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Herren - Paradigm Change for African Agriculture: why and how to make the transition

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Paradigm Change for African
Agriculture: why and how to make
the transition
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR
AGRICULTURAL ...

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K
The IAASTD Reports
(www.agassessment.org)

Co-Chairs: Hans R Herren & Judy Whakungu


Multi-stakeholder: 400 authors, 52...

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The green revolution approach to food
  production / security leaves key issues
  unresolved
     • Hunger and Poverty
   ...

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Herren - Paradigm Change for African Agriculture: why and how to make the transition

Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

Presentation delivered at the CIALCA international conference 'Challenges and Opportunities to the agricultural intensification of the humid highland systems of sub-Saharan Africa'. Kigali, Rwanda, October 24-27 2011.

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Herren - Paradigm Change for African Agriculture: why and how to make the transition

  1. 1. Paradigm Change for African Agriculture: why and how to make the transition CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION OF THE HUMID HIGHLAND SYSTEMS OF SUB- SAHARAN AFRICA Hans R. Herren President www.millennium-institute.org INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE KIGALI | President www.biovision.ch Co-Chair IAASTD www.agassessment.org RWANDA | OCT. 24 - 27, 2011 Coordinator UNEP GER Agriculture Chapter
  2. 2. K The IAASTD Reports (www.agassessment.org) Co-Chairs: Hans R Herren & Judy Whakungu Multi-stakeholder: 400 authors, 52 countries Multi-disciplinary Multi-locational: Global / sub-Global Reports
  3. 3. The green revolution approach to food production / security leaves key issues unresolved • Hunger and Poverty • Threatened rural livelihoods • Nutrition and Human Health • Environmental, Social, Equity and Sustainable Development problems …now what? More of the same? Quick symptom fixes and reductionist approaches, or ?
  4. 4. Green Revolution: not the model for the future GR bases is ecologically and economically unsustainable David Tilman et al. Science 2001
  5. 5. Green Revolution: not the model form the future GR bases is ecologically and economically unsustainable Land degradation World map of severity of land degradation – GLASOD (FAO 2000)
  6. 6. Understanding the consequences of unsustainable agric: Land and biodiversity loss
  7. 7. Green Revolution: (big) part of the problem GR bases is also environmentally unsustainable Grain Unctad 2011
  8. 8. Understanding the consequences of unsustainable agric: Temperature and water stresses 0% 2080 -50% -15% +15% +35%
  9. 9. Green Revolution: can lead to waste of natural resources GR bases is also socially unsustainable
  10. 10. The green revolution approach to food production / security leaves key issues unresolved • Hunger and Poverty • Threatened rural livelihoods • Nutrition and Human Health • Environmental, Social, Equity and Sustainable Development problems …now what? More of the same? Quick symptom fixes and reductionist approaches, or ?
  11. 11. Main conclusions of the IAASTD et al….. “a fundamental shift in AKST and the linked agri-food system policies, institutions, capacity development and investments” Paradigm change: Transition to sustainable / organic /ecological agri - culture i.e., addresses multifunctionality and resilience needs of the small-scale and family farms (social & economic: equity issue, farmer status, land ownership, empowerment, women), quality job creation (Edu at all levels); • systemic and holistic approach (basic ecological principles); treat cause not symptoms; is part of the solution to hunger, poverty, health, CC
  12. 12. Agriculture the main solution: Multifunctionality paradigm for sustainable development equitable livable sustainable viable
  13. 13. New look at agriculture….. …it is all connected in a complex and dynamic system Land Loss & Food Production Flooding Health Catastrophes Land Loss Life Sustaining Energy Sector Biofuels Calories per Capita O Famines Production O S S Petroleum Use for O S Calorie S Fertilizer Habitat Gap S Conversion O S Human S Population R Fertilizer Human S Human R Calories per Demand B Births Deaths S Toxic Acres in Capita Residue O O Agriculture O Population Density Human S Soil S S O S Population Plant Capacity Soil Nutient B S Soil Nutrient Calories Consumption Plant Plant Productioin Production Consumption Migration Plant Calories for O Human Use S O S Droughts S S Soil Salinization S S S Exposure to a Higher Variation in Rainfall S Plant Calories for Standard of Living Pattern Meat Production Irrigation S S S Global Migration Temperature S Pursuit of 1st World Water S Demand Food Mix Methane S Production Fresh Water S Meat S S Meat Calories Meat Production Consumption Global Warming
  14. 14. Agriculture the main solution: ….via a transition to sustainable, organic, agroecological, resilient, equitable agriculture High productivity Low productivity Un-sustainable Sustainable
  15. 15. Making the right move: monocrop….or?
  16. 16. …Economic-Social-Environmental resilience: multicrop, corridors,..
  17. 17. The Green way ahead: agro-ecological approaches Organic Conventional In 1995 –drought year
  18. 18. Green way ahead: Push-Pull approach ……..using the gifts of nature, habitat management
  19. 19. “Push – Pull” approach, makes ecological sense….
  20. 20. “Push – Pull” approach, promotes ecosystem services…. i.e., pest control
  21. 21. “Push – Pull” approach, promotes ecosystem services…. i.e., pollination Using natural systems to increase productivity and quality through wild pollination services
  22. 22. “Push – Pull” approach closes the yield gap….
  23. 23. “Push – Pull” approach, brings the animals back on the farm It is imperative to put the animals back on farm: sanitation, health, carbon cycle, sustainability
  24. 24. “Push – Pull” approach, is compatible with SRI (Rice, Tef, Sorghum, ….
  25. 25. “Push – Pull” approach, would fit in agroforestry systems
  26. 26. “Push – Pull” approach, brings water and life back into the soil…and carbon too Promoting soil health through maintenance or restoration of the soil flora and fauna through reduced agro- chemical use Realize yield gap, stop herbicide accumulation
  27. 27. “Push – Pull” approach, can be mechanized and works against drudgery
  28. 28. “Push – Pull” makes economical sense too…. 3,000 a 2,500 Maize monocrop Maize + Des modium Maize + Des es modium + bean s ame hole b Currency (US$)-(1US$/65 KES) per ha. Maize + Des modium + bean different hole 2,000 Maize + bean c d 1,500 a a b b c 1,000 d b b e a a a b c 500 b 0 Total labour costs Total variable costs Total gross revenue d Net benefits -500
  29. 29. Green way ahead: Biotechnology and genetic engineering
  30. 30. The way ahead: More diversity (plants & animals and better nutrition-health and environment) Encouraging a wider genetic base in agriculture…trees , fruits, grains, vegetables, lost crops, animals for nutrition and health, cultural diversity, incomes, pest control, resilience to climate change Barilla, 2011
  31. 31. Green way ahead: is knowledge intensive • Improve and expand extension services (ICT) • Introduce capacity building (ICT) • Agriculture is very localized = local solutions Example: Biovision’s Farmer Communication Program www.organicfarmermagazine.org & www.infonet-biovision.org http://www.biovision.ch
  32. 32. ? Can it be done: The forward looking scenarios: Analysis and investments Global investments across sectors (1% and 2% of GDP); 0.2% and 0.32% of GDP invested in AG and fisheries (50-50). - Pre harvest losses (training activities and effective bio- pesticide use) - Ag management practices (costs to transition from till to no till agriculture, training, access to small mechanization) - R&D (research on crop improvement (orphan crops), soil science and agronomy, appropriate mechanization, and more) - Food processing (better storage and processing in rural areas)
  33. 33. Agriculture in a Green Economy (UNEP Report – 2011) Investing 0.1% or 0.16% of total GDP ($83-$141 Billion) / year
  34. 34. Conclusions • Brown scenarios support growth but show increased pressure on natural resources, higher emissions and low economic resilience. • Green investments support social, economic and environmental growth (restoration): – Resource efficiency makes the economy more resilient; – Lower carbon development reduces energy costs and lowers risks related to climate change; – Jobs are both created and lost, transition strategies need to be designed and implemented; • Investments have to be carefully allocated and behavioral changes might be needed in support of public policies and private investments.
  35. 35. In conclusion,cont’nd The change that is needed will first start with each of us… ….then as a group of like minded we need to: • take a medium and long, holistic, multifunctional and systemic view in addressing the challenges (treat the causes, not the symptoms) • invest more in research, education and examples • keep the focus on the finality of agriculture and food systems: health (4H), equity and cultural diversity • support changes in governance (be active in policy design to turn the table on perverse subsidies and favor a true food pricing policy) ……and yes it can be done, so lets do it NOW
  36. 36. You cannot solve the problem with the same kind of thinking that created the problem Albert Einstein Thank you www.millennium-institute.org & http://www.biovision.ch

Editor's Notes

  • Swedish International Agriculture Network Initiative (SIANI)Stockholm Environment InstituteMandated as an official input into Rio+20, the 64th UN DPI conference is one of the last chances to influence the food and agriculture paradigms being proposed for Rio+20. This workshop will discuss the draft submissions of key stakeholders - including leaders behind the groundbreaking IAASTD report - to the official Rio+20 negotiating document. Do their paradigms go far enough? Would they address inequity, resource depletion, food & nutrition insecurity, health and climate change? How would the barriers to their implementation be overcome?
  • Inspiration du rapport IAASTD and experience professionnel
  • Land degradation under all systems….
  • The transfer of externalities to the general society (at large and the future generations) has lead to cheap food and so wastage
  • Conventional system:Best ngnt practicesSoil conservation practicesIPMReduction of chemical inputsSystem in Transition to sustainability: substitution of external inputs with biological processesPeasant low input: state support to reach “substitutions etc…Indigenous traditional systems: state support to reach the substitutions….

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