Cassava for sustainable
              poverty alleviation
Introduction and definitions

Eco-efficient cassava: soil conser...
World production of cassava
  Cassava: an ideal vehicle for rural development
       and to reach the poorest of the poor
...
Eco-efficiency in cassava


Increase productivity and/or value of production

                     while

     reducing th...
Cassava: from subsistence…
…to an “industrial” crop.
         Processing may have
Starch   negative impact on
                                       ...
Cassava for sustainable
              poverty alleviation
Introduction and definitions

Eco-efficient cassava: soil conser...
30
Cassava root yield (t/ha)




                            20



                                   Sattahip
           ...
But, with adequate and
  well-balanced fertilizer
application, high yields can
be maintained for at least
  27 years of co...
Even on gentle slopes a lot of runoff water can
   accumulate in natural drainage ways………
…which can break the contour ridges and cause
             serious gully erosion
…or worse…
…or even much worse.
Research has shown that cassava
production can result in serious erosion……
but that there are many simple cultural
and soi...
Research has shown that cassava
production can result in serious erosion……
but that there are many simple cultural
and soi...
Cassava for sustainable
              poverty alleviation
Introduction and definitions

Eco-efficient cassava: soil conser...
Important criteria and future trends in
         management of cassava arthropod pest

 Long cycle crop: leads to greater...
PESTS                                 ORIGIN            AMERICA      AFRICA      ASIA
Mealybugs
Phenacoccus manihoti      ...
Whiteflies: the damage




Vector:
CMD
CBSD
Frog skin?
Bemisia tabaci Potential Distribution
Whiteflies: host plant resistance




Molecular markers using the microarray approach
Whiteflies: host plant resistance
44
        DAMAGE LEVEL
3,5


33

2,5


22

1,5
                                        ...
Whiteflies: Releasing Nataima-31 (2003)
Whiteflies: integrated management
damage
  (D)
              Economic threshold
                                          ...
Whiteflies: integrated management
Mealybug: the damage
Mealybugs in South America
  P. herreni




                            P. manihoti


P. manihoti




                    ...
Mealybugs in South America




                              P. manihoti


P. manihoti




                Anagyrus lopezi...
Mealybug(Phenacoccus manihoti): damage in Africa




                             One of the most successful
             ...
Mealybugs in South America
P. herreni


Anagyrus
diversicornis

                                  P. manihoti




      Ae...
Biological control of horn worm
Bacterial blight




                              Root rots

Susceptible




                   Frog Super elongation dis...
Diagnostic tools for Frog Skin Disease

            DAPI stain                              Electron miscroscope


       ...
Nested PCR Diagnostic por production of clean planting material


            P1                                          ...
Cassava for sustainable
              poverty alleviation
Introduction and definitions

Eco-efficient cassava: soil conser...
Environmental impact of starch production




May 17, 2009
The Vietnam Farmers’ Association has asked the Ministry of
Natu...
Cassava flour as alternative to starch
Waxy starch: the plant (not the factory)
      making starch modifications
  Roots




 Maize waxy starch benefits
  farm...
Tolerance to     20 days
post-harvest      after
physiological    harvest
deterioration




Two months after harvest
Cassava for sustainable
              poverty alleviation
Introduction and definitions

Eco-efficient cassava: soil conser...
A Green Revolution for cassava?
In search of tolerance to herbicides




Looking for natural tolerance in
the germplasm collection

Induced mutations

Gen...
The concept of genetic stocks for cassava
Typically, source materials have been the clones where traits had
been first fou...
OUTPUT 1:
      Creation and maintenance of genetic stocks to overcome
                      production constraints

 Con...
OUTPUT 2:
          More efficient genetic enhancement approaches

 Development of doubled-haploids protocol for the prod...
OUTPUT 3:
         Eco-efficiency of production & processing of cassava

 Continue promoting cultural practices that will...
PROBLEMS and OPPORTUNITIES


 Weakness in addressing equity and gender issues


 Weakness of NARs (even “big” ones like ...
Asenti sana !
                                       Thank you !
                                    Danke !
             ...
Cassava for sustainable poverty alleviation
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Cassava for sustainable poverty alleviation

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Presentation by Hernán Ceballos for the CIAT KSW 2009

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  • cassava white scle is an emerging treat in Ethiopia.
    Is there any possible solution to manage it?
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Cassava for sustainable poverty alleviation

  1. 1. Cassava for sustainable poverty alleviation Introduction and definitions Eco-efficient cassava: soil conservation Eco-efficient cassava: pests & diseases Eco-efficient cassava processing In the pipeline & MTP
  2. 2. World production of cassava Cassava: an ideal vehicle for rural development and to reach the poorest of the poor …but it is grown in marginal and fragile environments.
  3. 3. Eco-efficiency in cassava Increase productivity and/or value of production while reducing the environmental footprint (of production and processing)
  4. 4. Cassava: from subsistence…
  5. 5. …to an “industrial” crop. Processing may have Starch negative impact on Ethanol the environment Dried chips
  6. 6. Cassava for sustainable poverty alleviation Introduction and definitions Eco-efficient cassava: soil conservation Eco-efficient cassava: pests & diseases Eco-efficient cassava processing In the pipeline & MTP
  7. 7. 30 Cassava root yield (t/ha) 20 Sattahip 10 Huaipong Korat 1960 1970 1980 1990 Crop year Cassava root yields in three soil series in Thailand decreased over time if no fertilizer was applied
  8. 8. But, with adequate and well-balanced fertilizer application, high yields can be maintained for at least 27 years of continuous cassava production on the same land
  9. 9. Even on gentle slopes a lot of runoff water can accumulate in natural drainage ways………
  10. 10. …which can break the contour ridges and cause serious gully erosion
  11. 11. …or worse…
  12. 12. …or even much worse.
  13. 13. Research has shown that cassava production can result in serious erosion…… but that there are many simple cultural and soil conservation practices that can reduce it
  14. 14. Research has shown that cassava production can result in serious erosion…… but that there are many simple cultural and soil conservation practices that can reduce it However, farmers seldom adopt soil conservation practices ……. ……because most of these practices require additional money or labor and do not provide any short-term economic benefits
  15. 15. Cassava for sustainable poverty alleviation Introduction and definitions Eco-efficient cassava: soil conservation Eco-efficient cassava: pests & diseases Eco-efficient cassava processing In the pipeline & MTP
  16. 16. Important criteria and future trends in management of cassava arthropod pest  Long cycle crop: leads to greater exposure to pests  Greater incidence in large plantations  Climate change: influence pest occurrence / population dynamic  The power of biological control and availability of host plant resistance  Increased emphasis on wild Manihot species as source of resistance
  17. 17. PESTS ORIGIN AMERICA AFRICA ASIA Mealybugs Phenacoccus manihoti Americas Origin XXXX XXXX (Th) Phenacoccus herreni Americas Origin ------- ------- Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Americas Origin ------- XXXX Ferrisia virgata Americas Origin XXXX XXXX Dysmicoccus sp. Americas Origin ------- ------- Psedococcus mandio (Root mealybug) Americas Origin ------- ------- Whiteflies Aleurotrachelus socialis Americas Origin ------- ------- Bemisia tuberculata Americas Origin ------- ------- Bemisia tabaci Africa (Cassava) -------- Origin XXXX Bemisia afer Africa XXXX Origin ------- Aleurodiscus dispersus Americas Origin XXXX XXXX Mites Mononychellus tanajoa Americas Origin XXXX ------- Tetranychus truncatus Asia -------- -------- Origin Stemborers Chilomima clarkei Americas Origin ------- ------- Hornworm Ernnyis ello Americas Origin ------- ------- Lacebugs Vatiga spp. Americas Origin ------- ------- Burrower bug Cyrtomenus bergi Americas Origin ------- ------- Shootfly Silva pendula Americas Origin ------- -------
  18. 18. Whiteflies: the damage Vector: CMD CBSD Frog skin?
  19. 19. Bemisia tabaci Potential Distribution
  20. 20. Whiteflies: host plant resistance Molecular markers using the microarray approach
  21. 21. Whiteflies: host plant resistance 44 DAMAGE LEVEL 3,5 33 2,5 22 1,5 80 80 ADULT POPULATION/LEAF 11 70 0,5 60 60 0 CG-489-31 CG-489-34 50 Other 489-23 CG 489-4 CG resistant CMC40 40 CMC AROMA AROMA NATAIMA - 31 clones 40 40 30 20 20 10 0 CG 489-31 CG 489-34 Other resistant 489-4 CG 489-23 CG CMC 40 AROMA CMC40 AROMA NATAIMA - 31 clones
  22. 22. Whiteflies: Releasing Nataima-31 (2003)
  23. 23. Whiteflies: integrated management damage (D) Economic threshold Initiate control 16 14 Biological application: 12 Adult-Egg: 1 – 50 Nynph–Pupae: 1-200 10 8 control I nitiate Chemical application: 6 Adult-Egg: 51-200 4 Nynph– Pupae: 201-500 Economic damage 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Population (P)
  24. 24. Whiteflies: integrated management
  25. 25. Mealybug: the damage
  26. 26. Mealybugs in South America P. herreni P. manihoti P. manihoti P. herreni P. manihoti
  27. 27. Mealybugs in South America P. manihoti P. manihoti Anagyrus lopezi P. herreni P. manihoti
  28. 28. Mealybug(Phenacoccus manihoti): damage in Africa One of the most successful interventions by CG system En example of the potential benefits of productive collaboration between Anagyrus lopezi CIAT and IITA
  29. 29. Mealybugs in South America P. herreni Anagyrus diversicornis P. manihoti Aenasius vexans Acerophagus coccois P. herreni P. manihoti
  30. 30. Biological control of horn worm
  31. 31. Bacterial blight Root rots Susceptible Frog Super elongation disease skin disease Resistant
  32. 32. Diagnostic tools for Frog Skin Disease DAPI stain Electron miscroscope Infected Healthy Source: Juan Fernando Mejía & Elizabeth Alvarez
  33. 33. Nested PCR Diagnostic por production of clean planting material P1 P7 R16F2n R16R2 16S rRNA gene I.S 23S 5S R16F2n R16R2 R16mF2 R16mR1 Infected Healthy Infected 1.2 Leaves + roots Leaves Roots
  34. 34. Cassava for sustainable poverty alleviation Introduction and definitions Eco-efficient cassava: soil conservation Eco-efficient cassava: pests & diseases Eco-efficient cassava processing In the pipeline & MTP
  35. 35. Environmental impact of starch production May 17, 2009 The Vietnam Farmers’ Association has asked the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and Dong Nai Province officials help farmers in their claims against Vedan Vietnam (Photograph). Vedan, a starch and MSG producer, has been accused of polluting the Thi Vai River….
  36. 36. Cassava flour as alternative to starch
  37. 37. Waxy starch: the plant (not the factory) making starch modifications Roots  Maize waxy starch benefits farmers (30% higher price)  Stronger markets  Easier degradation of starch  Reduced need for modification for certain uses Stems
  38. 38. Tolerance to 20 days post-harvest after physiological harvest deterioration Two months after harvest
  39. 39. Cassava for sustainable poverty alleviation Introduction and definitions Eco-efficient cassava: soil conservation Eco-efficient cassava: pests & diseases Eco-efficient cassava processing In the pipeline & MTP
  40. 40. A Green Revolution for cassava?
  41. 41. In search of tolerance to herbicides Looking for natural tolerance in the germplasm collection Induced mutations Genetic transformation (patents for RR expire soon)
  42. 42. The concept of genetic stocks for cassava Typically, source materials have been the clones where traits had been first found (i.e. MECU72 for whiteflies) Typically, the trait is in a heterozygous condition in the source Use of the source was limited because exchange of germplasm had to be in vitro → many logistic and quarantine problems Genetic stocks for cassava: Self pollinate the source to have trait homozygous (S1 generation)  Breeding value of such progenitor doubles Self pollinated SEED (S2 generation) exchange between programs  Exchange and conservation of “source material” as botanical seed Cross S1 sources for different traits (stockpile more than one trait)  Faster exploitation of high-value traits and other desirable characteristics CIAT-IITA-EMBRAPA webpage–Plant Registration Journal  Good visibility and higher impact of our research
  43. 43. OUTPUT 1: Creation and maintenance of genetic stocks to overcome production constraints  Continue evaluation (and self-pollination) of accessions from germplasm bank  Increased carotene and protein content in the roots  Reduced cyanogenic glucosides in the roots  Starch quality traits (waxy and high-amylose) fully characterized  Self-pollinate dominant sources to make sure they are homozygous  Cross different homozygous sources (i.e. whiteflies and CMD resistance)  Continue with the development of “general purpose” improved cassava germplasm adapted to key target environments
  44. 44. OUTPUT 2: More efficient genetic enhancement approaches  Development of doubled-haploids protocol for the production of fully homozygous genotypes in a one-year period  Full commitment to the phenotyping phase of the biotechnology platform and development of suitable populations  Continue with the training of young breeders in suitable conventional breeding approaches and incorporation of new technologies  Induction of mutations as an approach to generate new, useful genetic variation  Genetic transformation for increased carotenoids content  New screening techniques (i.e. the use of NIRs for protein content)
  45. 45. OUTPUT 3: Eco-efficiency of production & processing of cassava  Continue promoting cultural practices that will reduce soil erosion (Tin Maung Aye assuming a leadership role in Asia) and improved competitiveness for cassava (mechanization of planting & harvest by CLAYUCA)  Urgent need to address the issue of pest (mealybug and whiteflies) and diseases (mycoplasm?) in Asia  Final verdict on the causal organism of frog skin disease  Decentralized ethanol production approach in the Rural Social Bio-Refineries concept under development by CLAYUCA  equity  Added value processing technologies (refined flour, waxing roots, bio-ethanol, waste management, animal feed) by CLAYUCA and team in Asia
  46. 46. PROBLEMS and OPPORTUNITIES  Weakness in addressing equity and gender issues  Weakness of NARs (even “big” ones like Thailand and Brazil) …but excellent collaboration with these and other key partners  Lack of commitment by the private sector. Absence of a “seed” industry  Strategic collaboration with CLAYUCA and CIRAD  Significant improvement in CIAT – IITA collaboration  Two key scientists (T. Bellotti and R. Howeler) retire but replacements have been found. Soon the molecular breeder position will be filled.
  47. 47. Asenti sana ! Thank you ! Danke ! O b r i どうもありがとう g a d o ! Gracias ! Merci ! The Rockefeller Foundation HarvestPlus COLCIENCIAS Colombia’s Min. Agric. National Starch

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