Mass media have come to play a
fundamental role in modern society. The mass
media are media of communication – Newspaper,
Magazine, Television, Radio, Movies, Videos, CDs
and other forms that reach mass audiences. Media
can be basically divided into two categories:
1. PRINT MEDIA
2. NON PRINT MEDIA
Mass media education is now
largely dependent on electronic media which has
a good number of inherent advantages:
Facilitates diverse learning objectives
Electronic media through the variety and
newness can motivate the learner, stimulate
imagination, create and sustain interest
Helps in involving the learner in the
teaching learning process and keep the
They can cater to individual needs
They reduce the burden of the teacher
A) EDUCATIONAL RADIO
B) EDUCATIONAL TV
C) FILMS IN EDUCATION
Radio has been playing a vital role in the field of
communication since its origin.
Even though it works with sound only, it has the
power to stimulate values and to increase
knowledge and understanding.
At one given time, radio can simultaneously arrest
the attention of thousands of people.
In some places of the world it is the only medium
of education for children who live in remote areas.
By using programs the teacher has a device suited
to help in the development of the art of listening
and the knowledge and command of language.
Adult Education & Community
Farm & Home Broadcasts
Language Learning Projects
I. Service- Based Types
b. Spoken word programes
c. Programes for special audiences- Farm,
Home & Youth programes
d. News service
e. External services
c. Panel discussion
d. Live broadcasts
Low capital investment & Operating Costs
Easy learner reception
Feasible mode of learner enrichment
Effective means of thought promotion
Supporter of motivation for learner
Radio brings the pupil to the classroom who
have made rare contributions to the society
In this connection it may cited that the voice
of a great Scientist, inventor and outstanding
writer, poet, musician, can be heard over
radio, giving direct experience to the child.
Since radio works with voice & sound only, it
helps the students in their imagination when
exposed to broadcasting.
It also acts in stimulating interests of children
and extracting creativity in them.
Almost every subject can be taught through
radio, but the radio is more suitable for
certain subjects such as languages & music.
Radio specifically can provide opportunities
for developing listening comprehension as
well as improvement of vocabulary, etc.
When compared to other devices like TV,
radio is easily repairable.
The spare parts are available & relatively
It consumes less current and can be operated
using battery also.
No face to face interaction & one way
It cannot be used effectively for all subjects
It is only an auditory presentation and very
little of what we hear, we can remember.
Production of radio programs requires
ETV is a system that presents learning
content in various subjects produced by an
It is a means of providing formal education as
well as non formal.
Wayne Coy calls ETV as the “Electronic
blackboard of the future”.
o ETV combines both sensory and auditory
o It offers uniformity of communication.
o It is a versatile educational vehicle.
o It stimulates and reinforces ideas.
o It provides live broadcasts of ‘on the spot’
o It is a means for leisure time activities.
1. Monologue: A narrator narrates the aspects,
interlacing it with visuals & illustrations.
2. Dialogue: Conversation between two people.
4. Panel discussion
Television as a means of extending children’s
To provide background material for a lesson
the teacher will deliver.
To reinforce and review ideas already covered
To provide salient illustration that will
stimulate class discussion.
It is a one way communication.
Low and poor accessibility.
Costly affair both production and receiving.
Difficult to integrate TV and classroom
Visuals become a source of distraction.
I. PLANNING & PREPARATION OF
o The ultimate user of the ETV program is the
o The teachers role in making decisions
regarding the content, matter & sequence is
of utmost importance
o TV presentation requires some extra skills
other than classroom teaching skills.
o So a teacher should be competent to present
a lesson in the studio
o The teacher has to get the pupil ready to
watch a program by providing necessary
background information and later on
conclude based on observations after viewing
of the program.
o He should be in a position to clarify doubts &
elaborate certain missing links.
o The teacher should be trained to evaluate all
aspects of the program so that he will be in a
position to suggest modifications both in
content & style of presentation.
Educational films are one such means of indirect
Motion pictures or films present an abstracted
version of the real events omitting unnecessary
and unimportant details.
A film is a multiple media communication which
presents facts in a realistic way, dramatize
human relations arouses emotions and transmits
It may be use for the communication of ideas,
attitudes and experiences to a large number of
They are specially planned to achieve certain
educational objectives and are made in
specific subject areas or teaching purposes.
These films can be background films or direct
They help to promote to achieve a skill, an
attitude or to convey certain facts,
information, phenomena or theory.
They are made on specific topics/aspects and
Documentaries with relevance to a curriculum
can be used as supplementary material for
Motion pictures motivate students and
They do provide recreation
It can bring in past & distant present into the
They are vivid & hence good motivators &
help develop good study habits.
I. The teacher selects the film
He should take care to select a film which
would help realize his objectives.
For that he should :
(a) know the best films available
(b) know the source of these films
(c) be familiar with the content
The teacher should organise the filming in a
systematic manner by making proper seating
arrangements, check lighting, check
ventilation & test projector & trial run the film
The teacher should go through the
instructional manual & guide, which
accompanies the film.
He should prepare the students by providing
the necessary background information & keep
the students ready.
The film should be presented at the right
moment integrating it with classroom
If necessary the screening should be stopped
to just recapitulate in between.
At the end of the film a brief conclusion with
students interaction should be conducted on
There should be immediate evaluation, either
oral or written for feedback.
In the light of information obtained, the
teacher should immediately correct
misconceptions or errors if any n the
There is a time lag between screening of
lesson and feedback session, hence some
important doubts & explanations can be
It is a costly affair to procure hardware and it
is a dream for most of our ill equipped
The teachers are also not trained in the use
and maintenance of equipment.