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From field to factory: agronomy to starch and beyond

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Presentation at the Cassava Value Chains Workshop
CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 24-26 August 2016
Speaker: Tin Maung Aye

Published in: Science
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From field to factory: agronomy to starch and beyond

  1. 1. www.ciat.cgiar.org Science to cultivate change From field to factory: agronomy to starch and beyond Tin Maung Aye Friday, 26 August 2016 Cali, Colombia
  2. 2. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Northeast of Brazil Africa Asia has been spreading throughout the Asia since beginning of 17th century by Spanish merchants o Reported in Indonesia in 1740
  3. 3. Share of global cassava production – Asia is about 33% • While initially an important food crop, early stages of commercialisation began during the late 19th Century FAO Stats, 2016 Diverse cassava production system Cassava production in Asia
  4. 4. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org In Asia, cassava production is a very attractive option for smallholders, many of whom have relatively few other options for raising income and improving their livelihoods.
  5. 5. • ~8 million farmers grown cassava in Asia More than 3 million farmers in Greater Mekong Subregion (Myanmar unknown) Another 1.5 million households in southern China Another 3 million households in Indonesia • ~4 million ha More than 1 million ha in each of Thailand and Indonesia >500,000 ha in Vietnam ~ 500,000 ha in China •> US$3.5 billion / year in GMS Thailand: industry ~ US$1.5 billion Vietnam: export revenue ~US$1.2 billion Cambodia: export revenue ~US$ 800 million Major impact on the livelihoods of the poor ~ US$1 billion/yr additional income due to higher yields Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org
  6. 6. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Country Land area (‘000 ha) Acid soil (‘000 ha) % of total Area cassava harvested (‘000 ha)* Production (‘000 tons)* Fresh root yield (t/ha)* Cambodia 17,652 10,565 59.9 350 8,000 22.86 East Timor 1,1487 274 18.4 7 27 4.08 Indonesia 181,157 122,289 67.5 1,066 23,937 22.46 Lao PDR 23,080 19,009 82.4 45 1,120 25.17 Malaysia 32,855 26,185 79.7 3 45 14.52 Myanmar 65,755 40,642 61.8 49 630 12.86 Philippines 29,817 13,743 46.1 217 2,361 10.89 Thailand 51,089 38,630 75.6 1,385 30,228 21.82 Vietnam 32,549 23,317 71.6 544 9,743 17.90 Total 445,441 294,654 63 3,666 76,091 17 Land area and cassava production, harvested area and yield in SE Asia (2013) Sources: *FAOSTAT 2015
  7. 7. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Cassava production systems in Asia have been developing at a rapid rate due to a range of drivers including increasing regional market integration (commodities, capital, and labor), changing labor availability for agriculture, and government policies to encourage subsistence agriculture to market-oriented agriculture.
  8. 8. Increased Production Influence of new varieties? • High and stable yields and high starch content o Major impact on the growth of cassava production in SE Asia o ↑ starch yield per ha 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Relative Change in Area, Yield, and Production for Asia Production Index Area Index Yield Index Yield increase: • Mostly genetics • Only partly agronomy/ fertilizers
  9. 9. Transformation of Cassava from a Staple to Major Cash Crop • Cassava has become a major industrial raw material, providing animal feed and starch
  10. 10. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Cassava yields are usually low in smallholder systems For example: Average farmers yields in Vietnam for cassava (around 16 t t/ha) are far below than achievable yields while Farmers in Tay Ninh province of Vietnam can produce 40-50 t/ha.
  11. 11. www.ciat.cgiar.org Science to cultivate change From field to factory: Inputs • Cassava varieties • Land and water • Technology • Labour • Fertilizers • Etc. Outputs • Leaves and roots • Dried chips • pellets • Starch • By-products • Etc. Factories • Animal feed • Dried chip • Ethanol • Starch • Etc.
  12. 12. 0 30 45 15 60 75 Average Yield - Climatic; Varietal; Crop management; Soil related; Disease and Pests constraints -Socio-economic limitation Inputs 90 Biological Potential Yield under Optimum Growing Condition Yields of 30 tons of dry roots (70 – 100 tons of fresh roots) per ha per year appear to be close to the theoretical yield limit without supplementary irrigation (Cock et al., 1979) Comparative advantage of cassava is under sub-optimal conditions (with good varieties and agronomy) Cassavarootyield(t/ha/year) Achievable yield (Howeler, 2014 unpublished) Asia 16 t/ha Contribution of Various Inputs to Cassava Yield 46 35 World 11 t/ha Yield potential
  13. 13. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Source: Reinhardt, 2014 (unpublished) 10 18 22 38 25 Climate Varietal traits Crop management Soil related Pests and diseases Yieldgap(%) Among the various production constraints, the soil related constraints are estimated to be the most important constraints in Asia (Henry and Gottret, 1996; Howeler, 2014b unpublished)
  14. 14. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Yield Gap of Cassava in Asia Source: Reinhardt, 2014 (unpublished) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Weed control Planting material Planting time Estimated Yield Loss by Crop Management
  15. 15. Cassava varieties/traits  Adoption of new, higher yielding varieties is still likely to increase cassava yields Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org A B A B
  16. 16. Rayong 1 - Yield » 13.6 t/ha. - Starch content » 18-24% - Year » 1975
  17. 17. KU50 - Yield » 26.6 t/ha. - High starch content » 22- 28% - Year » 1992
  18. 18. Rayong 72 - Yield » 25 t/ha. - Starch content » 20-25% - Year » 2000
  19. 19. Rayong 9 - Yield » 30.6 t/ha. - Starch content » 24-30% - Recommend for ethanol production (180 lit./ton) - Year » 2006
  20. 20. HB60 - Yield » 30 t/ha. - High starch content » 25-30% - Year » 2003
  21. 21. Soil Texture Suitable varieties Sandy / Loamy sand KU50; Huay Bong 60; Rayong 72 Sandy loam KU50; Huay Bong 60; Rayong 7; Rayong 9 Loamy clay Huay Bong 80; Rayong 5; Rayong 7; Rayong 11 Alkaline Rayong 5; Rayong 11 (กอบเกียรติ,2554 ดัดแปลงจากอัจฉรา แลคณะ, 2551) Recommended cassava varieties in Thailand
  22. 22. Country Variety name Year of release Clonal code or pedigree Location of hybridization Main features Cambodia Malaysia 2) KM 94 = KU 50 KU high yield, high starch China Nanzhi 188 1987 CM321-188 CIAT high yield Nanzhi 199 1987 MPan19 CIAT high yield, high starch GR 891 1998 MCol2215 CIAT high yield, high starch GR 911 1998 MBra35xCM523-7 CIAT high yield SC5 2002 ZM9057 CATAS high yield SC 6 2002 OMR33-10-4 RFCRC high starch SC 7 2005 ZM8639 CATAS high yield SC 8 2005 CMR38-120-10 RFCRC high yield Gui Re 3 2006 CMR 36-31-1 RFCRC high yield, high starch Philippines VC-1 1986 CM323-52 CIAT high yield VC-2 1988 CMC40 Brazil high yield, edible VC-3 1990 CM3590-1 CIAT dual purpose VC-4 1990 CM4014-3 CIAT high yield, dual purpose VC-5 1990 MCol1684 Colombia high yield, bitter PSB Cv-11 1995 CM3419-2A CIAT dual purpose PSB Cv-12 1995 SM972-20 CIAT dual purpose PSB Cv-15 1999 CM3422-1 CIAT dual purpose PSB Cv-19 2000 SM808-1 CIAT mite resistant NSIC Cv-22 2008 Kasetsart 50 KU high yield, high starch Thailand Rayong 3 1983 MMex 55xMVen 307 CIAT high starch Rayong 2 1984 MCol 113xMCol 22 CIAT for snack food Rayong 60 1987 MCol 1684xRayong 1 RFCRC high early yield Sriracha 1 1991 MCol 113xMCol 22xRayong 1 KU high DM Rayong 90 1991 CMC 76xV 43=CMR 21-1 RFCRC high DM, rel. high yield Kasetsart 50 1992 R1xR90=MKUC28-77-3 KU high yield, high DM Rayong 5 1994 CMR27-77-10xR3=OMR25-105-112 RFCRC rel. high yield, high DM Rayong 72 1999 Rayong 1xRayong 5 RFCRC high yield, drought tol. Huay Bong 60 2003 R5xKasetsart50 = MKUC 34-114-206 KU high yield, high starch Rayong 7 2005 CMR35-64-1=CMR30-71-25xOMR29-20-118 RFCRC high yield, high starch Rayong 9 2005 CMR35-48-196=CMR31-19-23xOMR29-20-118 RFCRC good for ethanol production Huay Bong 80 2008 R5xKasetsart50 KU high yield, high starch Vietnam KM 60 1993 Rayong 60 RFCRC high early yield KM 94 1995 Kasetsart 50 KU high yield, high starch SM 937-26 1995 SM937-26 CIAT high yield, high starch KM 95 1995 OMR33-17-15 RFCRC high yield; dual purpose KM 95-3 1998 SM1157-3 RFCRC high yield; dual purpose KM 98-7 1998 SM17-17-12 CIAT high yield KM 98-1 1999 Rayong 1 x Rayong 5 RFCRC high yield; dual purpose KM 140 2005 KM36xKM98-1 IAS high yield, dual purpose, early KM 98-5 2005 Rayong 90xKM 98-1 IAS high yield, dual purpose, early CIAT-related cassava varieties in Asia and their most important characteristics
  23. 23. Peter Jennings: Found semi-dwarf gene at IRRI (IR8) Later moved to rice program at CIAT One-off increase in rice yields in LAC with introduction of semi- dwarf rice in favourable environments (~2t/ha) No major increase in yield with the release of a further 400 semi- dwarf varieties over next 30 years Improve rice agronomy: » time of seeding » seedling density » seed treatment to control insects » weed control => additional 2t/ha » fertilizer use » irrigation management Impact: Genetics + Agronomy Example: Green Revolution Rice in LAC Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org
  24. 24. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org The importance of good agricultural practices (GAP) in cassava value chains The GAP offers benefits to cassava communities (i.e farmers, processors and traders) to meet specific objectives of production efficiencies, quality of products (i.e starch), livelihoods, environmental protection and the national economy as a whole. Adoption of GAP from field to factory will help improve sustainable cassava cropping systems and contribute to meeting national and international environmental and social development objectives.
  25. 25. China India Indonesia Philippines Thailand Vietnam Labor Costs ($/ha) 167.40 421.70 185.37 218.80 167.18 213.60 Labor costs ($/manday) 1.86 1.29 1.11 2.00 3.24 1.78 -land preparation (mandays/ha) 7.5 1.5 45 8.1 2.4 5 -preparation planting material - 1.9 5 - - 5 -planting 15.0 14.8 15 9.4 9.1 10 -application fert. and manures 5.0 10.7 12 2.5 6.4 5 -application other chemicals - 0.3 - - - - -irrigation - 51.9 - - - - -weeding and hilling up 40.0 208.6 40 26.9 8.0 40 -harvesting (includes loading) 22.5 37.2 50 37.5 25.7 55 -transport and handling - - - 25 - - Total (mandays/ha) 90.0 326.9 167 109.4 51.6 120 Other Costs ($/ha) 260.22 242.15 80.55 163.25 198.73 171.07 - Fertilizers and manures 130.11 159.39 79.44 53.75 61.97 80.36 - Planting material - 26.83 1.11 25.00 - - - Other materials (herbicides, sacks) 37.17 2.23 - 20.00 25.84 - -Transport of roots - - - - 70.38 - -Land preparation by tractor 92.94 53.70 - 64.50 40.54 90.71 Total Variable Costs ($/ha) 427.62 663.85 265.92 382.05 365.91 384.67 Total Production Costs ($/ha) 520.56 900.35 312.59 382.05 414.80 444.67 Yield (t/ha) 20 40 20 25 23.40 25 Cassava production costs (US$ /ha) countries in Asia in 1998-2000
  26. 26. Land preparation Methods of land preparation have a significant effect on the cassava root yield but not on the root starch content (Jongruyasub, et. al., 2007) Farmers should be able to select the most appropriate land preparation practice for their situation
  27. 27. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org GAP in healthy seed materials There is a need to foment the use of healthy planting materials through viable sustainable seed system. • Selection criteria (purity, health of mother plant, number of nodes and internode length, size of stakes, signs of illness) • Recognizing signs and symptoms of insects and diseases
  28. 28. Plating methods Mount, ridge and furrow Plant population (10,000 - 18,000 per ha) Planting on ridges is recommended during periods of heavy rainfall, but planting without ridges is better during dry periods as the ridged soil tends to dry out faster.
  29. 29. Stake position Vertical, Slant, Horizontal In light textured sandy or sandy loam soil, cassava stakes can best be planted in a vertical or inclined position, especially when planting coincides with a dry period. In heavy clay soil, it is advised to plant horizontally, as the roots tend to grow closer to the soil surface, making harvesting easier.
  30. 30. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org FAO soil group Approx. area of Acid soil in SE Asia (M ha) Fluvisols 18 Gleysols 18 Andosols 3 Cambisols 43 Podsols 3 Acrisols 163 Nitosols 15 Ferralsols 15 Histosols 17 Total 295 (64% of land) Cassava can grow reasonably well on soils that are too infertile for other crops or soils that have been depleted by other crops
  31. 31. Existing generalizations concerning cassava are either false or half-truths. 1# Cassava does not need to apply fertilizers 2# Cassava degrades the soils
  32. 32. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org P deficiency in Xieng Khouang, Laos K deficiency in Kampong Cham, Cambodia Identify major soil fertility problems
  33. 33. Balanced application of N, P, K mineral fertilizers will increase yields by 50 to 100% in many areas and even more in poor soils. The right rate of K application will also increase the root starch content and starch yields and even decrease the plant’s hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content. However, over fertilization of N may promote leaf and stem growth without increased root yields. Long term NPK trial in Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  34. 34. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Location/Soil/System N: P2O5: K2O (kg/ha) Nanning, Guangxi, China 100:50:100 Danzhou, Hainan, China 200:100:200 Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India 100: 50:100 Tamanbogo, Lampung, Indonesia / cassava mono crop 90:25:90 Tamanbogo, Lampung, Indonesia / intercropped cassava 90:50:90 Baybay, Leyte, Philippine 60:90: 60 Ubay, Bohol, Philippine 120:60:120 La Granja, Negros Occidental, Philippine 100: 50:50 Hung Loc Center, Dong Nai, Vietnam 80:40:80 Serdang, Malaysia / mineral soils 60: 30:160 Johor, Malaysia / peat soils 50:30:40 Optimum fertilizer application for cassava production in various locations, soils, and systems in Asia
  35. 35. Right place to apply N, P and K basal fertilizer in the vertical planting and the horizontal planting 4 R Nutrient Management: The right source of plant nutrients at the right rate, the right time, and in the right place are essential in the management of plant nutrition to increase sustainability of cassava systems
  36. 36. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Nutrients removed with the harvested leaves, roots and stems Material N P K Mg Ca S Leaves* 20-30 2-3 13-20 2.5-3.0 10-15 1.5-2 Stems* 5-8 1-2.5 13-20 1.5-2.0 7-10 1-2 Nutrient contents of cassava leaves and stems (kg/t)
  37. 37. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org A combination of 80 kg N, 20 kg P and 80 kg K per hectare plus returning plant tops can achieve up to 40 t/ha of cassava root yields Make recommendations for improvements Crop Product Yield t ha-1 Total uptake (above-ground biomass) kg ha-1 Removal (root yield) Kg t-1 N P K Ca Mg S N P K Ca Mg S Cassava Root 20 95 15 91 50 15 10 1.7 0.5 2.5 0.4 0.2 0.2 Targeted cassava root yield Fertilizer recommendation rates (kg ha-1) N P2O5 K2O MgO S Low (12 t ha-1) 40 20 20 5 5 High (20 t ha-1) 200 80 100 20 20 Source: Dierolf et. al., 2001
  38. 38. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Right time of plant nutrients to be applied to cassava according to the various fertilizer sources
  39. 39. Pedro A. Sanchez, 2015: The plant doesn’t care whether the nutrients come from fertilizer solutions, SOM mineralization, or decomposition of manures, roots or crop residues Roots take up the nutrients in their ionic form: NO3-, NH4+, H2PO-, K+, Ca++, etc. However, the soil does care, because organic inputs provide carbon, the energy source for soil microorganisms for more efficient nutrient cycling while mineral fertilizers do not contain carbon Plant Nutrition is better with organic fertilizers Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org
  40. 40. Treatment Cassava yield (t/ha) Dry soil loss (t/ha) Plowing+disking, no ridges, no fertilizer 15 20 Plowing+disking, no ridges, with fertilizer 21 10 Plowing+disking, contour ridges, with fertilizer 22 4 Plowing+disking, no ridges, with fertilizer, peanut intercrop 23 6 Plowing+disking, no ridges, with fertilizer, Crotalaria intercrop for mulching 22 10 Plowing only, no ridges, with fertilizer 19 11 Plowing only, no ridges, with fertilizer; vetiver grass hedgerows 23 3 Effect of various cultural practiceson the average dry soil loss due to erosion and the root yield of cassava grown on 12% slope at the Guangxi Subtropical Crop Research Institute (GSCRI), from 1993 to 1995 (3 years).
  41. 41. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org It is important that how to encourage farmers to prevent soil nutrient depletion and soil losses by erosion from their cassava fields.
  42. 42. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Effects of fertilization of mother plants on the yield of daughter plants (CIAT, 1981) Fertilizer treatment N-P-K (kg/ha) Fresh root yield (t/ha) 0-0-0 19.1 100-87-125 26.2
  43. 43. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org “In a healthy environment, cassava plants have proper nutrition from the soil and can take up a balance of vital nutrients. Plant health is then encouraged, and the whole ecosystem can fight, depressing diseases and pests.” Mealybug infestation Witches broom infestation
  44. 44. Cassava can grow in areas with 400 mm of rainfall a year, once established Maximum root yields in Thailand were correlated with rainfall totaling about 1 700 mm Integrated water management 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Rainfed Irrigation Effect of irrigation on cassava root yield , India (t/ha) Source: Nayar et. al., 1985
  45. 45.  Combination of most appropriate ways of cultural (i.e. land preparation, intercropping), mechanical, chemical and biological control, etc. Integrated weed management Control weeds during the first three months of growth
  46. 46. Intercropping Systems
  47. 47. Intercropping: control weeds but also intensify land resource, stabilize cash flow and prevent soil erosion
  48. 48. Post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava Deterioration is observed as blue-black vascular streaking PPD is a major constraint, and has been strong associated with mechanical damage which occurs during the harvesting and handling operations Environmental growth conditions have a significant effect on the crop’s development Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org
  49. 49. Harvesting Tool Improve the efficiency of labour and time 15-20 labors could harvest one ha of cassava while a harvesting tool could harvest 1 ha in 15 - 20 hrs Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org
  50. 50. Appropriate mechanization in cassava systems Improve the efficiency of labour and time Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Harvesting equipment Planting machine
  51. 51. Cassava: Focus and Challenges • Agronomy o Fertilizer o Intercropping and erosion control o Seasonality / bulking … crop growth model • Seed system: o Propagation systems: rapid proposition - petiole, micro-stake, tissue culture o On-farm seed multiplication Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org
  52. 52. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org There are still a lot of research questions we need to answer together with local farmers, extensionistes and researchers, local authorities and private sector. Farmer participatory research and extension approaches are important Conclusions
  53. 53. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Capacity Building of National Agriculture Research and Extension Staffs and Farmers Due attention is also focused on the best way to manage other issues, such as socio-economic, ethnic and political situations, which have to be considered to ensure both appropriateness and adoption for improving cassava value chains through good agronomic practices
  54. 54. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org Agronomic practices must be - Technically reliable, Economically feasible, Socially acceptable, and Environmentally sustainable!
  55. 55. Science to cultivate changewww.ciat.cgiar.org In SE Asia, improved agronomy and integrated soil research techniques which CIAT has improved in past/will continue in future to boost sustainable cassava production.
  56. 56. Eco-efficient agriculture to improve livelihoods in Asia Follow us:Website: www.ciat.cgiar.org Blog: www.ciatnews.cgiar.org/en/ http://twitter.com/ciat_ http:// www.facebook.com/ciat.ecoefficient Science to cultivate change www.linkedin.com/company/ciat

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