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Follow up the increasing of cassava supply in China

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Presentation at the Cassava Value Chains Workshop
CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 24-26 August 2016
Speaker: Liang GuoTao

Published in: Science
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Follow up the increasing of cassava supply in China

  1. 1. FOLLOW UP THE INCRESSING OF CASSAVA SUPPLY IN CHINA The enabling environment of cassava processing technology Aug 25 ,2016 , Cali, Columbia Liang Guo Tao
  2. 2. INCREASING OF CASSAVA CONSUMPTION
  3. 3. CASSAVA STATUS IN CHINA • History: origin from Latin America, only 60 years spreading planting in South China • Plantation -- Region: Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan, Hainan province • Position in Chinese Agriculture No. 6 th crops in China One important crop as Non-food green resource encouraged by Chinese government China is the main cassava products buyer in the world: 2015 imported: 9.25 million tons cassava chips, 1.8 million tons cassava starch (=30 million tons fresh roots) The actual market volume in China until 2020: 20 Million MT cassava chips (For feed & fuel) 3.5 million MT cassava starch / flour (for industry & food ) (=64 million tons fresh roots)
  4. 4. 481.07 507.15 527.38 428.57 511.91 416.67 415.24 412.28 404.76 392.5 344.6 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 X1000Ha. 2005~2015 Cassava Plantation Areas 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 China
  5. 5. 10333.9 11250 12017.9 8089.3 9767.9 9835 9285.7 9996.5 9821.4 8936.3 7925.8 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000X1000MT 2005~2015 CASSAVA PRODUCTION YIELD 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 China
  6. 6. 350 900 680 470 490 370 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Thousandtons 2011~2015 Cassava starch production 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 China
  7. 7. 1906 1820 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Thousandtons 2005~2015 Cassava starch importation 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 China
  8. 8. Unit :MT Price :US$/T 2015-02 2015-03 2015-05 2015-04 2015-06 2015-07 2015-08 2015-09 2015-11 2015-10 2015-12 2016-01 2016-02 2016-03 2016-04 2016-05 2016-06 Average priceImport QTY. 201502~201606 Cassava Starch Import & Price China
  9. 9. 71% 25% 2% 1% 1% Origin Country of imported cassava starch-2015 Thailand Vietnam Cambodia Lao Others China
  10. 10. 6019.5 5666.1 4876 6961 7236 8565 9250 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000X1000MT 2009~2015 Cassava chips importation 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 China
  11. 11. CASSAVA AGRICULTURE --Basic research --Achievements --Plantation
  12. 12. Basic research • Cassava research department CATAS: Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences SIBC: Shanghai Cassava Bio-Tech Center GSCRI: Guangxi Subtropical Crops Research Institute • Chinese Cassava Industrialization Scientists System One Cassava Scientists Team 3 research center 9 breeding station
  13. 13. Chinese Cassava Genomics Consortium Cassava Genome Sequencing Cassava Metabolic Pathways Cassava Mutant Libraries and Functional Test Molecular Breeding International cassava genome sequencing Genetic map/physical map/biodiversity Regulatory network of major metabolic pathways Genome expression analysis Proteomics and metabolomics Construction and application of T-DNA library Construction and application of EMS-Tilling Transgenic cassava with new germplasm Molecular markers and MAS C C G C
  14. 14. Achievements Variety Yield (t/ha) Remark SC10 45 broadly adaptable SC9 30 for food SC8 45 fast maturating SC7 45 with high protein in leaves SC6 45 anti-wind SC5 60 broadly adaptable SC8013 40 broadly adaptable SC8002 40 broadly adaptable SC124 45 broadly adaptable Improved Cassava Varieties
  15. 15. South China 5 • Selected from hybrid of ZM8625×SC8013 • Average yield 30-45 t/ha • Starch content 30%~32% • Maturation time 8-12 months after planting Applied in 60% of Chinese cassava area
  16. 16. New Improvement • Planting Area Expanding plan -- New varieties in cold area, develop the planting area from South provinces to Central provinces -- New varieties fit for drought land. • Specialized products plan -- High yield and starch content for bio-fuel industry -- High protein content for food industry -- Natural modified varieties for bio-chemistry industry.
  17. 17. The Young SIBS Team Breeded 100% Amylopectin cassava
  18. 18. Plantation Cassava Processing Company Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3 Farmer 5 Farmer 6 Farmer n Farmer 4 Warranty Credit Loan Cassava Bank Government coordinated cassava plantation mode
  19. 19. Company+ Bank+ Farmers Mode Cassava Base in Guangxi China
  20. 20. CASSAVA INDUSTRY DEC 2015 • Cassava Starch & modified starch About 100 factories, 1 Million MT starch (or modified starch) per year • Cassava Ethanol (100% cassava ) 25 Factories, 1,000,000 MT ethanol per year • Cassava sweeteners 6 Factories, 100,000 MT maltose.
  21. 21. Annual 100,000MT modified cassava starch project Guangdong Maoming (2008) Annual 100,000MT modified cassava starch project Guang Xi (2006)
  22. 22. Xintiande—The First Cassava Fuel Ethanol Factory 420KLPD
  23. 23. The world biggest Cassava Ethanol Factory COFCO Guangxi, 2X840KLPD
  24. 24. New cassava maltose plant in Gejiu Yunnan 100TPD
  25. 25. THE WORLD TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS OF CASSAVA INDUSTRY HELPS ON BUILDING CASSAVA SUPPLY CHAIN
  26. 26. OVERVIEW OF CASSAVA PRODUCTION VALUE CHAIN Starch milk Commercial Starch Cassava roots Modified Starch Sweeteners Ethanol High quality cassava flour Commercial fresh roots for food Commercial Dry chips Wet Milling Sorbitol/Mannito /Organic acid (Citric acid Lactic acid)
  27. 27. TYPICAL FOOD GRADE FRESH CASSAVA PRODUCTION • Simple cleaning and fresh-keeping treatment; • Quick frozen or Canning product;
  28. 28. CASSAVA CHIPS PRODUCTION • Mechanized chopping, solar drying (Thailand); • Manually peeling, slicing and solar drying (Africa); • Manually peeling, cutting and solar drying (Vietnam, Combodia etc. ); • Mechanized slicing, natural ventilation drying (Clayuca demostration); • Mechanized slicing and ventilation drying, thermal drying (China);
  29. 29. TRENDS OF CASSAVA DRY PROCESS Challenges : • Requirement of large scale drying process during post harvest season • Lack of labour resource • Environment, Sanitation and Quality control • Cost increasing The world largest cassava chips destination port: Fang Chenggang, Lianyungang, Qinghuangdao etc. started to control cassava chips unloading. Solution: Clean process by wet milling 1. Fresh roots cleaning Milling Dewatering Flash drying packing (by 500~1000kg bag) 2. Fresh roots cleaning Milling Dewatering Pelletizing Drying by bundle dryer Large bag packing or bulk storage
  30. 30. CONVENTIONAL CASSAVA WET MILLING TECHNOLOGY Input 1000 kg/h W: 2295 S: 250 DS: 350 Purified reclaim water W: 650 695 W: 5360 W: 285 S: 247 S: 1 DS: 310 DS: 5 W: 750 W: 800 W: 2000 S: 2 DS: 35 S: 247 W: 80 DS: 310 W: 2750 W: 2200 S: 225 S: 22 DS: 255 DS: 55 W: 4650 W: 300 S: 225 S: 0 DS: 254 DS: 1 W: 4640 W: 10 S: 225 S: 0 DS: 253 DS: 1 W: 4630 W: 10 W: 800 W: 2800 S: 216 S: 9 DS: 220 DS: 33 W: 1030 W: 1600 W: 800 W: 1300 S: 216 DS: 220 W: 530 W: 385 S: 216 DS: 220 W: 145 S: 216 DS: 220 W: 33 S: 216 DS: 220 S: W: 33 DS: W: Total 253 kg/h Washing water Wet cassava fibre Fine fiber Commercial starch Extraction/sieving Peeling/mud/sand Sifting De-sanding Revolving filter Refining Concentration Dewatering Flash drying and cooling Fine sand Waste water Starch (kg/h) Dry Solid (kg/h) Water (kg/h) Clean water Weighing and packaging W: Typical Cassava Starch Process Fresh Cassava Cleaning and peeling Milling Input 1000 kg/h W: 1495 S: 250 DS: 350 Purified reclaim water W: 650 695 W: 5360 W: 285 S: 247 S: 1 DS: 310 DS: 5 W: 750 W: 800 W: 1000 S: 2 DS: 35 S: 247 W: 80 DS: 310 W: 1750 W: 1500 S: 235 S: 12 DS: 265 DS: 45 W: 2950 W: 300 S: 235 S: 0 DS: 264 DS: 1 W: 2940 W: 10 W: 800 W: 2250 S: 235 S: 15 DS: 263 DS: 38 W: 710 W: 780 W: 535 S: 235 DS: 263 W: 175 S: 235 DS: 263 W: 32 S: 235 DS: 263 S: W: 32 DS: W: Total 295 kg/h Typical Cassava Flour Process Fresh Cassava Clean water W: Cleaning and peeling Washing water Peeling/mud/sand Milling Extraction/sieving Wet cassava fibre De-sanding Fine sand Commercial starch Water (kg/h) Revolving filter Refining Waste waterConcentration Dewatering Flash drying and cooling Sifting Starch (kg/h) Dry Solid (kg/h) Weighing and packaging
  31. 31. Applicable technology for Cassava wet milling-1 • Washing and cleaning ; • Milling; • Extraction ; • Refining;
  32. 32. • Dewatering; • Thermal drying; Applicable technology for Cassava wet milling-2
  33. 33. Referenced page-01 From Liang The paper: “ Comparative experiment for Evaluation of Cassava Milling technology “ Test site : Mingyang Group, Guangxi, China, cassava work shop. Period: 2005. 10.25~ 2005.12 16 Description: There are two cassava wet milling line in Mingyang factory, use same technology, with each 600tons fresh roots per day , replace one of milling group from hammer mill to rasper, compare work efficiency of two production line. Research purpose: Customize reasonable cassava process technology for different project. Item Project Line 1 Line 2 1 Specification of milling group 04 sets of DSJC45II hammer mill, 315kw Mill 600 t/d cassava 01 CSJ-40 cutting machine + 02 sets of IR82/300 rasper,231kw Mill 600~750 t/d cassava 2 Cost of equipment $50,000USD $100,000USD 3 Evaluation of operational difficulty Easy Few maintenance Relatively complicated: 1) Strictly control the quality of fresh roots, prevent metals, stone or hard stick/roots enter into rasper. 2) Need to replace damaged blade timely. 4 Milling efficiency (the starch dissociation ration) In average: 90% In average: 91.5% 5 Consumption Power: 65kwh/ton of starch Power: 45kwh/ton of starch Main spare parts: 150~250 pcs blades per day Conclusion of Contrastive analysis Easy to keep stable running Lower efficiency Strictly control the quality of raw material from procurement stage to Washing and cleaning stage. Need to carefully operate and maintain so that to keep stable running and higher efficiency.
  34. 34. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CASSAVA FOR FOOD • Nigeria: Government supported F20 policy • Uganda: International fund (Bill and Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett, DFID etc.) supported Cassava food value Chain development In Africa In Asia • Indonesia, China: Increasing of cassava starch for food industry: instant noodle, biscuits, bakeries. (increased more than 1 million tons / year during past 03 years. ) • China: started learning bring cassava food to dinning table. • Central and South American countries: Clean process on food grade cassava flour improved food sanitation situation; • Brazil: The largest cassava flour producer in the world, 3.5 million tons / year New modification technology in cassava flour production increased the cassava food industry In South America
  35. 35. Referenced page-02-1 From Mr. Antonio D. Fadel, Casa Maní , CEO, The paper: “Global Trends & Opportunities for starches in Free – From Foods Market” January 2016 CASSAVA FOOD IN BRAZIL
  36. 36. Casa Maní products New Concept of Cassava Flour Referenced page-02-2 From Mr. Antonio D. Fadel, Casa Maní , CEO, The paper: “Global Trends & Opportunities for starches in Free – From Foods Market” January 2016
  37. 37. 37 Building the HQCF Value Chain in Nigeria Currently six industrial bakers and 30 Master bakers have achieved 20% cassava bread Recently, one company has achieved 40% using gluten-like additives Training and empowerment of 5,000 bakers, six per Local Government area on production of 20% cassava flour. Expansion of HQCF production capacity from <200MT/day to >3,000MT of HQCF per day; includes purchase of 18 large HQCF plants from China (CHMC). Social market of cassava bread for nation- wide acceptance. A Cassava bread development fund of US$60M was established to support the aforementioned activities. Launching of a commercial 20% cassava bread by an industrial baker Training of Master bakers across the country Referenced page-03 From Dr. Martin Fregene The paper: “A Cassava Transformation in Nigeria”
  38. 38. How AgriTT facilitate Cassava industrialization in Uganda 4. Production of value added products 5. Commercialization 3. Demonstration of plantation 2. Basic research cooperation AgriTT Input 1. Technical exchange and training Referenced page -04 From Liang The paper: “Report of AgriTT Scope Mission Trip for Investigating Cassava Value Chain in Uganda ”
  39. 39. CONCEPT OF REGIONAL CASSAVA VALUE CHAIN- First phase Investment & Management Firm 10 of satellite 500~1000ha. cassava farm +20TPD flour / starch factory 100T/D glucose syrup factory Related farms 30,000T/a HQCF 30,000T/a Glucose syrup 30,000T/a starch supply to Glucose plant
  40. 40. Cassava food research in China
  41. 41. HI TECH IN VALUE ADDED CASSAVA PRODUCTION • Starch modification: Chemical / Mechanical /Biological process • Starch Biotechnological engineering: Starch hydrolysates and fermented products
  42. 42. Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit Tapioca starch Modified starch Household Bakery Noodle Snack Tapioca pearl (Sago) Pregelatinized starch Acid thinned starch Dextrinized starch Oxidized starch Crosslinked starch Di-starch phosphate Di-starch adipate Starch ether Hydroxyalkyl/Cationic starch Starch ester Acetylated starch Phosphate monoester starch Native starch Lesson learned from Thai cassava industry Sriroth, K. Starch hydrolysate Maltodextrin Sweeteners Glucose, Dextrose Fructose Sorbitol/Mannitol MSG/Lysine Organic acid Citric acid Lactic acid Alcohols Ethanol Referenced page -05-1 From professor Klanarong Sriroth The paper “Lessons learned from the development of processing systems and markets for Thai cassava”
  43. 43. Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit Modification, functionalities and uses of some commercial cassava products Modification Function Application Native starch Lesson learned from Thai cassava industry Sriroth, K. Referenced page -05-2 From professor Klanarong Sriroth The paper “Lessons learned from the development of processing systems and markets for Thai cassava”
  44. 44. Industrial applications Noodles Sauces Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit Lesson learned from Thai cassava industry Sriroth, K. Uses of modified cassava starches in food and non-food applications Cosmetics Referenced page -05-3 From professor Klanarong Sriroth The paper “Lessons learned from the development of processing systems and markets for Thai cassava”
  45. 45. - Maltodextrin - Sweeteners & derivatives Maltose / glucose syrup fructose syrup sugar alcohol : sorbitol, mannitol - MSG / Lysine - Acid: Citric Acid, lactic acid - Alcohols: ethanol Starch hydrolysates and fermented products Cassava and Starch Technology Research Unit Lesson learned from Thai cassava industry Sriroth, K. Referenced page -05-4 From professor Klanarong Sriroth The paper “Lessons learned from the development of processing systems and markets for Thai cassava”
  46. 46. Perspective Ecosystem of cassava industrialization
  47. 47. Mr. Liang Guo Tao lgt_acro@126.com +86 1380 2678 641

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