Cassava at CIAT


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Cassava at CIAT

  1. 1. Cassava at CIAT<br />Annual Program Review 2011<br />Nairobi, Kenya9 May 2011<br />Clair Hershey<br />
  2. 2. Cassava at the vortex<br />Cassava: in a unique position to respond to some of the trends of the global economy and to the ramifications of climate change:<br />Higher food prices and food security for urban poor<br />Income generation for poor farmers<br />Cost of inputs and resource use efficiency<br />Variable rainfall patterns and higher temperatures due to climate change<br />Demands for renewable, eco-efficient energy sources<br />
  3. 3. This presentation<br />Supporting farmer income and human health through value-added traits<br />Identifying gender-sensitive varietal traits and management<br />Developing and applying the basic tools for genetic improvement<br />Preparing for new challenges of biotic constraints<br />
  4. 4. Supporting farmer income and human health through value-added traits<br />- Starch mutants- Carotenoids- Post-harvest storage<br />
  5. 5. Cassava can lead the way among tropical crops to support expanding food, feed and industrial markets<br />Waxy (amylose-free)<br />Combines highly desirable traits for the processed food industry, especially frozen products<br />Small starch granulesClear advantage for ethanol: rapid hydrolysis (starch to sugar conversion) and lesser use of enzyme for same rate<br />
  6. 6. Some starch traits important for the food industry:<br />suitability of normal and mutant sources<br />
  7. 7. What is the waxy trait worth?<br />“Amylopectin starch has the potential to provide added value estimated at approximately €100 million per year to the European starch potato industry and associated farmers.”<br /> (2008)<br />
  8. 8. Glucose content during simultaneous saccharification & fermentation of cassava starch for ethanol production <br />Enzyme: Stargen 2; Genencor<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Cassava-based material in medical and packing application:<br />Cassava-based composite fibers were fabricated for skin tissue scaffold application<br />JackaponSunthornvarabhas, PathamaChatakanonda, KuakoonPiyachomkwan and KlanarongSriroth, Bangkok (Thailand) <br />62nd Starch Convention 2011, 13-14 April, 2011, Detmold <br />
  11. 11. Development of double mutants to generate new starch phenotypes<br />Waxystarch (wxwxSGSG)<br />Small Granule WxWxsgsg<br />X<br />F1 (WxwxSGsg)<br />Self-pollinated or crossed<br />Wx-- SG--<br />(Normal starch)<br />wxwx SG--<br />(Waxy starch)<br />Wx -- sgsg<br />(Small granule)<br />wxwxsgsg<br />(Double mutant)<br />784 S1 and 188 “F2”, transplanted at the end of 2010, will be harvested and tested by the end of 2011<br />
  12. 12. y = 2.346x + 8.6995<br />R2 = 0.7763<br />Progress in breeding for total carotenoids content <br />(A nutritional goal of 15µg/g established in 2005)<br />30<br />Maximum<br />25<br />20<br />TCC (µg/ g)<br />15<br />Average<br />10<br />5<br />Minimum<br />0<br />2005<br />2006<br />2007<br />2008<br />2009<br />2010<br />Year<br />
  13. 13. Rapid screening: use of a colorimeter for quantifying β-carotene<br />50<br />y = 2.4242x - 1.7686<br />2<br />R<br /> = 0.6247<br />40<br />30<br />20<br />Selection index<br />10<br />0<br />2<br />6<br />10<br />14<br />18<br />-10<br />-20<br />All trans β-carotene<br />
  14. 14. First evaluation of post-harvest physiological deterioration in Thailand (April 2011)<br />1. Training on the procedure<br />2. Introduction of potential sources of tolerance<br />
  15. 15. Gender-sensitive traits<br />Most women in Africa are involved in weeding cassava fields (typically for the first two months of the crop).<br />Tolerance to herbicides could have a positive impact on the lives of these women. We are focusing on this trait by screening for naturally occurring mutants. <br />
  16. 16. Gender-sensitive traits<br />Women in Africa and LAC are involved in peelingcassava for small processing facilities (i.e. gari,farinha, etc.)<br />Thick peel facilitates peeling, but is undesirable for starch extraction.<br />The article “Genetic variability of root peel thickness and its influence in extractable starch from cassava (ManihotesculentaCrantz) roots” to be published in Plant Breeding address this issue.<br />
  17. 17. Developing and applying the basic tools for genetic improvement<br />
  18. 18. Inbreeding in cassava through the production of double haploids: 2010-2013supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation <br />Project partners: <br />CIAT Colombia Anther & Microspore technology; Crosses with wild Cassava relatives H. Ceballos, B. Dedicova, P. Perera<br />ICESI, ColombiaOvule technology Z. Lentini , A. Gonzales<br />SChIB, China( South China Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Science), <br />Microspore technology Ch. Wang<br />ISBS, China(Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences),China Microspore technology Z. Peng<br />NaCRI, Uganda(National Crops Resources Research Institute),<br />Anther.& Microspore& Ovule technology Y. Baguma, M. Namutebi<br />IITA,Nigeria(International Institute of Tropical Agriculture)<br />Crosses with wild Cassava relatives Peter Kulakow<br />
  19. 19. Anther culture <br />Tested factors for embryogenesis induction of the microspores in the anthers<br />Stress pretreatment <br />Basal medium<br />Pollen developmental stage<br />Successfully induced microspore embryogenesis<br />Plant regeneration is in progress<br />
  20. 20. Microspore Culture <br /><ul><li>Tested factors for embryogenesis induction of the microspores
  21. 21. Stress pretreatment
  22. 22. Pollen developmental stage
  23. 23. Based on the size of the flower
  24. 24. Based on the size of the microspore/pollen
  25. 25. Successfully induced microspore embryogenesis
  26. 26. Cytological observations proved the origin of the callus is from the microspore/pollen grain</li></ul>Induced tetrads and micro callus formation<br />Induced pollen grains and micro callus formation<br />
  27. 27. New research on reproductive biology <br />Growth of pollen tube in female flowers (a-b); one hour after pollination (c-d) and three hours after pollination (e-f) <br />Training<br />Natalia Ramos(Ph.D. student, wide crosses)<br />
  28. 28. Genetics and Genomics<br />Segregation for root color in an advanced breeding family<br />17 μg<br />0 μg<br />
  29. 29. Genetics and GenomicsMAS for carotenoids<br />-Carotene Pathway in Plants<br />IPP<br />Geranylgeranyl diphosphate<br />Phytoene synthase<br />Phytoene<br />Phytoene desaturase<br />ξ-carotene desaturase<br />Lycopene<br />Lycopene-beta-cyclase<br /> -carotene<br />(vitamin A precursor)<br />
  30. 30. Genetics and Genomics<br />MAS for whitefly resistance<br />
  31. 31. Cassava informatics<br /><ul><li>White paper on cassava information resources in collaboration with IITA and DOW. Draft circulated to the community in early April
  32. 32. Analysis of Sanger + 454 sequences from CIAT-RIKEN biotic stress full length cDNAlibraries</li></ul>Previously developed genetic maps<br />
  33. 33. CIAT Cassava Informatics<br /><ul><li>Sequences cleaned, assembled and annotated
  34. 34. To do: integration of 454 and Sanger sequences into single assembly, alignment to reference genome Cassava4, annotation updates
  35. 35. Illumina sequencing of AM560-2 (with Yale) to improve reference assembly. Awaiting sequence from Yale's sequencing center</li></li></ul><li>There is a rapidly growing gap between our capacity to genotype and our capacity to phenotype<br />Phenotyping<br />Genotyping<br />
  36. 36. Preparing for new challengesof biotic constraints<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Effects on cassava pest occurrence and severity<br />MANAGEMENT FACTORS<br />- Larger plantations, monocropping, genetic uniformity (e.g. Brazil)<br />- Increased area planted, continuum of cassava farms<br />- Changing management practices to meet industrial needs: constant source of roots needed for cost-efficient processing (e.g. overlapping planting dates)<br />-- Increased chemical pesticide use/misuse<br />
  39. 39. Effects on cassava pest occurrence and severity<br />CLIMATE CHANGE<br />- Climate changes: rainfall patterns and cycles, warmer temperatures, affect on planting patterns<br />Climate change models suggest that the greatest impact on cassava will be from biotic constraints, and much less from abiotic (drought; higher temperatures)<br />
  40. 40. Potential distribution of B. tabaci,based on known distribution of Biotype A.<br />Source: Herrera et al. (in press)<br />
  41. 41. Potential distribution of Cassava Mosaic Disease <br />Source: Herrera et al. (in press)<br />
  42. 42. Potential distribution of Cassava Green Mite <br />Source: Herrera et al. (in press)<br />
  43. 43. Source: Herrera et al. (in press)<br />Source: Herrera et al. (in press)<br />Source: CIAT<br />
  44. 44. CIAT Roles<br />RISK ASSESSMENT:Lead a global assessment of threats from cassava pests<br />MONITORING: Establish comprehensive monitoring with national/international partners<br />MANAGEMENT: Establish or strengthen core capacities to meet global pest management needs<br />CAPACITY BUILDING: Work with partners for sustainable capacity to respond to pest challenges<br />
  45. 45. Expected Impacts of CIAT Research(CIAT Business Plan)<br />Increased income from marketing varieties with higher value<br />Improved health due to increased macro and micro nutrient components in new varieties<br />Reduced health and environmental risk from pesticide use<br />Profitability and reduced risk of climate-related shocks<br />Reduction in adverse environmental impacts from processing<br />
  46. 46. How do we get there?<br />Initiation of the Root, Tuber and Banana CGIAR Research Program (RTB-CRP) and rationalized research agenda<br />Strengthened ties with IITA<br />A comprehensive priority-setting exercise up front<br />Aggressively exploit the opportunities to promote cassava’s comparative advantages to donors as a multi-purpose, pro-poor, climate change-resilient crop<br />Build headquarters and Asia capacity to, and beyond, minimum critical level<br />Build capacity of partners through training and policy advocacy<br />
  47. 47. Thank you<br />