to be profitable. • Converting waste to wealth is not only profitable but  cleans up the environment,  provides employment  supports reinvestment in cassava production  boosts livestock production to provide more animal source food  releases grains from feed industry for human consumption
  42. 42. This work is SO FAR financed by: CGIAR Research Programs on RTB, Humidtropics and Livestock & Fish. It is being implemented in a partnership with IITA, CIP & GCP21 Acknowledgements
  43. 43. Choices before us! New livelihoods & income, employment opportunities (pro-women & pro-youth), increased livestock productivity, clean environment, safe and storable new products! Potentially worth US$2 billion per annum for Africa 43 Unmitigated environmental disaster and waste (existing practice to dispose cassava peels) Choices before us!
  44. 44. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. better lives through livestock ilri.org
  45. 45. THANK YOU

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