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Ap 228 area-rae_venue_protection


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Ap 228 area-rae_venue_protection

  1. 1. Application Note AP-228 rev 1 yb.11-04 Facility And Venue ProtectionIntroductionIn late 2001, the Department of Homeland Securitywas created to “develop and coordinate theimplementation of a comprehensive nationalstrategy to secure the United States from terroristthreats or attacks.” As part of this comprehensivestrategy, there is an increasing world focus onbuilding and special-venue protection. Thechemical and radiation detection equipmentdesigned and manufactured by RAE Systems isideally suited for rapid, scalable, and highlyadaptable deployment at a wide variety of locationsthat require additional security against terroristthreats or industrial accidents. Following is a Figure 1. AreaRAE Gamma Wireless Monitordescription of the most effective methods of with GPS.deployment for gas and radiation detectionequipment as well as what steps should be taken In addition to the AreaRAE Gamma, RAE Systemsimmediately after an alarm is triggered. offers other CBRN sensors such as the 5-gas AreaRAE, the 5-gas MultiRAE Plus, the ppbRAECBRN Sensors Plus PID, and the MiniRAE 2000 PID. All of theseRAE Systems offers a variety of chemical, biological, portable monitors can also be wirelessly enabled byradiological, or nuclear (CBRN) sensor solutions. using a RAELink modem.The most complete package is the AreaRAE Gamma,a wirelessly enabled 4-gas monitor By linking these individual sensors together into an(PID/LEL/O2/Toxic or PID/LEL/ Toxic1/Toxic2) array it becomes possible to monitor multiplecombined with a gamma radiation sensor. GPS is also locations simultaneously from one centralizedavailable for this monitor. The PID (photoionization location. RAE Systems offers a rapidly deployabledetector) gives early warning for a variety of organic and custom-configurable sensor solution where allvapors that might be of concern, such as gasoline, monitors are wirelessly enabled and can transmit datapepper spray and some chemical warfare agents. The to a centralized command station up to two milesLEL sensor is useful for detecting most combustible away. RAE Systems ProRAE Remote software isgases such as hydrogen, propane, and methane. Many capable of managing wireless transmissions from uppeople consider the oxygen sensor as the ultimate to 32 individual monitors. If more sensors arebroadband detector. As little as a 1% deficiency in required, users can deploy RAE Systems’atmospheric oxygen levels can be life-threating. The AreaConnect 500 server product, which cantoxic gas sensors can be chosen from any of the aggregate data from over 256 individual monitors andfollowing: CO, H2S, SO2, NO, NO2, Cl2, HCN, NH3, post the real-time data to a secure website.or PH3. RAE Systems Inc. 1 3775 N. First St., San Jose, CA 95134-1708 USA Phone: +1.888.723.8823 Email: Web Site:
  2. 2. Application Note AP-228 rev 1 yb.11-04 Figure 3. Outdoor HVAC air intakes (NIOSH). 3. Prevent access to HVAC equipment and building plans. Personnel with access to theFigure 2. ProRAE Remote monitoring software. mechanical HVAC equipment have full control of the building’s air supply. Similarly, buildingCombine Preventive Measures and Sensor plans with information such as how manyArrays ventilation zones the building has, and which airDetermining the level of risk of a CBRN attack or vents serve which rooms, should be kept in aaccident at any given location is extremely difficult. safe, secure location with highly restrictedHowever, there are several preventive measures that access. HVAC equipment rooms are also idealbuilding owners and operators can take that reduce locations for CBRN sensors, as more air passesthe likelihood of a CBRN event occurring at their through these areas than anywhere else in thelocation. In addition, should an event occur, the building.strategic use of CBRN sensors throughout thebuilding can significantly help mitigate the damageand provide emergency personnel with life-criticaldata as they direct building occupants to safety.Preventive Measures1. Know your building. The quickest way for airborne CBRN agents to disperse through a building is through the heating/ventilation/air conditioning (HVAC) system. It is extremely important that facility managers and security personnel have a thorough understanding of the building’s air circulating zones and how to alter or disable the system if necessary.2. Prevent access to outdoor air intakes. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Figure 4. AreaRAE monitoring mechanical Health (NIOSH) recommends that HVAC air equipment. intakes be placed a minimum of 12′ above the ground and have a metal mesh cover angled at a 4. Develop and train an emergency response minimum of 45º to prevent foreign objects from team. A team of people with well-defined entering the HVAC system. (See Figure 3.) Air responsibilities should be created to ensure a safe intakes are also an ideal spot for CBRN sensors. and orderly response to a CBRN event. Some key A sensor placed at a building’s air intake gives responsibilities that need to be designated are: the earliest possible warning to security contacting the local fire department, shutting off personnel of an outside CBRN threat. or manipulating the building HVAC system, directing building occupants to the safest RAE Systems Inc. 2 3775 N. First St., San Jose, CA 95134-1708 USA Phone: +1.888.723.8823 Email: Web Site:
  3. 3. Application Note AP-228 rev 1 yb.11-04 locations, communicating the CBRN sensor array • Loading docks. Areas where large packages data to emergency personnel, and coordinating enter the building should always be first aid. Part of the emergency response training monitored. should include planning and practicing a typical • Storage areas. These areas provide ample response to a CBRN event. space and are rarely monitored by security personnel. This makes storage areas anDeploying CBRN Sensors attractive target for CBRN events.The quickest, safest and most accurate way to detect • Stairwells. Stairwells are typically used asa chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear threat the primary evacuation route for occupantsis by using sensors. For facility and venue protection, on higher floors. It is important that anyseveral key areas should be monitored. As with any escape path is monitored for safety during ansensor array, the level of detection is largely evacuation.determined by the overall number of sensors in thearray. At a minimum, RAE Systems recommends that RAE Systems Sensor Array Deploymentthe following locations within a facility or venue be Examplesmonitored with CBRN sensors: In addition to permanent detection systems at oil refineries, chemical plants, and government • HVAC outdoor air intakes. The air intake buildings, RAE Systems sensor arrays are often used system of a building offers the first response for quick installation at temporary venues involving of any outside threat. large groups of people, where a terrorist attack is of • HVAC return air grilles. Similar to outdoor concern. For example, AreaRAE systems have been air intakes, these internal grilles are used by used at: the HVAC system to recirculate air within a building. If a CBRN event occurs close to a • 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics return air grille, there is risk of contaminating • 2002 National League Baseball Playoffs the entire building. • 2003 Major League Baseball All-Star Game • HVAC exhausts. If a CBRN event occurs • 2003 US Open Golf Championship anywhere inside a building, a portion of the • 2003 Missouri Governor’s Inauguration contaminant will eventually reach the • 2004 Republican National Convention building exhaust. In addition, in certain • Multiple Buffalo Sabres Hockey Games weather conditions, building exhausts can • TOPOFF II Simulated Terrorist Attack actually intake air into the HVAC system. Training Events in Seattle and Chicago • Mechanical areas. These areas provide access to centralized mechanical systems, including filters, air handling units, and possibly boilers and water filtration units. • Lobbies and entryways. Areas of buildings with public access are at greater risk for a CBRN event. • Densely populated areas. Response time is critical for these areas, and a direct reading immediately followed by the sensing monitor’s visual and audible alarms is the quickest way to inform nearby occupants of possible danger. • Mailrooms. Due to the large amount of unknown packages entering the building, mailrooms are highly susceptible to terrorist threats. Figure 5. HSBC Arena during Buffalo Sabres hockey game. RAE Systems Inc. 3 3775 N. First St., San Jose, CA 95134-1708 USA Phone: +1.888.723.8823 Email: Web Site:
  4. 4. Application Note AP-228 rev 1 yb.11-04 2. Alert local authorities. If a triggered alarm is real and sustainable, the first step is to immediately alert the local authorities, typically the fire department or local HazMat team. When alerting the fire department, it is important to identify the type of alarm, as this will allow the emergency responders to be better prepared and will help them identify the proper equipment to bring with them to the event location. The ProRAE Remote software identifies the alarm and location and communicates to building security personnel both audibly and visually when an alarm has been triggered. ProRAE Remote can also send emails or text messages to the proper personnel. 3. Adjust the HVAC system. Once the properFigure 6. Instrument calibration at the 2003 authorities have been alerted and additional help isMajor League Baseball All-Star game. on the way, the next step is to adjust the building’s HVAC system to minimize the spread of the CBRNActions To Be Taken If An Alarm Is contaminant. Adjustments to the building HVACTriggered equipment should only be performed by someoneOnce an alarm is triggered, decisions must be made who is properly trained and who understands thethat will ensure the safety of the maximum number of system thoroughly. Any improper adjustments couldbuilding occupants. Responses to different alarms result in increased injuries or casualties.will vary greatly, depending on the location andnature of the alarm. Below are general guidelines that For an outdoor CBRN event, the first indication ofshould be followed in the event of a sensor alarm. danger would typically come from a sensor deployed at the building’s HVAC air intakes. A “protect in1. Validate the alarm. False alarms are not only place” strategy should be deployed as buildingcostly and time consuming, but as the number of occupants will be safer inside the building than theyfalse alarms increases, the sense of urgency is would be if they were evacuated outside where thediminished and, as a result, emergency response CBRN event occurred. When a monitor at an HVACtimes suffer. For this reason it is extremely important air intake is triggered, security personnel shouldto validate any alarm that is triggered. There are direct all building occupants to stay indoors andseveral ways to validate a CBRN alarm. The first step immediately shut off all of the building’s HVACfor RAE Systems monitors is to see whether the systems. All doors or windows that lead outsidealarm is sustainable. If the monitor returns to normal should be closed and all internal doors should beoperation after only a few seconds of alarm status, shut as well to minimize airflow inside the building.the alarm can most likely be attributed to a temporary Also, elevators need to be disabled, because they canatmospheric condition or a system malfunction. Even create a piston effect that causes contaminated airafter a “false” alarm, it is necessary to inspect the from outside to be drawn indoors. Buildingsensor location. Using ProRAE Remote’s “Image occupants should gather in a pre-identified location,View” display allows maintenance or safety typically a room that has little to no air exchangepersonnel to pinpoint the location of the alarmed with the outdoors or the rest of the building.monitor. Portable handheld monitors, such as aMultiRAE Plus, ppbRAE Plus, or MiniRAE 2000 For an indoor CBRN event, the first indication ofshould always be used by security personnel when danger would come from a sensor located in closeapproaching a recently alarmed monitor. If the proximity to the event or from a sensor located at anportable monitors show no readings, it is safe to HVAC return air grille. Using ProRAE Remoteinspect and/or repair the alarmed monitor. software, a building operator can determine in which RAE Systems Inc. 4 3775 N. First St., San Jose, CA 95134-1708 USA Phone: +1.888.723.8823 Email: Web Site:
  5. 5. Application Note AP-228 rev 1 yb.11-04area of the building the event occurred and adjust the For an indoor CBRN event, building occupantsHVAC controls accordingly. The most effective should be evacuated if the escape route is shown toHVAC settings would be to set the air handling unit be free of contaminants. A sensor placed in a(AHU) in the contaminated area to full exhaust, stairwell or by emergency exits can typically verifywhile setting all other AHUs to supply 100% fresh the safety of the escape route. Many buildings haveair (no recirculation of contaminated air). The equipment that can pressurize the stairwells withcontaminated area will then draw air from the freshly outdoor air, as this is a standard fire safety technique.supplied uncontaminated areas of the building while Once outdoors, security personnel should directexhausting the contaminated area. If this type of occupants to gather at a pre-defined location that ismanipulation is not possible, the second most upwind from the CBRN event. Portable monitorseffective HVAC settings would be to set all AHUs to should also be used at gathering points to ensuresupply 100% outdoor air (no recirculation). This will each location is free from CBRN contaminants.stop contaminants from spreading to other areas ofthe building through the HVAC system, but will not Further Informationprevent dispersion through the natural air currents For further information on RAE Systems CBRNand pressure differentials throughout the building. monitors and senor arrays, visit Instruct occupants to safe locations. AfterHVAC manipulations are performed, the next and For further information on how to safeguardmost crucial step is to instruct all building occupants buildings from CBRN events and how to respond toto the safest locations. CBRN events, please reference the following documents:For an outdoor CBRN event, building occupantsshould gather in a pre-identified indoor location, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Healthtypically a room that has little to no air exchange (NIOSH), Guidance for Protecting Buildingwith the outdoors or the rest of the building. Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks, 2002. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Protecting Buildings from a Biological or Chemical Attack: Actions to Take Before or During a Release, LBNL/PUB-51959, 2003. US Army Corps of Engineers Protective Design Center, Protecting Buildings and Their Occupants from Airborne Hazards, Technical Instruction 853- 01, 2001 RAE Systems Inc. 5 3775 N. First St., San Jose, CA 95134-1708 USA Phone: +1.888.723.8823 Email: Web Site: