Social Marketing for Health in the Workplace


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My presentation to the Australian Institute of Business Wellbeing (04 August 2011) on social marketing for health in the workplace - for business audience with an interest in learning what social marketing is and how it can be used in the workplace

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Social Marketing for Health in the Workplace

  1. 1. Leading causes of death in Australia (AIHW, 2010) Social Marketing for Health in the Workplace Males Females Coronary heart diseases Coronary heart diseases Lung cancer Cerebrovascular diseases Cerebrovascular diseases Dementia & Alzheimer disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Lung cancer Prostate cancer Breast cancer Dementia and Alzheimer Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease disease Prof Sandra Jones Colorectal cancer Heart failure and complications Director, Centre for Health Initiatives Diabetes Diabetes Unknown primary site cancers Colorectal cancer Suicide Unknown primary site cancers© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 Leading causes of burden of disease and Selected health risk factors, people aged 25–64 injury in Australia (AIHW, 2010) years, 2007–08 (AIHW, 2010) Males Females Total Coronary heart disease Daily smokers 23.8 19.3 21.6 Anxiety and depression Risky or high-risk alcohol 16.3 11.5 13.9 Type 2 diabetes  consumption Sedentary exercise level 34.4 34.4 34.4 Dementia  Overweight or obese 70.8 56.1 63.6 Stroke Insufficient fruit intake 56.8 44.4 50.5 Lung cancer Insufficient vegetable intake 93.5 89.7 91.6 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) High blood pressure 9.3 9.0 9.2 Adult-onset hearing loss High blood cholesterol 7.3 5.5 6.4 Colorectal cancer Asthma© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 What is social marketing? •  What is it? •  How is it done? (and how do I know if I’m doing it?) •  Can it be done in the workplace (and on a limited budget)?© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 1
  2. 2. What is social marketing? •  “The application of commercial marketing technologies to •  History of Social Marketing the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of –  1970s – term first coined programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of –  1980s – growth, mass media focus target audiences in order to improve their personal welfare and that of their society" (Andreasen, 1995). –  1990s – development of field, influence of behaviour change theory and other research –  Current situation & future direction •  Focus on voluntary behaviour change •  Influence groups to benefit society – improve public health •  Framework or process to bring about change at a group or community level •  Applies concepts and techniques of commercial marketing to promote voluntary behaviour change.© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 The Context of Social Marketing What social marketing is not •  Health Education •  Social advertising •  Health Promotion •  Just about communications •  Advocacy •  Community Development •  Environmental Adaptations •  Critical Marketing Social Marketing •  Policy Change •  Law Enforcement Creating & sustaining behaviour change© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 Application of Commercial Marketing Who is the target? Principles •  Social marketing is generally (traditionally) used as a means of eliciting behavior change from consumers ((e.g., people with suboptimal levels of physical activity) •  HOWEVER, there is a move towards broadening the definition to include ‘social marketing’ to governments, policy makers, industry groups, urban planners etc etc –  e.g., Maibach (2003) re promoting physical activity •  Consumer Orientation –  Researched understanding of target market knowledge, attitudes and behaviour –  Needs of consumer key focus in social marketing process –  May be needs that the consumer is unaware of© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 2
  3. 3. •  Market Research •  Integrated Planning Process –  Guides all aspects of SM planning and practice –  Setting goals & measurable objectives –  Includes formative research, pre-testing, monitoring and –  Developing strategies process evaluation, summative evaluation –  Management systems (impact and outcome) –  Evaluation & research for continuous improvement© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 •  Concept of Exchange •  The Marketing Mix and Customer Value –  Each party gives and receives for the mutual satisfaction of –  Consider the 4 Ps which should combine to provide maximum needs value to the target market –  Consumer must perceive that benefits outweigh costs •  Product (brand, reputation, packaging) –  Must provide the product and emphasise the benefits that the •  Price (monetary cost, other cost) consumer wants •  Promotion (advertising, merchandising, public relations) •  Place (physical distribution of the product) –  Considerations for each of the 4 Ps should focus on maximising benefits as perceived by the target market© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 •  Market Segmentation •  Competition and Differential Advantage –  Dividing target market into groups to better understand their –  What is the competition offering and how can we differentiate current behaviours from that –  Segments based on different variables, –  Competition may be the behaviour itself (eg., demographic, psychographic, behavioural) (eg., smoking) –  Each segment requires separate evaluation and application of the 4 Ps© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 3
  4. 4. Social Marketing Benchmark Criteria How is it done? •  French and Blair-Stevens (2006) released eight benchmark (and how will I know if I am doing it?) criteria to describe principles that social marketing campaigns adhere to when applied correctly. 1.  Behaviour Change 2.  Research 3.  Theoretical and Informed 4.  Insight-Driven 5.  Exchange 6.  Competition 7.  Segmentation 8.  Mixed Methods (4 Ps)© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 Strategic Social Marketing Processes •  Researchers and practitioners around the globe have identified and described strategic social marketing processes that have proven to be successful •  These processes range from as few as three to as many as seven or more phases in their application. •  In the UK, the NSMC implemented theTotal Process Planning Model (NSMC 2006b, 2006c), which consists of five key phases: –  Scope: –  Develop: –  Implement: –  Evaluate: –  Follow-Up:© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 4
  5. 5. Can social marketing be done in the workplace (and on a limited budget)?© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 Why is social marketing ‘better’ than worksite Why do social marketing in workplaces? health promotion? 1.  Access to a large proportion of the Australian workforce •  The consumer orientation of social marketing requires that 2.  Many workers are exposed to illness and injury as a result the target audience is involved in development of the of their work and the work environment program, and that it is positioned in a way that meets their needs 3.  Within the individual work site, programs can address specific needs of workers •  Reduces the risk of workers feeling coerced to participate 4.  All parties can benefit: employers, employees, family and •  Segmentation and tailoring means that individual employees community can address their own health priorities •  Continuous monitoring and feedback means program can be evaluated and improved© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 1. Scope •  Worksite heath promotion programs typically collect ‘data’ •  Consider ‘the problem’ carefully before looking for answers –  Absenteeism, workers compensation, medical costs •  Think about your objectives –  Health Risk Assessment (HRA) –  What do you want to achieve? –  Organisational Health Survey –  Are your objectives achievable •  Social marketing programs include formative research with –  Are they realistic employees (about needs, goals and interests) –  Are outcomes measurable –  Focus groups/interviews –  Think about evaluation upfront –  Employee Interest Survey •  Develop goals •  How do employees want to receive program information •  Engage with relative stakeholders & partners •  What health components are they most interested in addressing and how? •  Review resources available •  What types of groups might employees be most inclined •  Consider ethical issues •  to join? •  Which employees have expertise that may be useful to the program?© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 5
  6. 6. Case Study: Utah Department of Health 2. Develop •  Workplace SM program to increase fruit and veg •  Test out the campaign proposition consumption and physical activity •  Determine the social marketing mix •  Identify incentives and barriers to behaviour change Formative research: •  Segmenting and define the target audience •  Four-item interest survey emailed to all employees (40% •  Refining aims and objectives and determine indicators of response rate) success in the short, medium and long term •  Three focus groups and 18 in-depth telephone interviews •  Pre-tested, refine and adjust campaign components •  Addressed the ‘4 Ps’ Segmentation •  Prochaska’s “Stages of Change” •  Primary target audience = preparers© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 Case Study: Utah Department of Health 3. Implement •  Social marketing planning group and evaluation team •  Roll out the social marketing intervention reviewed research findings •  Make adjustments where needed •  Key recommendations arising: •  Need to manage the process of implementation and –  Interest in group activities that include social support properly engage with key stakeholders –  Opportunities to eat 3 (of the 5) F&V, and do 30 minutes exercise, at work –  Announce group progress in fun, creative and visible ways –  Structured activities –  Active support from supervisors for participation –  Incentive system (for individuals and groups) –  Preferred communication: email, PA system, posters, supervisor –  Preferred content: increasing F&V and PA can be inexpensive, fun, easy; develop confidence© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 Case Study: Utah Department of Health 4. Evaluate •  Communication and promotion: posters, public •  Evaluate the campaign’s: announcements, lobby display, weekly emails, supervisor –  impact promotion –  outcomes •  Environmental changes: improve quality and selection of –  cost-effectiveness F&V in cafeteria; exercise release policy (30 mins x 3 days/ week) •  Monitoring and evaluation is considered throughout all phases of the total process planning model •  Ongoing activities: bureau challenge, walking groups, photo treasure hunt •  One-off activities: kick-off activity, recipe tasting contest, picnic in the park, closing celebration© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 6
  7. 7. Case Study: Utah Department of Health •  Process evaluation: •  Primary group – positive changes on 12 of 17 variables –  mid-course (n=25) to assess satisfaction and achievement of (including measures of F&V, exercise, and self-efficacy) aims •  Secondary group – positive change on only one variable –  Resulted in adjustments to the program •  Those in the social marketing group: •  Outcome evaluation –  were significantly more likely to participate in moderate –  ‘primary’ treatment group (Cannon building, n=600) received physical activity 10-week social marketing intervention –  increased their consumption of fruit and vegetables –  ‘secondary’ treatment group (Medical Triangle; n=170) –  reported significantly higher perceptions of commitment for received a WHP communication intervention (weekly email, healthy lifestyles from the organization (and supervisors) posters, brochures) –  Significant positive changes among ‘preparers’ and –  19-item questionnaire (measured F&V, exercise, stage of ‘contemplators’ change, self-efficacy, perceived support from organisation and others, response to intervention)© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 Graduate Certificate in Social Marketing for Health Summary 1 year part-time Social Marketing for Health Intensive Program •  Social marketing: Day 1: Principles of social marketing; formative research; program planning Day 2: Social marketing implementation; evaluation –  been shown to be a successful tool for bringing about positive Next course: October 2011 changes in health-related behaviours –  does not require mass media (or million dollar budgets) –  has been successfully applied in communities, schools, health care settings, and – increasingly – in workplaces •  Effective social marketing programs require attention to the principles of social marketing; and a comprehensive process of scoping, planning, implementation and evaluation Centre for Health Initiatives @CHI_Sandra Centre for Health Initiatives •  Social marketing in the workplace can overcome many of the barriers associated with workplace health promotion •  There are LOTS of resources available to workplaces that can be utilised at no cost (you do not have to re-create the wheel)© Sandra C Jones 2011 © Sandra C Jones 2011 7