Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Table of contents i
Contents
Preface iii
Acknowledgements iv
Dedication v
1 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT ENGINEERING
1.1 INTROD...
Table of contentsii
2.3.2 Bar Chart or Gantt Chart...........................................................................
Table of contents iii
3.6.8 Examples – Miscellaneous Combinations............................................................
Table of contentsiv
4.2.6 Procurement........................................................................................
Table of contents v
5.4.6 Process flow diagrams do not include...............................................................
Table of contentsvi
6.4.7 Award of purchase order............................................................................
Table of contents vii
7.5.9 Installation of temperature Installation ........................................................
Table of contentsviii
8.8.2 Networking protocols.............................................................................
Table of contents ix
9.14.6 Documentation....................................................................................
Table of contentsx
10.11.3 Drawings..........................................................................................
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Project Engineering , Planning and Management

1,094 views

Published on

Project Engineering , Planning and Management (Paperback/PDF)
By Hiral Shah, Chinttan, Sneha Shweta

Size: A4; Pages: 434 : Paperback price: 478.00;
PDF Price : Rs. 99
(Note: This is a regular PDF file which can be copied and opened anywhere)
Download Full book from www.chinttanpublications.in

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

Project Engineering , Planning and Management

  1. 1. Table of contents i Contents Preface iii Acknowledgements iv Dedication v 1 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT ENGINEERING 1.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[1-1] 1.2 PROJECT .................................................................................................................................[1-1] 1.2.1 Definition of project.....................................................................................................[1-1] 1.2.2 Characteristics of projects ............................................................................................ [1-2] 1.2.3 Purpose and scope of project........................................................................................ [1-2] 1.2.4 Typical examples of projects......................................................................................... [1-2] 1.2.5 Project structure..........................................................................................................[1-3] 1.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT..........................................................................................................[1-4] 1.3.1 Management functions ................................................................................................ [1-4] 1.3.2 Types of project...........................................................................................................[1-8] 1.3.3 Project authority and their functions............................................................................. [1-9] 1.3.4 Project management cycle.......................................................................................... [1-10] 1.3.5 Project life cycle......................................................................................................... [1-11] 1.4 PROJECT REPORT [1-15] 1.4.1 Project reportformat................................................................................................. [1-17] 1.5 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF A PRODUCT.......................................................... [1-20] 1.6 GOOD COMMUNICATION AND BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION................................................... [1-21] Review questions................................................................................................................... [1-22] 2 PROJECT PLANNING AND SCHEDULING 2.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[2-1] 2.2 PROJECT PLANNING [2-1] 2.2.1 Project statement or the statement of work..................................................................[2-2] 2.2.2 Project specifications ...................................................................................................[2-7] 2.2.3 Steps for project planning............................................................................................. [2-8] 2.2.4 The planning cycle...................................................................................................... [2-11] 2.3 Project Scheduling [2-12] 2.3.1 Project Scheduling Techniques.................................................................................... [2-13]
  2. 2. Table of contentsii 2.3.2 Bar Chart or Gantt Chart............................................................................................. [2-13] 2.3.2.1 Examples on Bar chart............................................................................. [2-14] 2.3.3 Difference between CPM and PERT............................................................................. [2-17] 2.3.4 Difference between network and bar chart ................................................................. [2-17] 2.3.5 Network techniques................................................................................................... [2-18] 2.3.5.1 Critical path method ............................................................................... [2-22] 2.3.5.2 Program Evaluation and Review Techniques(PERT).................................. [2-29] 2.3.6 Examples on PERT and CPM........................................................................................ [2-42] 2.3.7 S – Curve Concept and Crash Time Concepts................................................................ [2-49] 2.3.8 MILESTONE SCHEDULING ........................................................................................... [2-53] 2.3.9 WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (WBS)...................................................................... [2-54] 2.3.10 Cost and Estimation ................................................................................................... [2-60] 2.3.10.1 Types of Estimates.................................................................................. [2-60] 2.3.10.2 Pricing process........................................................................................ [2-62] 2.3.10.3 Materials or support costs....................................................................... [2-64] 2.3.10.4 Pricing out the work................................................................................ [2-64] 2.3.11 Software usedin project management........................................................................ [2-65] 2.3.12 Standing operating procedure (SOP)............................................................................ [2-67] Review questions................................................................................................................... [2-69] 3 STANDARDS USED IN PROJECT 3.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[3-1] 3.2 DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................................[3-1] 3.3 IDENTIFICATION LETTERS.........................................................................................................[3-5] 3.4 TYPICAL LETTER COMBINATIONS..............................................................................................[3-8] 3.5 FUNCTION BLOCKS-FUNCTION DESIGNATIONS....................................................................... [3-10] 3.6 SYMBOLS .............................................................................................................................. [3-13] 3.6.1 Instrumentline symbols............................................................................................. [3-13] 3.6.2 General instrument or function symbols...................................................................... [3-15] 3.6.3 Control valve body symbols, damper symbols.............................................................. [3-16] 3.6.4 Symbolsfor self-actuated regulators, valves and other devices..................................... [3-20] 3.6.5 Symbolsfor actuator actionin event of actuator power failure..................................... [3-24] 3.6.6 Primaryelement symbols ........................................................................................... [3-25] 3.6.7 Examples- Functions................................................................................................... [3-37]
  3. 3. Table of contents iii 3.6.8 Examples – Miscellaneous Combinations..................................................................... [3-45] 3.6.9 Examples – Complex Combinations............................................................................. [3-51] 3.6.10 Example – Degree of Detail......................................................................................... [3-52] 3.7 STANDARDS .......................................................................................................................... [3-54] 3.7.1 ISA: The instrumentation, systems and automation society .......................................... [3-54] 3.7.1.1 ISA S 5.1: (Instrumentation Symbols and Identification) ............................ [3-54] 3.7.1.2 ISA S 20: (Specification forms for P and I) ................................................. [3-54] 3.7.2 API: American Petroleum Institute.............................................................................. [3-55] 3.7.3 TAPPI: Technical Association of the pulp and paper Industry......................................... [3-55] 3.7.4 PIP: Process Industry Practices.................................................................................... [3-55] 3.7.5 SAMA: Scientific Apparatus MakersAssociation........................................................... [3-55] 3.7.6 NEMA:National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association................................................. [3-56] 3.7.7 ISO 9000: International Standardization Organization .................................................. [3-56] 3.7.8 IBR (Indian Boiler Regulations – 1950) ......................................................................... [3-56] 3.7.9 IEEE........................................................................................................................... [3-57] 3.7.10 Safety Organizations .................................................................................................. [3-57] 3.7.11 IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) .......................................................... [3-57] 3.7.12 ANSI (American National Standards Institute).............................................................. [3-60] 3.7.13 ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) ...................................................... [3-62] 3.8 ROLE OF STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS.............................................................................. [3-63] 3.8.1 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)........................................................................... [3-64] 3.8.2 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)................................................................. [3-64] 3.8.3 Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA)................................................ [3-65] 3.9 SAFETY STANDARDS[3-66] Review questions................................................................................................................... [3-66] 4 BASIC AND DETAILED PROJECT ENGINEERING 4.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[4-1] 4.2 BASIC OR PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING.....................................................................................[4-1] 4.2.1 Engineering calculations............................................................................................... [4-2] 4.2.2 Making and changing drawing ...................................................................................... [4-2] 4.2.3 Organizing vendor literature ........................................................................................ [4-2] 4.2.4 Writing specifications...................................................................................................[4-2] 4.2.5 PRN (Purchase Requisition Note) .................................................................................. [4-2]
  4. 4. Table of contentsiv 4.2.6 Procurement................................................................................................................ [4-2] 4.3 DETAILED ENGINEERING..........................................................................................................[4-3] 4.3.1 Document control........................................................................................................[4-4] 4.3.2 Instrument selection ....................................................................................................[4-4] 4.3.3 Material of construction............................................................................................... [4-4] 4.3.4 Area classification........................................................................................................[4-5] 4.3.5 Instrumentation specification....................................................................................... [4-5] 4.3.6 Drawing phase............................................................................................................. [4-5] 4.3.7 Control center design...................................................................................................[4-5] 4.3.7.1 Control room design .................................................................................... [4-5] 4.3.7.2 Control room one line diagram.....................................................................[4-5] 4.4 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE....................................................................................................[4-6] 4.5 INTER DEPARTMENT ACTIVITIES...............................................................................................[4-6] 4.6 INTER AGENCY OR ORGANIZATION INTERACTION ....................................................................[4-9] 4.7 MULTI-AGENCY INTERACTION OR EXTERNAL AGENCY INTERACTION.........................................[4-9] 4.8 MANPOWER PLANNING IN A PROJECT................................................................................... [4-10] 4.9 DEGREE OF AUTOMATION ..................................................................................................... [4-10] 4.10 TECHNICAL REVIEW MEETING................................................................................................ [4-11] 4.11 ENGINEERING PROCUREMENT AND CONSTRUCTIONS............................................................ [4-11] 4.11.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................. [4-11] 4.11.2 Significance of engineering, procurement and construction.......................................... [4-11] 4.11.3 EPC (Engineering,Procurement and Construction) contract selection ........................... [4-11] Review questions .............................................................................................................. [4-12] 5 PROJECT DOCUMENTATION AND DRAWINGS 5.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[5-1] 5.2 TYPES OF PROJECT DOCUMENTS..............................................................................................[5-1] 5.3 PRELIMINARY SCHEDULE OF EVENTS........................................................................................[5-2] 5.4 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM.......................................................................................................[5-4] 5.4.1 Use of process flow diagram......................................................................................... [5-4] 5.4.2 Approaches [5-4] 5.4.3 Steps in development of process flow diagram.............................................................. [5-5] 5.4.4 Process description......................................................................................................[5-5] 5.4.5 Process flow diagram will include.................................................................................. [5-5]
  5. 5. Table of contents v 5.4.6 Process flow diagrams do not include............................................................................ [5-5] 5.5 P & ID (PROCESS AND INSTRUMENT DIAGRAM) .......................................................................[5-6] 5.6 USES AND CONTENTS OF P & T DIAGRAM ................................................................................[5-9] 5.7 PROCESS DATA SHEET............................................................................................................ [5-11] 5.8 MATERIAL BALANCE SHEET.................................................................................................... [5-13] 5.9 INSTRUMENT INDEX SHEET.................................................................................................... [5-14] 5.10 SPECIFICATION DATA SHEET................................................................................................... [5-16] 5.10.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................. [5-16] 5.10.2 Purpose..................................................................................................................... [5-16] 5.10.3 Description................................................................................................................ [5-16] 5.10.4 Field required to be considered .................................................................................. [5-16] 5.11 INSTRUMENT PROJECT SCHEDULE SHEET ............................................................................... [5-20] 5.12 PROJECT DOCUMENTATION AND STANDARDS ....................................................................... [5-22] 5.13 LOOP WIRING DIAGRAM OR CLOSED LOOP DIAGRAMS .......................................................... [5-23] 5.14 JUNCTION BOX SCHEDULE ..................................................................................................... [5-29] 5.15 Cable Schedule...................................................................................................................... [5-29] 5.16 MIMIC DIAGRAM................................................................................................................... [5-30] 5.17 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROJECT..................................................................................... [5-30] 5.18 GA DRAWING (GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWING)............................................................. [5-31] 5.18.1 Importance of plantlayout and GA drawing................................................................. [5-32] Review Questions [5-34] 6 PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACTING 6.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[6-1] 6.2 VENDOR LIAISON.....................................................................................................................[6-1] 6.3 TENDERS ................................................................................................................................[6-2] 6.3.1 Types of tenders ..........................................................................................................[6-2] 6.4 Steps in purchasing [6-2] 6.4.1 Issue of purchase requisition ........................................................................................ [6-2] 6.4.2 Development of acceptable list of suppliers...................................................................[6-3] 6.4.3 Assemble the bid package ............................................................................................ [6-3] 6.4.4 Send the bid package for bid......................................................................................... [6-4] 6.4.5 Formally receive the proposals ..................................................................................... [6-4] 6.4.6 Evaluate the proposals.................................................................................................[6-4]
  6. 6. Table of contentsvi 6.4.7 Award of purchase order.............................................................................................. [6-5] 6.4.8 Receive the device .......................................................................................................[6-5] 6.5 PURCHASE ORDER [6-5] 6.6 VENDOR DOCUMENTS AND DRAWINGS...................................................................................[6-6] 6.6.1 Vendor data or vendor documents................................................................................ [6-6] 6.6.2 Vendor drawings..........................................................................................................[6-7] 6.7 SITE SELECTION AND LAYOUT OF A FACTORY............................................................................[6-7] 6.7.1 Site selection and construction details...........................................................................[6-7] 6.7.2 The problem of the selection of a factory ......................................................................[6-7] 6.7.3 Factory building...........................................................................................................[6-9] 6.7.4 Selection of site in a city............................................................................................. [6-10] 6.7.5 Factors affecting layout.............................................................................................. [6-10] 6.7.6 Factory layout............................................................................................................ [6-11] 6.7.7 Plant layout .............................................................................................................. [6-12] 6.8 CONTRACTING....................................................................................................................... [6-18] 6.9 BIDDER LIAISON AND EXPEDITING ......................................................................................... [6-18] 6.10 BID ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................ [6-20] Review questions [6-22] 7 INSTALLATION AND CONSTRUCTION 7.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[7-1] 7.2 BILL OF MATERIAL [7-1] 7.3 PURPOSE OF DEVELOPMENT OF INSTALLATION SKETCHES........................................................[7-2] 7.3.1 Various tube plus pipe fittings....................................................................................... [7-3] 7.4 TYPICAL INSTALLATION DETAILS...............................................................................................[7-3] 7.5 INSTALLATION DETAILS OF SYSTEMS...................................................................................... [7-26] 7.5.1 Pressure instruments ................................................................................................. [7-27] 7.5.2 Installation of temperature instruments...................................................................... [7-28] 7.5.3 Flow instruments....................................................................................................... [7-29] 7.5.4 Final control element................................................................................................. [7-29] 7.5.5 Samplers and analyzers.............................................................................................. [7-30] 7.5.6 Installation details of wiring and cable......................................................................... [7-30] 7.5.7 Check or tests of wiring and cable in field quality control.............................................. [7-30] 7.5.8 Installation of thermocouples..................................................................................... [7-32]
  7. 7. Table of contents vii 7.5.9 Installation of temperature Installation ....................................................................... [7-33] 7.6 CONSTRUCTION AND START- UP............................................................................................ [7-33] 7.7 CONTRACTOR LIAISON........................................................................................................... [7-34] 7.8 REVIEW OF SCHEDULE ........................................................................................................... [7-34] 7.9 RECEIVING THE MATERIAL ..................................................................................................... [7-34] 7.10 CALIBRATION ........................................................................................................................ [7-35] 7.11 STORAGE AND FITTING.......................................................................................................... [7-35] 7.12 HARDWARE INSTALLATION AND SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION ................................................ [7-36] 7.13 INSTALLATION CONTRACT ..................................................................................................... [7-36] 7.14 VENDOR ENGINEERING REVIEW OF CONTROL........................................................................ [7-37] Review questions .............................................................................................................. [7-37] 8 CABLE ENGINEERING AND NETWORKING 8.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[8-1] 8.2 TYPES OF CABLE [8-1] 8.3 CABLE SUPPORT ......................................................................................................................[8-2] 8.4 INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS.............................................................................................[8-3] 8.4.1 Conduit....................................................................................................................... [8-3] 8.4.2 Tray............................................................................................................................. [8-3] 8.4.3 Marine cable................................................................................................................ [8-4] 8.4.4 Input and output cabling .............................................................................................. [8-4] 8.4.5 Cable layout[8-6] 8.5 IMPORTANCE OF PLANT LAYOUT AND GA DRAWING................................................................[8-7] 8.6 CLASSIFICATION OF CABLES.....................................................................................................[8-7] 8.6.1 Twisted pair cables.......................................................................................................[8-8] 8.6.2 Twinax Cable ............................................................................................................... [8-9] 8.6.3 Coaxial cable................................................................................................................ [8-9] 8.6.4 Tray Cables [8-11] 8.6.5 Fiber-optic Cable........................................................................................................ [8-11] 8.7 TYPES OF INSTRUMENT SELECTION HARDWARE..................................................................... [8-12] 8.8 NETWORKING ....................................................................................................................... [8-13] 8.8.1 Network topology...................................................................................................... [8-13] 8.8.1.1 Physical Topologies.................................................................................... [8-13] 8.8.1.2 Logical topologies...................................................................................... [8-16]
  8. 8. Table of contentsviii 8.8.2 Networking protocols................................................................................................. [8-18] 8.8.3 CAT cables .............................................................................................................. [8-18] 8.8.4 LAN cards.................................................................................................................. [8-18] 8.8.5 Networking hardware ................................................................................................ [8-19] Review questions .............................................................................................................. [8-21] 9 COMMISSIONING 9.1 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................[9-1] 9.2 CONTRACTOR AND VENDOR LIAISON.......................................................................................[9-1] 9.3 LOOP AND HARDWARE CHECK.................................................................................................[9-2] 9.3.1 Loop check .................................................................................................................. [9-3] 9.3.2 Typical flow transmitter check out procedure................................................................ [9-4] 9.3.3 Typical temperature transmitter checkout procedure .................................................... [9-4] 9.3.4 Typical control valve check-out procedure.....................................................................[9-5] 9.3.5 Miscellaneous checks...................................................................................................[9-6] 9.4 SYSTEMS CHECK [9-6] 9.5 PUNCH LIST.............................................................................................................................[9-6] 9.6 CORRECTION VERIFICATION.....................................................................................................[9-7] 9.7 INSTRUMENT GROUNDING......................................................................................................[9-8] 9.8 PRE-COMMISSIONING THE CONTROL SYSTEM..........................................................................[9-8] 9.9 COMMISSIONING STAGE (HOT & COLD COMMISSIONING)........................................................[9-8] 9.10 CORRECTIVE ENGINEERING.................................................................................................... [9-11] 9.11 ACCEPTANCE TESTING ........................................................................................................... [9-12] 9.11.1 Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT)............................................................................... [9-12] 9.11.2 Customer Acceptance Test (CAT)................................................................................ [9-14] 9.11.3 Site Acceptance Test (SAT)......................................................................................... [9-16] 9.12 ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING .......................................................................................... [9-18] 9.13 DUTIES OF PROJECT ENGINEER IN PROJECT SCHEDULING........................................................ [9-18] 9.14 PROCESS START-UP ............................................................................................................... [9-19] 9.14.1 Beginning process testing........................................................................................... [9-19] 9.14.2 Contractor liaison....................................................................................................... [9-20] 9.14.3 Loop tuning .............................................................................................................. [9-20] 9.14.4 Startup Logs [9-20].............................................................................................................. 9.14.5 System refinements ................................................................................................... [9-22]
  9. 9. Table of contents ix 9.14.6 Documentation.......................................................................................................... [9-22] 9.14.7 Maintenance training................................................................................................. [9-22] 9.14.8 Production training ................................................................................................... [9-22] 9.15 INTERLOCK ELEMENTARY DIAGRAMS..................................................................................... [9-22] 9.16 CALIBRATION AND TESTING................................................................................................... [9-24] Review questions .............................................................................................................. [9-27] 10 CONTROL CENTERS AND PANELS 10.1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... [10-1] 10.2 CONTROL ROOM LAYOUTS .................................................................................................... [10-1] 10.3 CONTROL ROOM ENGINEERING............................................................................................. [10-2] 10.3.1 Electric power systems............................................................................................... [10-3] 10.3.2 Control Room Lighting................................................................................................ [10-7] 10.3.3 Communication systems............................................................................................. [10-7] 10.3.4 Panel placement........................................................................................................ [10-8] 10.3.5 Electrical classification................................................................................................ [10-8] 10.3.6 Operators’ comfort .................................................................................................... [10-8] 10.3.7 General considerations............................................................................................... [10-8] 10.4 ENGINEERING ASPECTS AND DESIGN CRITERIA....................................................................... [10-8] 10.5 CONTROL PANEL TYPES.........................................................................................................[10-10] 10.5.1 Comparison of panel types ........................................................................................[10-15] 10.6 PANEL LAYOUT.....................................................................................................................[10-16] 10.6.1 Face Layout [10-16] 10.6.2 Rear Layout [10-16] 10.6.3 Auxiliary racks and cabinets.......................................................................................[10-17] 10.7 PANEL PIPING AND TUBING..................................................................................................[10-17] 10.7.1 Air Headers [10-17] 10.7.2 Tubing Runs [10-17] 10.8 PANEL WIRING .....................................................................................................................[10-19] 10.9 NAMEPLATE AND TAGS ........................................................................................................[10-20] 10.10 GRAPHIC DISPLAYS [10-20] 10.11 PANEL BID SPECIFICATIONS...................................................................................................[10-21] 10.11.1 Scope..................................................................................................................[10-22] 10.11.2 Bids.....................................................................................................................[10-22]
  10. 10. Table of contentsx 10.11.3 Drawings.............................................................................................................[10-22] 10.11.4 Codes and Standards............................................................................................[10-22] 10.11.5 Panel Construction...............................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.6 Painting...............................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.7 Graphic Section...................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.8 Nameplates and Tags.......................................................................................... [10-23] 10.11.9 Piping..................................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.10 Electrical Systems ................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.11 Instrument Equipment.........................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.12 Testing and Inspection .........................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.13 Delivery...............................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.14 Shipping..............................................................................................................[10-23] 10.11.15 Guarantees..........................................................................................................[10-24] 10.12 PANEL INSPECTION [10-24] 10.13 SIGNIFICANCE OF CONTROL CENTER AND ITS DESIGN OBJECTIVES.........................................[10-27] 10.13.1 Control center design..........................................................................................[10-27] 10.13.2 Control room plan, section and detail drawings ....................................................[10-27] 10.13.3 Central control rooms .........................................................................................[10-27] 10.13.4 Control room one line diagram ............................................................................[10-28] 10.13.5 Field mounted control center ..............................................................................[10-28] 10.13.6 Field electronic location and conduit plan.............................................................[10-29] 10.13.7 Electronic one line diagram..................................................................................[10-30] 10.14 INTELLIGENT OPERATOR INTERFACE (IOI)..............................................................................[10-31] 10.14.1 Basic principles for operator interface design .......................................................[10-31] 10.14.2 ..... Example of submarine control system for understanding operator interface [10-32] 10.14.3 Operatorinterface data types..............................................................................[10-33] 10.14.4 Watch station displays.........................................................................................[10-33] Review Questions................................................................................................................ [10-34] APPENDIX “A” ( Study of Specification sheet of sensors, transmitters, control valves) APPENDIX “B”( Factory acceptance test procedure) APPENDIX “C” (Miscellaneous sheets)

×