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Combating Hidden Hunger through Bio-fortification


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Combating Hidden Hunger through Bio-fortification

  1. 1. Combating Hidden Hunger through Bio-fortification <br />Annual Program Review 2011<br />Nairobi, Kenya10 May2011<br />Martha Nyagaya<br />Rodah Zulu<br />Helena Pachon<br />
  2. 2. Hidden hunger- A massive problem<br />Map: USAID<br />10m deaths/yr, 50% due to malnutrition, more illness & diseases, low cognitive ability,<br />low capacity for physical labor, stunted impaired growth, poor reproductive health, <br />decline in productivity>lower GDP<br />
  3. 3. Bio-fortification<br />ProVitamin A<br />Iron<br />Zinc<br />The process of improving the<br />nutritive value of staple foods<br />through:<br />Conventional breeding<br />Genetic engineering<br />Fertilizer with trace elements<br />
  4. 4. Bio-fortification: Complements existing nutrition interventions<br />Commercial Fortification<br />Supplementation<br />Dietary Diversity <br />Biofortification<br />Source: H+ 2008<br />
  5. 5. Bio-fortification- A sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition<br />Targets the poor – who depend heavily on staple foods<br />Rural based – complements fortification and supplementation<br />Cost effective – research at a central location can be multiplied across countries and time<br />Sustainable – investments are front loaded with low recurrent costs<br />
  6. 6. Active development of conventionally bred bio-fortified crops<br />Iron<br />Zinc<br />ProVitamin A<br />Source: H+ 2008<br />
  7. 7. Multidisciplinary research teams for delivery of Bio-fortified crops<br />
  8. 8. Will Bio-fortification of beans work?<br />Can breeding increase nutrient levels enough to improve human nutrition?<br />Will the extra nutrients be bio-available at sufficient levels to improve micronutrient status?<br />Will farmers adopt bio-fortified beans and will consumers buy/eat in sufficient quantities?<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Focus on Beans<br />Most important staple food in parts of Eastern Africa and Latin America<br />High content of iron absorption inhibitors polyphenols and phytic acid<br />Per capita consumption in Rwanda is about 27 kg/year (200 g/day)‏<br />Major protein, and mineral source<br />High iron content <br />(up to 10 mg/100g)<br />Iron absorption around <br />5-10%<br />
  10. 10. Research on Bio-fortified Beans<br />Determine nutrient targets-Iron -Zinc -Other foods consumed<br />Germplasm screening-Analytical methods for rapid analysis of nutrients<br />Food science Bioavailability studies*<br />Biological impact in humans‘Efficacy’<br />Population impact ‘Effectiveness’<br />
  11. 11. Targets: 3 fold increase in bean iron<br />Iron content in bean<br /><ul><li>Baseline = 50 micrograms/gram
  12. 12. Target = 94 micrograms/gram
  13. 13. Estimated bio-fortification target increment = 44 micrograms/gram</li></ul>Zinc content in bean<br /><ul><li>Baseline = 30 micrograms/gram
  14. 14. Target = 47 micrograms/gram
  15. 15. Estimated bio-fortification target increment = 17 micrograms/gram</li></ul>Consumption <br /><ul><li>200 grams/day – adults
  16. 16. 100 grams/day – children, 4-6 years of age
  17. 17. 50 grams/day - 1-3 year of age</li></li></ul><li>Participatory Variety Selection<br />86% of farmers prioritize agronomic superiority over micronutrient density <br />Data from South Western Uganda <br />N = 1200<br /><ul><li>Agronomic superiority
  18. 18. Cooking qualities
  19. 19. Marketability
  20. 20. Nutrition quality</li></li></ul><li>Bio-fortified Bean - Releases<br />NUA 1<br />NUA 45<br />Roba 1<br />M.Soya<br />
  21. 21. Will intake of additional Iron from beans improve micronutrient status?<br />High variation in Iron levels<br />Source: N.Petry et al 2009<br />
  22. 22. 1000<br />800<br />600<br />mg GAE/100g dm<br />400<br />200<br />0<br />Libi<br />Gofta<br />PVA 8<br />Zebra<br />CAB 2<br />GLP 2<br />BCR 4<br />Oba -1<br />G 2331<br />Ayenew<br />Roba 1<br />CAB 19<br />Nakaja<br />GLP 24<br />ABA 136<br />MEX 142<br />RWR 10<br />GLP X92<br />GLP 585<br />AND 620<br />RWV 528<br />HRS 545<br />Decelaya<br />Maharagi<br />Selian 97<br />MCM 2001<br />Ituri Matata<br />Umubano<br />Vuninkingi<br />Vuninkingi<br />VNB 81010<br />VCB 81013<br />TY 3396-12<br />MLB 49/89A<br />CAB 19 (F9)<br />Mashai Red<br />Awash Melka<br />Ranjonomby<br />Umubano K1<br />39.33333333<br />Inhibitors of iron absorption in beans<br />Polyphenols<br /><ul><li>Wide variations depending on bean varieties (color)
  23. 23. Mainly in bean hulls</li></ul>Phytic acid<br /><ul><li>Content constantly high 0.7-1.2 g/100 g
  24. 24. Mainly in cotyledons</li></ul>TajeriFoman 2006<br />
  25. 25. Effect of Cooking on Tannins and Phytates<br />
  26. 26. % loss of iron Fe and Zn in bean after cooking<br />
  27. 27. Reduction of cooking time – Effect of soaking<br />
  28. 28. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green shelled and dry beans<br />
  29. 29. Comparative evaluation of % in vitro bio-availability of minerals cooked with Magadi soda and/or bean ash<br />
  30. 30. Options for increasing adequacy of iron intake?<br />Enhancers of absorption<br />Inhibitors of absorption<br />Plant ferritin<br />Phytate<br />Polyphenols<br />Inulin?<br />Carotenoids?<br />
  31. 31. Participatory recipe Development and Evaluation<br />
  32. 32. New Recipe Books<br />Uganda – 2 <br />Kenya – 2 <br />Tanzania – 4 <br />To be modified for use in<br /><ul><li>Rwanda, Burundi and DRC</li></ul>2011<br /><ul><li>Translate existing books for wider dissemination
  33. 33. Develop recipe books for Ethiopia</li></li></ul><li>Bean Product Development<br />Focus – Iron, zinc and protein <br />Nutrient density and quality <br />This products is being tested in Ethiopia as a weaning product<br />
  34. 34. Efficacy <br />To establish whether there is a physiological adaptation to the inhibitory effect of bean polyphenols during long term consumption of a mixed diet<br />To compare the biological impact of iron bio-fortified beans on biochemical and functional indicators of iron status<br />
  35. 35. Effectiveness<br />Objective: <br /><ul><li>Feasibility of improving nutrition status of vulnerable communities with improved bean varieties
  36. 36. Countries:</li></ul>Malawi, Zambia, Cameroon, Ethiopia, DRC, Burundi<br />Controlled consumption studies<br /><ul><li>Kenya and Uganda</li></li></ul><li>Baseline nutrition surveys: Burundi & DRC<br /><ul><li> Less than 50% well nourished
  37. 37. High prevalence of</li></ul>stunting (57%)<br />Source: CIALCA 2009<br />
  38. 38. Prevalence of Malnutrition<br />Wasting (Weight for Height)<br /><ul><li>South Kivu - 12% 
  39. 39. Rwanda - 2%
  40. 40. Bas Congo - 2%</li></ul> <br />Stunting (Height for Age)<br /><ul><li>South Kivu - 25%
  41. 41. Rwanda - 10%
  42. 42. Bas Congo - 21%</li></ul> <br />Underweight (Weight for Age)<br /><ul><li>South Kivu - 31%
  43. 43. Rwanda - 6%
  44. 44. Bas Congo - 9%</li></ul>High correlation between stunting (H/A) and underweight (W/A) <br />low prevalence of wasting (W/H)<br />Prevalence of underweight directly describes:<br /><ul><li>Magnitude of growth faltering
  45. 45. Stunting in young children </li></ul>Malnutrition causes are both chronic and acute<br />Source: CIALCA 2009<br />
  46. 46. Scaling up dissemination withpartnerships at different levels<br />
  47. 47. Summary<br />Breeding progress is good and several bio-fortified bean varieties can be released by 2012<br />Strategic issues for enhancing Impact on nutrition, food security, and income<br /><ul><li>Identify, strengthen and fine tune service delivery mechanisms (seed, extension, information)
  48. 48. Strengthen and expand linkages with the health sector, private sector and policy actors
  49. 49. Analyze and address constraints affecting adoption</li></li></ul><li>Thank You!<br />