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Cassava and the environment: inputs, outputs and externalities

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Presentation at the Cassava Value Chains Workshop
CIAT, Cali, Colombia. 24-26 August 2016
Speaker: Thierry Tran

Published in: Science
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Cassava and the environment: inputs, outputs and externalities

  1. 1. Cassava and the environment: inputs, outputs and externalities Presented by: Thierry Tran Cassava Value Chains workshop, CIAT, Cali 24-26 / 08 / 2016 thierry.tran@cgiar.org / thierry.tran@cirad.fr
  2. 2. • CIAT • IITA, ILRI • CIRAD • NRI • Univalle (Colombia) • Kasetsart University, KMUTT (Thailand) • Clayuca Partnership for RTB post-harvest project Started 2013: Complementary funding RTB Post- harvest project 1
  3. 3. RTBs are processed at large and small scales Thailand 200t starch/day Nigeria 2t HQCF/day Nigeria 0.3t gari/day A. de la Giraudière Colombia 2-3t starch/day Vietnam 3-11t starch/day Paraguay 25- 100t starch/day Tanzania 2t HQCF /day 2
  4. 4. Thailand produces 2-3 million tons cassava starch/year 25-30 million tons cassava roots / year (3rd producer) 10-12 millions tons roots processed into starch Factories use: Electricity: 900 - 1000 MJ/t starch Thermal energy: 1600 - 2500 MJ/t starch Since 2004, 90% of factories switched from fuel oil to biogas for starch drying 3
  5. 5. 4 Typical factory 200t starch/24 hours, 9-12 months/year
  6. 6. 5 Cassava starch production Washing and peeling Cassava roots 600-800 t/day Rasping Photos: G. Da, T. Tran
  7. 7. 6 Extraction - centrifugation Drying Dry starch 150-200 t/day Photos: G. Da, T. Tran Cassava starch production
  8. 8. 7 By-products Peels Fibres (50% fibre / 50% starch db) Sun-drying Compost Fuel Drying Animal feed Photos: T. Tran
  9. 9. 8 Wastewater Biogas Open lagoon Open lagoon Photos: T. Tran Covered lagoon for Biogas
  10. 10. Roots: 63% of costs 279 USD/t starch Energy: 20% 89 USD/t starch Total costs: 443 USD/t HQCF Demand to improve processing (1) 39% 7% 44% 6% 4% Peak 1FD Black oil 2013 Raw material Power Energy (drying) Labour Packaging 63%11% 9% 10% 7% Peak 1FD + Nobex HE Palm Kernel Shells 2013 Raw material Power Energy (drying) Labour Packaging Roots: 39% of costs 282 USD/t starch Energy: 51% 368 USD/t starch Total costs: 722 USD/t HQCF Market price: 650 USD /t HQCF NRI, 2012 Nigeria
  11. 11. Centrifuge 456 kg/hour Electricity: 36 kWh/t starch / 70 Water: 22 m3/t starch / 35 Colladora 135 kg/hour Electricity: 20 kWh/t starch / 55 Water: 34 m3/t starch / 48 Colombia CIAT, Univalle, CIRAD, 2013 Demand to improve processing (2) x 3 x 1.5 x 0.7
  12. 12. Flash dryer – Targets: 4 t/day Energy: < 2500 MJ/t starch Surface: < 20 m2 Sun drying 2 t/day Energy: 0 MJ Surface: 300-400 m2 Colombia CIAT, Univalle, CIRAD, 2013-2015 Demand to improve processing (3)
  13. 13. Diagnostic: Drying uses most energy CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle 1.2 5.8 8.015.4 8.3 29.2 164.2 164.2 79.6 49.0 181.0 181.0 119.4 124.9 118.8 118.8 102.2 102.2 1 945.0 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% VLT Electricity + thermal energy; 2527.8MJ/t VLT Electricity only; 582.8MJ/t ST1; 213.1MJ/t ST2; 211.1MJ/t Drying - Thermal Drying - Elec Separation Extraction Rasping Root washing Water pump Rasping, extraction use most electricity Cassava starch processing TH, VN, COL
  14. 14. Diagnostic: Roots are the main cost of production 81,24% 3,34% 7,48% 1,41% 4,13% 0,45% 1,95% Factory A 92.5% 1.5% 1.2% 4.8% PA1 73% 7% 6% 6% 8% Roots Electricity Natural gas Labour Other costs 63%11% 9% 10% 7% Raw material Power 66% 1% 15% 3% 15% Roots Electricity Labour Consumabes, packaging, etc. Office & Marketing Thailand Vietnam Colombia Nigeria CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle, NRI, 2013-2014
  15. 15. 126 126 367 367 110114 267 106 62 389 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Biogas NO Biogas CO2eq(kg/tstarch12.5%mc) Wastewater treatment Biogas production Electricity - biogas Electricity - grid Fuel oil Chemicals Transportation Diesel - farming N2O emissions Fertilizer-organic Fertilizer-mineral 127 127 372 372 219107 107 70 44 569 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Biogas NO Biogas CO2eq(kg/tstarch12.5%mc) Wastewater treatment Biogas production Electricity - biogas Electricity - grid Fuel oil Chemicals and packaging Transportation cassava roots Diesel - agric N2O emissions Fertilizer-organic Fertilizer-mineral 71 71 247 247 121116 142 3221 346 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Biogas NO Biogas CO2eq(kg/tstarch12.5%mc) Wastewater treatment Biogas production Electricity - biogas Electricity - grid Fuel oil Chemicals and packaging Transportation cassava roots Diesel - agric N2O emissions Fertilizer-organic Fertilizer-mineral Biogas reduces GHG emissions Factory 1 Factory 2 - Less fuel oil - Less grid electricity - Much less CH4 emissions 966 1410 910 1574 599 1028 Units: kg CO2eq/t starch Savings: 430 - 660 kg CO2eq/t starch 26000 - 40000 t CO2eq/year/factory Factory 3 14
  16. 16. Improvements: Flash drying • Demand for small scale cassava starch/flour production process in many countries : Nigeria, Tanzania, Colombia, Peru … • Traditional processes (solar) are limited in capacity • Down-scaling flash drying process is one of the main barriers • Model to help understanding the influence of several parameters, including: • Design: pipe length, diameter… • Control and regulation : air speed, temperature, starch feed rate… 15
  17. 17. Diversity of dryers - Thailand CIRAD, Kasetsart
  18. 18. Diversity of dryers - Thailand
  19. 19. Paraguay (Brazil EBS technology) CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle, Clayuca, KMUTT
  20. 20. Diversity of dryers Paraguay (Larsson) CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle, Clayuca, KMUTT
  21. 21. Diversity of dryers Argentina (Montecarlo) CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle, Clayuca, KMUTT
  22. 22. Diversity of dryers Argentina (San Alberto 1) CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle, Clayuca, KMUTT
  23. 23. Diversity of dryers Argentina (San Alberto 2) CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle, Clayuca, KMUTT
  24. 24. Diversity of flash dryers Capacity Energy use Energy type t/day MJ/t Thailand 200 1500 - 2000 Biogas Vietnam 2 5000 Coal Nigeria 1 - 2 3000 - 10000 Oil / Biomass Paraguay 25 - 100 2000 - 3400 Wood Colombia (AdS) 50 2600 Natural gas Colombia (Cauca) 2 - Sun drying Can we make dryers at small scale with same energy efficiency as large scale? CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle, Clayuca, KMUTT
  25. 25. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 Pipe length [m] Specificenergyconsumption[kJ.kg −1 ] U a 0 = 10 m.s−1 Ua 0 = 15 m.s−1 Ua 0 = 20 m.s−1 Predictions of the model Higher air flow rate (e.g. 10, 15, 20 m/s) requires a longer pipe for good energy efficiency. Min 20 m. Specificenergyuse CIRAD Large scale dryers length: 30-40m EFFICIENT Small scale dryers length: 10-12m NOT EFFICIENT Use long pipes even for small dryers Adjust capacity with pipe diameter
  26. 26. Downscaling is not proportional CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle, Clayuca, KMUTT, IITA 2-4 t starch/day 50 t starch/day
  27. 27. Prototype: Energy efficient, small-scale flash dryer CIRAD, CIAT, Univalle Capacity: 100 kg/hr Adjustable length: 15 – 35m Adjustable air velocity
  28. 28. Consumer preferences To match varieties, processing and expectations of users & consumers Interviews, focus groups, sensory analysis to understand expectations Making sure varieties and processing deliver products that meet these expectations On-going work on: - Effect of rasping on texture, starch recovery - Effects of process on the quality of garis (Benin, Cameroon) - Cooking ability - Fermentation ability - Etc.
  29. 29. Matière première Epluchage Lavage Râpage Pressage / fermentation Emottage par 2nd râpage Cuisson poussée Tamisage Gari Ahaoye Broyage Tamisage Gari Ahaoye
  30. 30. Matière première Epluchage Lavage Râpage Pressage / fermentation Emottage / Tamisage Cuisson / séchage en 2 temps Gari Sohui Tamisage Gari Sohui
  31. 31. Matière première Epluchage Lavage Râpage Pressage / fermentation + Preséchage solaire Emottage / Tamisage Cuisson Séchage solaire Gari Sohia Tamisage Gari Sohia
  32. 32. Matière première Epluchage Lavage Râpage Pressage / fermentation Emottage / Tamisage Cuisson et séchage en 2 temps Gari Missé Tamisage Gari Missé
  33. 33. Quality criteria when buying - Gari in Benin
  34. 34. Processing and cassava value chains Scenario 1: Current low- efficiency processing technologies (small-scale) expand to meet demand. Next 20-30 years: - Cassava production increases - Demand for processed products increases Scenario 2: More efficient technologies are available for expansion Lower production costs, lower environmental impacts. Needed: Links with value chains approaches to improve adoption Technologies for: - Starch, flour - Gari, fufu; ready-to-use products (fresh, waxed, frozen, etc.)
  35. 35. Nanthiya Hansupalak Klanarong Sriroth Arnaud Chapuis Palotai Piromkraipak Pakhamas Tamthirat Sudarat Lee Apisit Manitsorasak Martin Moreno Dominique Dufour Andrès Escobar Timothée Gally Arthur de la Giraudière Equipment manufacturers and cassava starch factories Contributors and donors Adebayo Abass Marcelo Precoppe Keith Fahrney Cu Thi Le Thuy Andy Graffham Diego Naziri Uli Kleih Warinthorn Songkasiri Kanchana Saengchan Patrick Sébastian
  36. 36. Gracias!

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