Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) as a means of sharing environmental benefits: How numbers provide the basis for dialo...
Contents<br />The importance of numbers<br />Our principles<br />Three examples of science-based establishment of water-ba...
CIAT’sworkonEcosystemservices<br />Veryfocussedonexternalities<br />ES thathave a national, regional orinternationalmarket...
Reasons for Failures in PES<br />High failure rate of PES, though Latin America has been a test-bed<br />Unreal expectatio...
Externalities<br />An externality is the beneficial or damaging  effect caused on a third party by the decision of other(s...
Extreme poverty is as bad or worse than 25 year ago<br />Poverty and Extreme Poverty in rural zones <br />(Percentage of t...
CHINGAZA COLOMBIA<br />
1. Antecedentes<br />i. Hay una pérdida histórica de cobertura vegetal en las cuencas abastecedoras de la EAAB.<br />ii. C...
i. Pérdida histórica de cobertura vegetal de las cuencas abastecedoras en el Parque y Sistema Chingaza.<br />1977<br />200...
The numbers behind a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Scheme<br />        Agua y sedimentos producidos en Chingaza <br...
Resultados ECOSAUT<br />Opportunity Costs through economic modelling<br />
Social and economic benefits for the rural poor<br />
FUQUENE COLOMBIA<br />
Elements Percentage by Catchments<br />
Potato growers<br />Minimum tillage<br />Less sediments, N, P, and more water<br />Economic compensation<br />Sustainable<...
MOYOBAMBA PERU<br />
Soil Types<br />Digital Elevation Model<br />Land Use<br />Hydrological Response Units<br />Service providing units<br />
Moyobamba watershed (Peru)<br />
Evaluation of land use alternatives for providing environmental services<br />Increase Net Income<br />Better environmenta...
Examples of land use evaluation<br />Ex ante analysis <br />Conservation agriculture (Colombia)<br />Increases net incomes...
Moyobamba (Peru)<br />
Experimental economics to explore willingness to implement new management practices and to make “payments”<br />Sc.1: Allo...
Where to invest for environmental AND social benefits (eco-efficiency)<br />CARBON IN THE AMAZON<br />Áreas prioritarias d...
Opportunity costs of REDD in threatened Brazilian Amazon forests<br />Börner et al. (submitted), Amazon Initiative (CIAT, ...
Opportunity costs of REDD in threatened Brazilian Amazon forests<br />Börner et al. (submitted), Amazon Initiative (CIAT, ...
Potential equity effects of different REDD payment scenarios by tenure category<br />Börner et al. (submitted), Amazon Ini...
CONCLUSIONS<br />PES provide a new paradigm for natural resource management….<br />…but also a new paradigm for addressing...
A.JARVIS@CGIAR.ORG<br />
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Andy J Payment For Ecosystem Services (Pes) And Numbers For Negotiation Cocoon Sept 2009

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Presentations of CIAT's research on water-based ecosystem services.

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  • Un Análisis multitemporal de los usos del suelo en el Parque Chingaza muestra el aumento de la vegetación de pastos en detrimento de la vegetación de páramo entre los años 1977 y 2001. (CIAT, 2007). De acuerdo a la siguiente tabla, el bosque de páramo en el área de estudio disminuyó de un 92.6% al 78.4% en 24 años. Frente a esto, las tierras en pastos y pajonales aumentaron de un 0.3% a un 19.2% en el mismo periodo. De seguir la tendencia, las consecuencias para las cuencas al cabo de algunos años en términos de capacidad de regulación y caudales pueden ser muy negativas.
  • Regulación fue modelada pero no se incluyó como variable clave para generar una meta para el Fondo. Cuenca del rio La Playa
  • Mencionar que hay otros beneficios como regulación hídrica, conservación y aspectos sociales.
  • Andy J Payment For Ecosystem Services (Pes) And Numbers For Negotiation Cocoon Sept 2009

    1. 1. Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) as a means of sharing environmental benefits: How numbers provide the basis for dialogue in water-based payment schemes in the Andes<br />Andy Jarvis, Marcela Quintero, Nathalia Uribe, Ruben-Dario Estrada<br />
    2. 2. Contents<br />The importance of numbers<br />Our principles<br />Three examples of science-based establishment of water-based PES in the Andes<br />Chingaza<br />Moyobamba<br />Fuquene<br />Outlook<br />
    3. 3. CIAT’sworkonEcosystemservices<br />Veryfocussedonexternalities<br />ES thathave a national, regional orinternationalmarket<br />Abovegroundcarbon<br />Water<br />Puttingthenumberson ES flows in anintegratedmanner<br />Learningfrombroadrange of cases<br />Enablingthepoortoengage and benefitfromemerging ES marketopportunities<br />
    4. 4. Reasons for Failures in PES<br />High failure rate of PES, though Latin America has been a test-bed<br />Unreal expectations for PES<br />Lack of equity in benefit sharing<br />Poor or inappropriate governance structures<br />Low perceived impact in terms of ES benefits<br />High potential to create conflict, rather than resolve it<br />Numbers as a basis for dialogue<br />
    5. 5. Externalities<br />An externality is the beneficial or damaging effect caused on a third party by the decision of other(s)<br />Those who cause the effect do not receive any compensation for the generated benefit, or do not assume the cost of the damaging effect<br />Environmental externality is determined by the environmental effects of a human activity<br />When the effect is positive the externality is considered as an environmental service<br />Example: Watershed services: <br />regulation of streamflows and retention of sediments achieved by land uses and management<br />
    6. 6. Extreme poverty is as bad or worse than 25 year ago<br />Poverty and Extreme Poverty in rural zones <br />(Percentage of total rural population)<br />70<br />60<br />50<br />40<br />30<br />20<br />10<br />0<br />1980<br />1990<br />1994<br />1997<br />1999<br />59.9<br />65.4<br />45.1<br />63<br />53.7<br />Poverty %<br />32.7<br />40.4<br />40.8<br />37.6<br />38.3<br />Extreme poverty %<br />Source CEPAL: Panorama Social de América Latina, 2000-2001.<br />PES that promote natural, economic and social benefits<br />
    7. 7. CHINGAZA COLOMBIA<br />
    8. 8. 1. Antecedentes<br />i. Hay una pérdida histórica de cobertura vegetal en las cuencas abastecedoras de la EAAB.<br />ii. Cambios en el uso de la tierra con efectos adversos a los servicios ambientales. <br />iii. Ahorro en costos de tratamiento y conservación: Caso Nueva York y Caso Quito.<br />iv. Gestión ambiental aislada. <br />
    9. 9. i. Pérdida histórica de cobertura vegetal de las cuencas abastecedoras en el Parque y Sistema Chingaza.<br />1977<br />2001<br />Aumento de Pasturas <br /> 18,9% <br />Fuente: Ciat, 2007, Estudio contratado por TNC, EAAB, Patrimonio Natural & Parques <br />
    10. 10. The numbers behind a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Scheme<br /> Agua y sedimentos producidos en Chingaza <br />Fuente: Ciat, 2007, Estudio contratado por TNC, EAAB, Patrimonio Natural & Parques<br />
    11. 11. Resultados ECOSAUT<br />Opportunity Costs through economic modelling<br />
    12. 12. Social and economic benefits for the rural poor<br />
    13. 13. FUQUENE COLOMBIA<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Elements Percentage by Catchments<br />
    17. 17. Potato growers<br />Minimum tillage<br />Less sediments, N, P, and more water<br />Economic compensation<br />Sustainable<br />Cattle ranchers<br />Potable water <br />consumers<br />Positive impact on environmental externalities<br />Economic Compensation<br />Participatory Games<br />Fuquene Lake Case<br />Alternatives Interdependencies<br />Up stream<br />Down stream<br />
    18. 18. MOYOBAMBA PERU<br />
    19. 19. Soil Types<br />Digital Elevation Model<br />Land Use<br />Hydrological Response Units<br />Service providing units<br />
    20. 20. Moyobamba watershed (Peru)<br />
    21. 21. Evaluation of land use alternatives for providing environmental services<br />Increase Net Income<br />Better environmental services<br />Employment generation<br />Farmers acceptance<br />Trade off Analysis<br />
    22. 22. Examples of land use evaluation<br />Ex ante analysis <br />Conservation agriculture (Colombia)<br />Increases net incomes, potato production, social benefits, sediment retention and employment; and reduce production costs.<br />However the initial investment can not be afforded with current small farmers cash flows <br />
    23. 23. Moyobamba (Peru)<br />
    24. 24. Experimental economics to explore willingness to implement new management practices and to make “payments”<br />Sc.1: Allowing communication between farmers and water users <br />Sc 2. Without communication <br />Sc.3. Applying small penalties<br />Sc 4. Applying high penalties <br />Farmers willing to implement conservation agriculture practices<br />Downstream water users willing to transfer resources to upstream farmers implementing conservation agriculture<br />Source: U.Javeriana. 2004. Análisis de la acción colectiva para el Manejo de cuencas. Estudio piloto-cuenca de la Laguna de Fúquene. Proyecto Cuencas Andinas GTZ CONDESAN<br />
    25. 25. Where to invest for environmental AND social benefits (eco-efficiency)<br />CARBON IN THE AMAZON<br />Áreas prioritarias de inversión <br />Áreas prioritarias con ahorros potenciales<br /> de tratamiento agua<br />Área prioritaria sin ahorros potenciales <br />de tratamiento agua<br />Fuentes de sedimentos<br />Mayores<br />Menores<br />
    26. 26. Opportunity costs of REDD in threatened Brazilian Amazon forests<br />Börner et al. (submitted), Amazon Initiative (CIAT, CIFOR, ICRAF)<br />
    27. 27. Opportunity costs of REDD in threatened Brazilian Amazon forests<br />Börner et al. (submitted), Amazon Initiative (CIAT, CIFOR, ICRAF)<br />
    28. 28. Potential equity effects of different REDD payment scenarios by tenure category<br />Börner et al. (submitted), Amazon Initiative (CIAT, CIFOR, ICRAF)<br />Tradeoffs: Maximum environmental benefit at cost of rural smallholder poor?<br />
    29. 29. CONCLUSIONS<br />PES provide a new paradigm for natural resource management….<br />…but also a new paradigm for addressing concerns of rural poverty<br />Establishment of schemes must be based on sound, integrative analysis of natural, social and economic benefits<br />In CIAT we’re very interested in matching with partners to generate rural livelihoods through PES. We can provide natural, economic and social analysese, and you…..<br />
    30. 30. A.JARVIS@CGIAR.ORG<br />

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