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Cassava value chains workshop

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Presentation at the Cassava Value Chains Workshop
CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 24-26 August 2016
Speaker: Hernan Ceballos

Published in: Science
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Cassava value chains workshop

  1. 1. Cassava value chains wokshop Palmira, August 24-26, 2016
  2. 2. Linking cassava research and industry Hernan Ceballos Introduction: a remarkable crop Starches and flour Animal and human nutrition Ethanol Concluding remarks
  3. 3. The plant Roots: Unique starch properties Low protein Yellow roots: carotenes Foliage: “A tropical alfalfa” 100 US$/t in Vietnam Stems: Planting material
  4. 4. Harvesting the planting material
  5. 5. Storage of planting material
  6. 6. The effect of quality of planting material
  7. 7. Main uses of cassava Industrial applications Dried chips Roots in a starch factory Bio-ethanol Boiled roots Many ethnic uses: AFRICA: Gari, Fufu ASIA: Sago, Gathot Thiwul, Krupuk LAC: Farinha Cassabe
  8. 8. Traditional cassava Weeds Degraded soils Associated crops Low soil fertility Orinoco delta - Venezuela Slopped land in Vietnam
  9. 9. Commercial planting in sub-humid environment Commercial planting in acid-soil environment Commercial planting in sandy low fertility soils Commercial planting near rice fields
  10. 10. This map could be used to indicate strength of markets for cassava Strong markets lead to adoption of technologies which reduce yield gap. “The best agronomist is a good price for cassava…” (J. Cock) Impact, in other words, depend on the strength of markets.
  11. 11. All industrial uses of cassava require High dry matter (starch) content Continuous supply year round Early bulking?
  12. 12. Evolution of dry matter content (≈ starch content) in Rayong 60 25 30 35 40 Drymattercontent(%) 10 M 11 A 12 M 13 J 14 J 15 A 16 S 17 O 18 N 19 D MAP Month Return of rains in the Caribbean coast of Colombia Rayong 60 does not recover DMC even 4 months after arrival of rains However, in Southern Brazil clones have been developed to recover DMC
  13. 13. Dry matter content (%) in two dates of harvest (before /after rains) 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Dry matter content (%) in March Drymattercontent(%)inMay µ = 26.5% µ = 31.5%
  14. 14. 25 30 35 40 Drymatter(%) 10 M 11 A 12 M 13 J 14 J 15 A 16 S 17 O 18 N 19 D MAP Month Mean Best DMC Worst DMC R60 Results of breeding for better response in DMC for delayed harvests (beyond 12 months after planting)
  15. 15. Age (months) FRY (t ha-1) DMY (t ha-1) HI (0-1) DMC (%) Roting (%) 8.5 19.7 7.0 0.62 35.6 1.13 9.5 20.1 6.8 0.60 33.9 1.15 11.0 25.0 8.9 0.55 35.6 0.75 12.5 28.5 10.7 0.58 37.8 0.78 14.0 32.8 12.1 0.54 36.9 1.31 16.5 38.7 14.5 0.55 37.4 1.07 Average 27.5 10.0 0.57 36.2 1.03 SE of Mean 0.84 0.31 0.00 0.19 0.52 Results of breeding for better response in DMC for delayed harvests (beyond 12 months after planting)
  16. 16. Ground penetrating radar New technologies will allow non-destructive monitoring of root growth through the season
  17. 17. Linking cassava research and industry Hernan Ceballos Introduction: a remarkable crop Starches and flour Animal and human nutrition Ethanol Concluding remarks
  18. 18. Starch: cassava is the 2nd most important source of starch worldwide.
  19. 19. Starch: excellent quality and easy to extract even through simple technologies
  20. 20. The potential of HQCF in baking
  21. 21. Ethnic uses of cassava in Africa
  22. 22. Ethnic uses of cassava in Latin America Casabe Farinha
  23. 23. Needs of the starch industry High dry matter (starch) content Continuous supply year round Variation in functional properties
  24. 24. Starch is typically made of two glucose polymers. Their proportion & relative length of their chains affect the functional properties of the starch: alpha 1-4 Amylopectin alpha 1-4 and alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds Only alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds Amylose alpha 1-6 INTRODUCTION: Starch Until recently, we only worked with “generic” cassava regarding functional properties Retrogradation Syneresis Gel clarity Thermal properties Viscosity, etc. Commercial applications
  25. 25. March 2006: 1st natural waxy cassava detected (after self- pollination) Naturally occurring amylose-free (waxy)
  26. 26. Source: Sánchez et al., (2009) Starch/Stärke 61:12-19 Average 20.7 % No amylose-free starch found Amylose content (%) in starches from more than 4000 accessions of the cassava germplasm collection at CIAT (iodine-colorimetric determination) In search of novel cassava starch types No high-amylose Starch found either Waxy starch proved to be very appealing to the starch industry 0% amylose Resistant Starches (diabetic People) Eco-Tilling ≤60% amylose
  27. 27. Needs of the flour industry High dry matter (starch) content Continuous supply year round Special peel characteristics Functional properties ?
  28. 28. Peeling implies an important cost in flour production There is large variation in peel thickness Easier to peel Do we need to peel? More flour per kg root
  29. 29. Refining flour reduces fiber and improves texture
  30. 30. Linking cassava research and industry Hernan Ceballos Introduction: a remarkable crop Starches and flour Animal and human nutrition Ethanol Concluding remarks
  31. 31. Boiled roots
  32. 32. Animal feeding
  33. 33. 2004 2007 2010 2013 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 Total carotenoids content (μg / g – FW basis)
  34. 34. Yellow maize + pigments Yellow roots + white maize (no pigments) Dry foliage + white maize (no pigments) Yellow roots + dry foliage + yellow maize (no pigments)
  35. 35. Foliage in animal feeding
  36. 36. Leaf retention
  37. 37. Cassava foliage a “tropical alfalfa”. Excellent for animal feeding(100 US$/T in Vietnam)
  38. 38. Silage of cassava roots and foliage for swine feeding at a large scale Some adaptive research to determine the right proportion of roots and foliage, as well as in the preparation of the silage, is still needed
  39. 39. Linking cassava research and industry Hernan Ceballos Introduction: a remarkable crop Starches and flour Animal and human nutrition Ethanol Concluding remarks
  40. 40. Large (“carburant”) ethanol factories in Thailand and China
  41. 41. Deforestation, time spent looking for wood Unaccounted social impact: time invested by women and children to gather fuel wood or the need to go to the market to purchase it (or charcoal). Cooking often accounts for 90% of energy demand for millions of households in Africa
  42. 42. Smoke & indoor air pollution lead to thousands of early deaths (particularly women and children) Indoor air pollution (IAP) is responsible for > 1.6 million deaths and 2.7% of the global burden of diseases (as DALY) It has been estimated IAP is equivalent to smoking 2 packages of cigarettes per day Women and children are the most severely affected. Replacing solid fuel can enhance welfare of 2.5 billion people.
  43. 43. Charcoal or wood burning also has negative environmental effects related to 18% CO2 emissions and deforestation
  44. 44. Clean cooking fuel also implies less time cooking and better cooked food
  45. 45. Alcoholic beverages… why not?
  46. 46. Scanning electron microscope photographs Normal Small- granules 8.77 μm 5.73 μm 7.95 μm 9.69 μm 13.3 μm 10.9 μm 11.1 μm Modification of starch properties through induced mutations
  47. 47. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of very high gravity (VHG) cassava starch slurry 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Glucose(g/100mL) Highest rate of hydrolysis for Small Granule Cassava (5G160-13) Lesser use of enzyme for same rate of hydrolysis. Waxy cassava starch (AM206-5) Normal cassava starch (MTAI-8) Small granule: structural & physico-chemical characteristics Time (hours)
  48. 48. Linking cassava research and industry Hernan Ceballos Introduction: a remarkable crop Starches and flour Animal and human nutrition Ethanol Concluding remarks
  49. 49. High fresh root productivity and high/stable DMC a common requirement for most value chains
  50. 50. “Asparagus” cassava: a way to increase yields?
  51. 51. A gradual change has taken place in the last decade at CIAT We abandoned the idea of “generic” cassava varieties that were supposed to be good for all and every end-use Research can (and must) meet the specific demands from different value chains specialized clones new cultural practices
  52. 52. Clear understanding of the needs from the industry is fundamental Collaboration between research and processing institutions feasible, easy and very productive Cassava can respond to the needs from the industry. Breeding is the bridge. This presentation shows how efficient the process can be
  53. 53. Thanks! Gracias!

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