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PlC and automation 2015 table of contents

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PLC and Automation 2015 book Table of contents

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PlC and automation 2015 table of contents

  1. 1. PLC and Automation Chinttan N. Dewalia B. E. Instrumentation Engg. (Dr.D.Y.Patil College of Engg., Pune University) Diploma in Instrumentation Engineering, (Dr. B. A. T.U., Lonere.) www.chinttanpublications.in
  2. 2. First Indian Edition, August, 2015 This Book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded resources. Reprinted Material is quoted with permission, and resources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of Chinttan Publications does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from Chinttan Publications for such copying. The publisher believes that the contents of this book do not violet any existing copyright/intellectual property of others in any manner whatsoever. However, in the event, the author has been unable to track any source and if any copyright has been inadvertently infringed, please notify the publisher in writing for corrective action. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. All export rights for this book vest exclusively with Chinttan Publications. Unauthorised export is a violation of terms of sale and is subject to legal action. Direct all enquiries to Chinttan Publications: 91-8888101055, 9226269333or to the distributors listed in our catalogue. Customer Care: 9226269333, 8888101055 (WhatsApp) Free download “Table of contents” of this book on www.chinttanpublications.in Also, FREE Download E-books, notes and solution related to this subject from our website. To receive SMS or WhatsApp SMS about the additional information about this book and new books published related to your branch time to time: type “class-branch-college” e.g., “be-comp-dypiet” or “be-etc-viit”, and send to “9226269333’. After final year, it will be deleted. Follow PLC and automation page on Facebook to get latest additions related to the subject: www.facebook.com/PLC and Automation The Indian Edition: ` 339.00 PLC and Automation, By Chinttan N. Dewalia ISBN – 81-89194-03-8 © August, 2015, Chinttan Publications Published by Chinttan Publications, 4/8, Anandnagar, Paud Road, Kothrud , Pune – 411038., Tel.: 9226269333, 8888101055. E-mail: chinttanpublications@gmail.com Printed in India
  3. 3. Contents iii Contents Preface [xxi] Acknowledgements [xxi] Roadmap to the Syllabus [xxii] 1 PROCESS CONTROL AND AUTOMATION [1-1 to1-40] 1.1 PROCESS CONTROL PRINCIPLES [1-1] 1.1.1 Self regulating process [1-2] 1.1.2 Human aided control [1-2] 1.1.3 Automatic control [1-2] 1.2 SERVOMECHANISMS [1-3] 1.2.1 Servo and regulator control problem [1-3] 1.2.2 Discrete state control systems [1-4] 1.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEM [1-4] 1.3.1 Process control loop [1-6] 1.3.2 Identification of elements [1-7] 1.4 CONTROL SYSTEM EVALUATION [1-8] 1.4.1 Stability [1-8] 1.4.2 Steady state regulation [1-8] 1.4.3 Transient regulation [1-9] 1.4.4 Evaluation criteria [1-9] 1.4.4.1 Cyclic response [1-9] 1.4.4.2 Damped response [1-10] 1.5 CONTROL SYSTEM QUALITY [1-10] 1.5.1 Definition of Quality [1-10] 1.5.1.1 Loop disturbance [1-11] 1.5.1.2 Optimum control [1-11] 1.5.2 Measure of quality [1-12] 1.5.2.1 Over damped [1-13] 1.5.2.2 Critically damped [1-13] 1.5.2.3 Under damped [1-13] 1.5.2.4 Quarter amplitude [1-13] 1.5.2.5 Minimum Area [1-14] 1.6 STABILITY OF CONTROL LOOP [1-14] 1.6.1 Transfer function frequency dependence [1-14] 1.6.2 Source of instability [1-15] 1.6.3 Instability design description [1-15] 1.6.4 Stability criteria [1-16] 1.6.4.1 Bode plot [1-16] 1.7 PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS [1-17] 1.7.1 Process equation [1-17] 1.7.2 Process load [1-17] 1.7.3 Transient [1-17] 1.7.4 Process lag [1-18] 1.7.5 Control lag [1-18] 1.7.6 Self regulation [1-18] 1.7.7 Period of oscillation [1-18] 1.7.8 Degrees of Freedom [1-18] 1.7.8.1 Example of Degrees of freedom in a stirred tank heater [1-19]
  4. 4. PLC and Automationiv 1.8 CONTROL SYSTEM PARAMETERS [1-21] 1.8.1 Error [1-21] 1.8.2 Variable range [1-22] 1.8.3 Control parameter range [1-22] 1.8.4 Control lag [1-23] 1.8.5 Dead time [1-23] 1.8.6 Cycling [1-23] 1.8.7 Controller Modes [1-23] 1.9 FINAL CONTROL OPERATIONS [1-24] 1.9.1 Signal conversion section [1-24] 1.9.2 Actuator systems [1-25] 1.9.3 Final control elements [1-25] 1.10 SIGNAL OR DATA PROCESSING [1-25] 1.10.1 Analog and Digital data presentation in control systems [1-26] 1.10.1.1 Analog data presentation [1-26] 1.10.1.2 Digital data presentation [1-26] 1.10.1.3 Data conversions devices [1-26] 1.10.2 Digital ON/OFF control [1-27] 1.10.3 Analog control [1-27] 1.10.4 Digital control [1-28] 1.10.4.1 Supervisory control [1-28] 1.10.4.2 Direct Digital Control (DDC) [1-29] 1.10.4.3 Advantages of digital control over analogue control [1-30] 1.11 AUTOMATION [1-30] 1.11.1 Industrial automation vs. Industrial information technology [1-31] 1.11.2 Role of automation in industry [1-32] 1.11.3 Types of automation systems [1-33] 1.11.4 Functional elements of industrial automation [1-34] 1.11.5 The architecture of elements [1-35] 1.11.6 Effects of modern developments in automation on global competitiveness [1-36] 1.11.6.1 Employee training [1-36] 1.11.6.2 Management philosophy [1-37] 1.11.6.3 Financial issues [1-37] Review questions [1-38] 2 TRANSMITTERS AND SIGNAL CONDITIONING [2-1 to 2-72] 2.1 INSTRUMENTATION STANDARD SIGNALS [2-1] 2.1.1 Standardization of signal, current, voltage and pneumatic signal standards [2-2] 2.1.2 Current signal [2-2] 2.1.3 Pneumatic signals [2-3] 2.2 TRANSMITTERS [2-3] 2.2.1 Desirable features of transmitters [2-4] 2.2.2 Need of transmitters [2-4] 2.2.3 Evolution of two-wire transmitters [2-5] 2.2.3.1 Alternative 1: Thermocouple wire direct to the room [2-5] 2.2.3.2 Alternative 2: 4 wire transmitter with voltage output [2-5] 2.2.3.3 Alternative 3: 4 wire transmitter with current output [2-6] 2.2.3.4 Alternative 4: 2 wire transmitter [2-6] 2.2.3.5 RTD input Two-wire transmitter [2-8] 2.2.3.6 Thermocouple input Two-wire transmitter [2-8] 2.2.3.7 Pressure input Two-wire transmitter [2-8] 2.2.3.8 Differential RTD input Two-wire transmitter [2-8] 2.2.3.9 Isolating two-wire transmitter [2-9]
  5. 5. Contents v 2.2.3.10 Two-wire transmitter as square root extractor [2-9] 2.2.3.11 Three wire transmitter [2-10] 2.3 ANALOG SIGNAL CONDITIONING [2-10] 2.3.1 Principles of analog signal conditioning [2-11] 2.3.1.1 Types of signal conditioning [2-11] 2.3.1.2 Signal produced by transducers or transmitters are of two types [2-11] 2.3.1.3 Passive transducers work on following principle of operation [2-11] 2.3.1.4 Division of Analog signal conditioning [2-11] 2.3.1.5 Selection of sensors [2-12] 2.3.2 Objectives while designing analog signal conditioning system [2-12] 2.3.3 Signal conditioning techniques [2-12] 2.3.3.1 Signal level (Magnitude) and Bias changes (Zero value) [2-12] 2.3.3.2 Linearization [2-12] 2.3.3.3 Conversions [2-14] 2.3.3.4 Filtering [2-14] 2.3.3.5 Impedance matching [2-14] 2.3.3.6 Loading [2-14] 2.3.4 Digital Interface [2-14] 2.4 DIGITAL SIGNAL CONDITIONING [2-15] 2.4.1 Digital devices are categorized by their functions [2-15] 2.4.2 Logic States [2-15] 2.4.3 High and Low [2-16] 2.4.4 Digital + Analog Systems [2-16] 2.4.5 Advantages of Digital Techniques [2-16] 2.4.6 Limitations of digital techniques [2-17] 2.4.7 Block diagram of a temperature control system with analog/digital conversions [2-17] 2.4.7.1 Description [2-17] 2.5 RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTD) [2-17] 2.5.1 Sensitivity [2-18] 2.5.2 Response time [2-18] 2.5.3 Metal Resistance versus Temperature Devices [2-18] 2.5.4 Analogue signal conditioning of RTD [2-19] 2.5.4.1 Dissipation constant of RTD [2-20] 2.5.4.2 Analog linearization of resistance temperature detectors [2-21] 2.5.5 Digital signal conditioning of RTD [2-22] 2.5.5.1 Advanced features for RTD transmitters [2-22] 2.5.5.2 Example of the digital signal conditioning of RTD and thermistor [2-24] 2.6 THERMISTORS [2-26] 2.6.1 Semiconductor Resistance versus Temperature [2-26] 2.6.2 Thermistor characteristics [2-27] 2.6.3 Signal conditioning of thermistors [2-28] 2.7 THERMOCOUPLES [2-29] 2.7.1 Thermocouple types [2-30] 2.7.2 Construction of thermocouples [2-30] 2.7.2.1 Thermocouple polarity [2-31] 2.7.3 Thermocouple tables [2-31] 2.7.4 Thermocouple sensors [2-32] 2.7.5 Signal conditioning of thermocouples [2-33] 2.7.5.1 Reference Compensation [2-33] 2.7.5.2 Noise considerations in thermocouples [2-33] 2.8 DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER (DPT) [2-34] 2.8.1 Construction of DPT [2-34] 2.8.1.1 Sensor [2-34] 2.8.1.2 Two-wire transmitter [2-35]
  6. 6. PLC and Automationvi 2.8.2 Working of DPT [2-36] 2.8.2.1 Specifications [2-36] 2.8.3 Applications of DPT [2-37] 2.8.3.1 For liquid level applications [2-37] 2.8.3.2 Measurement of flow using DPT [2-38] 2.9 SMART AND INTELLIGENT TRANSMITTERS [2-39] 2.9.1 Smart Transmitter [2-40] 2.9.2 Block diagram of intelligent transmitters [2-41] 2.9.2.1 Types of Smart and intelligent transmitters [2-41] 2.9.2.2 Block diagram of intelligent transmitter with wired digital communication [2-41] 2.9.2.3 Block diagram of intelligent transmitter with wireless digital communication [2-42] 2.9.2.4 Block diagram of intelligent HART transmitter [2-42] 2.9.2.5 Functions of microprocessor in intelligent transmitters [2-43] 2.9.3 Applications of Smart/Intelligent transmitters [2-43] 2.9.3.1 Case study 1: Model 1151 Smart Pressure transmitter [2-43] 2.9.3.2 Case study 2: Model 3051C pressure transmitter [2-43] Solved examples [2-45] Review questions [2-70] 3 CONTROLLERS AND ACTUATORS [3-1 to 3-152] 3.1 CONTROL MODES [3-1] 3.2 PID CONTROL [3-2] 3.2.1 Proportional control (P mode) [3-2] 3.2.1.1 Offset error minimization [3-3] 3.2.2 Integral control mode (I) [3-4] 3.2.2.1 Applications of Integral control mode [3-5] 3.2.3 Derivative control (rate control) [3-6] 3.2.4 Composite control modes [3-7] 3.2.4.1 Interactive and Non-Interacting Controllers [3-7] 3.2.4.2 Interacting form [3-7] 3.2.4.3 Non- Interacting form [3-7] 3.2.5 Proportional plus integral control [3-8] 3.2.6 Proportional plus Derivative (P + D) control [3-8] 3.2.7 Proportional plus integral plus derivative control (P + I + D control) [3-9] 3.2.8 PID rate before reset [3-10] 3.2.9 Selection of control action for a typical characteristics process [3-10] 3.2.10 Comparison of P, I and D controllers [3-11] 3.2.11 Applications of the PID controllers [3-11] 3.3 TYPES OF CONTROLLERS [3-11] 3.3.1 Comparison of Hydraulic, Pneumatic and Electronic controllers [3-12] 3.3.2 Electronic, Pneumatic, Hydraulic systems [3-12] 3.4 ELECTRONICS CONTROLLERS [3-14] 3.4.1 Error detection [3-14] 3.4.2 Discontinuous controller mode - Single mode [3-14] 3.4.2.1 Two position [3-14] 3.4.2.2 Three position controller [3-16] 3.4.2.3 Floating type controller [3-17] 3.4.3 Proportional controller (P mode) [3-17] 3.4.4 Integral mode controller (I) [3-18] 3.4.4.1 PI controller [3-19] 3.4.5 Derivative controller (rate control) [3-20] 3.4.5.1 PD controller [3-20] 3.4.6 Proportional integral derivative controller (PID controller) [3-21]
  7. 7. Contents vii 3.5 DIGITAL ELECTRONIC CONTROLLER [3-22] 3.5.1 Alarms [3-22] 3.5.2 Digital two position control [3-23] 3.5.3 Multivariable alarm systems [3-24] 3.6 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS [3-24] 3.6.1 Physical analog and digital controllers [3-25] 3.6.1.1 Typical physical layout [3-25] 3.6.1.2 Front panel [3-26] 3.6.1.3 Side panel [3-26] 3.7 PNEUMATIC CONTROLLERS [3-26] 3.7.1 General features [3-26] 3.7.2 Pneumatic Proportional Mode [3-26] 3.7.3 Pneumatic Proportional Integral mode [3-27] 3.7.4 Pneumatic Proportional Derivative mode [3-28] 3.7.5 Pneumatic PID Mode [3-28] 3.8 HYDRAULIC CONTROLLERS [3-28] 3.8.1 Hydraulic floating type controllers [3-30] 3.8.2 Hydraulic proportional controllers [3-30] 3.8.3 Hydraulic proportional plus integral (reset) controller [3-31] 3.8.4 Advantages of hydraulic controllers [3-31] 3.8.5 Limitations of hydraulic controllers [3-32] 3.8.6 Applications of hydraulic controllers [3-32] 3.9 TUNING OF CONTROLLERS [3-32] 3.9.1 Process reaction method or open loop transient method [3-33] 3.9.2 Ziegler Nichols method or ultimate cycle method [3-33] 3.9.2.1 Ziegler - Nichols optimum controller settings [3-34] 3.9.2.2 Limitations of Ziegler-Nichols methods [3-35] 3.9.3 Cohen and Coon rules [3-35] 3.9.3.1 The Cohen and Coon rules [3-35] 3.9.4 Frequency response method [3-36] 3.9.5 Bumpless Transfer in controllers [3-37] 3.9.5.1 Example of bumpless transfer in cascade control [3-37] 3.9.5.2 Bumpless Tuning [3-37] 3.10 PID ALGORITHMS [3-38] 3.10.1 Position algorithm [3-38] 3.10.2 Velocity algorithm [3-39] 3.11 PID CASCADE CONTROL [3-39] 3.11.1 Conventional control [3-39] 3.11.2 Cascade control [3-40] 3.11.2.1 Advantages of cascade control [3-40] 3.11.2.2 Selection of the secondary variable in cascade control [3-40] 3.11.2.3 Cascade control Implementation factors [3-40] 3.11.3 Examples of commonly used secondary loops [3-41] 3.11.3.1 Jacketed continuous stirred tank reactor [3-41] 3.11.3.2 Heat Exchanger [3-41] 3.11.3.3 Distillation column [3-41] 3.11.4 Design of control without cascade [3-42] 3.11.5 Design of control with cascade [3-42] 3.11.5.1 Analysis [3-43] 3.11.5.2 Conventional feedback [3-43] 3.11.5.3 Cascade control [3-43] 3.12 MICROPROCESSOR BASED CONTROL [3-43] 3.12.1 Process control computer hardware configurations [3-44] 3.12.1.1 Example of microprocessor based smart sensors [3-44]
  8. 8. PLC and Automationviii 3.12.2 Single computer based Multiple-Loop controls [3-44] 3.12.2.1 Block diagram of single computer based multiple loop control [3-44] 3.12.2.2 Tasks of single computer for multiple loop control [3-45] 3.12.3 Software and algorithm for control loop calculations [3-45] 3.12.3.1 Error [3-46] 3.12.3.2 Integral mode or reset mode algorithm [3-46] 3.12.3.3 Derivative or rate mode algorithm [3-48] 3.12.3.4 PID Control Mode [3-49] 3.13 SOLVED EXAMPLES ON PID CONTROLLERS [3-49] 3.14 PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION CONTROLLERS (PAC'S) [3-78] 3.14.1 PLC versus PAC [3-79] 3.14.2 PAC characteristics [3-80] 3.14.3 Modern industrial applications [3-80] 3.14.3.1 Making a PLC more like a PC [3-81] 3.14.3.2 Making a PC more like a PLC [3-81] 3.14.4 Introduction of the PAC [3-81] 3.14.5 Requirements from PAC [3-82] 3.14.6 Development and functional benefits of PAC [3-82] 3.14.7 Applying PAC to a modern industrial application [3-83] 3.14.7.1 Single platform operating in multiple domains [3-83] 3.14.7.2 Support for standard communication protocols [3-83] 3.14.7.3 Exchange data with enterprise systems [3-83] 3.14.8 RTUs, Data Acquisition and PACs [3-83] 3.14.8.1 Comparison RTUs and PLCs [3-83] 3.14.8.2 PC-Based Data Acquisition [3-84] 3.14.9 Selection of a PAC [3-84] 3.14.9.1 Check Vendor Experience [3-84] 3.14.9.2 PACs and Example of Opto 22 PAC system [3-84] 3.14.10 Computerized Programmable Automation Controller (CPAC) [3-84] 3.14.10.1 Advantages of CPAC compared to traditional PACs [3-85] 3.14.11 Application examples of CPACs [3-85] 3.14.11.1 CPAC in packaging industry [3-85] 3.14.11.2 CPAC in metal cutting process [3-86] 3.14.11.3 CPAC in metal stretching process [3-86] 3.14.11.4 CPAC in CNC modular machine tool [3-87] 3.14.11.5 CPAC in a 6 DOF industrial robot [3-87] 3.15 MECHANICAL SWITCHES [3-87] 3.15.1 Toggle Switch [3-87] 3.15.2 The Slide switch [3-88] 3.15.3 Dual In-line Package (DIP) [3-88] 3.15.4 The Rotary switch [3-89] 3.15.5 Thumbwheel switches [3-89] 3.15.6 The Selector switch [3-90] 3.15.7 Pushbutton switch [3-90] 3.15.8 Drum Switch [3-90] 3.15.9 Membrane Switch [3-90] 3.15.10 Contact type switches [3-91] 3.16 SOLID STATE SWITCHES [3-92] 3.16.1 Power diodes [3-92] 3.16.1.1 Type of power diodes [3-92] 3.16.2 Power BJT [3-92] 3.16.2.1 Construction [3-93] 3.16.2.2 Operation [3-93] 3.16.2.3 Switching characteristics [3-93]
  9. 9. Contents ix 3.16.3 Power MOSFET [3-93] 3.16.3.1 Construction [3-94] 3.16.3.2 Operation [3-94] 3.16.3.3 Comparison of power MOSFET with power BJT [3-95] 3.16.4 Insulate Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) [3-95] 3.16.4.1 Construction [3-95] 3.16.4.2 Application of IGBT [3-96] 3.16.4.3 Comparison of Power MOSFETs and IGBTs [3-96] 3.16.5 Thyristors [3-97] 3.16.5.1 Types of Thyristors [3-98] 3.16.6 Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) [3-98] 3.16.6.1 Construction [3-98] 3.16.6.2 Operation of SCR [3-99] 3.16.7 TRIAC [3-99] 3.16.7.1 Construction [3-100] 3.16.7.2 Operation [3-100] 3.16.8 DIAC [3-100] 3.16.8.1 Principle of DIAC [3-100] 3.17 ELECTRICAL ACTUATORS [3-101] 3.17.1 Solenoids [3-101] 3.17.2 RELAYS [3-102] 3.17.2.1 Types of Relays [3-102] 3.17.2.2 Electromechanical Relay (EMR) [3-102] 3.17.2.3 Operation Time [3-104] 3.17.2.4 Enclosures and Mounting [3-104] 3.17.2.5 Relay Wiring Diagrams [3-105] 3.17.2.6 Specifications of Relay [3-106] 3.17.3 Contactors [3-106] 3.17.3.1 Construction [3-106] 3.18 AC MOTORS [3-107] 3.18.1 Classification based on the type of current [3-107] 3.18.2 Classification of AC motors based on their speed [3-107] 3.18.3 Classification based on their structural features [3-108] 3.18.4 Induction motor [3-108] 3.18.4.1 General principle and construction (rotating magnetic field) [3-108] 3.18.4.2 Construction of induction motors [3-108] 3.18.4.3 Squirrel – cage rotor [3-109] 3.18.4.4 Phase wounded rotor [3-109] 3.18.5 Synchronous machines [3-110] 3.18.5.1 Classification of alternators [3-110] 3.18.6 UNIVERSAL MOTORS [3-111] 3.18.6.1 Construction [3-111] 3.18.6.2 Speed toque characteristics [3-112] 3.18.7 Three phase induction motor [3-112] 3.18.7.1 Working principle of a three phase induction motor [3-112] 3.18.7.2 Synchronous and actual speed in case of three phase induction motor [3-113] 3.18.7.3 Construction of three phase induction motor [3-113] 3.18.7.4 Comparison between squirrel cage and slip ring induction motor [3-114] 3.18.7.5 Speed control of three phase induction motors [3-115] 3.18.8 A.C. position control system [3-117] 3.19 VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE (VFD) FUNDAMENTALS [3-118] 3.19.1 AC motor speed [3-118] 3.19.2 Voltage and frequency relationship [3-119] 3.19.3 VFD speed torque characteristics [3-119]
  10. 10. PLC and Automationx 3.19.4 Variable frequency drive (VFD) output module [3-119] 3.19.5 Inverter principles [3-120] 3.19.6 Output switching sequence [3-121] 3.19.7 VFD three-phase waveform development [3-121] 3.19.8 Pulse width modulation drive (PWM Drive) [3-122] 3.19.8.1 PWM drive characteristics [3-122] 3.19.9 Energy conservation schemes through Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) [3-122] 3.19.9.1 Block diagram elements [3-123] 3.19.10 VFD System Description [3-124] 3.19.10.1 VFD Motor [3-124] 3.19.10.2 VFD Operation [3-124] 3.19.11 VFD Functional block diagram [3-125] 3.19.12 Energy saving analysis [3-125] 3.19.12.1 Saving calculations [3-127] 3.19.13 Advantages of VFD system over damper system [3-128] 3.20 DC MOTORS [3-128] 3.20.1 Principle of operation [3-128] 3.20.1.1 Statement of Fleming’s left hand rule [3-128] 3.20.2 Working of DC motor [3-129] 3.20.2.1 Development of individual fields [3-129] 3.20.2.2 Interaction of the two magnetic fields [3-129] 3.20.2.3 Force exerted on the conductor [3-129] 3.20.2.4 Back EMF and its significance [3-129] 3.20.3 Types of DC motors [3-130] 3.20.3.1 DC shunt motors [3-130] 3.20.3.2 DC series motor [3-130] 3.20.4 Motoring modes [3-131] 3.20.4.1 Four quadrants [3-132] 3.20.5 Speed control system of D.C. motor [3-132] 3.20.6 DC motor applications [3-133] 3.20.6.1 Shunt motor applications [3-133] 3.20.6.2 Series motor applications [3-133] 3.21 BRUSHLESS D.C. MOTOR (BLDC) [3-134] 3.21.1 Construction of BLDC motor [3-134] 3.21.2 Working principle of BLDC motor [3-134] 3.21.3 Features of Brushless D.C. Motor [3-134] 3.21.4 Speed torque characteristics of BLDC [3-134] 3.21.5 Limitations [3-134] 3.21.6 Applications of BLDC motors [3-135] 3.22 STEPPER MOTORS [3-135] 3.22.1 Types of Stepper Motors [3-135] 3.22.1.1 Variable reluctance stepper motors [3-135] 3.22.1.2 Permanent magnet stepper motors [3-136] 3.22.1.3 Hybrid type stepper motors [3-137] 3.22.2 Characteristics of stepper motor [3-138] 3.22.3 Application of stepper motors [3-138] 3.23 SERVOMOTORS [3-138] 3.23.1 Features of servomotors [3-139] 3.23.2 Types of Servomotors [3-139] 3.23.2.1 A.C. Servomotors [3-139] 3.23.2.2 D.C. Servomotors [3-140] 3.24 PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS [3-140] 3.24.1 Piston actuators [3-141] 3.24.2 Diaphragm actuators [3-141]
  11. 11. Contents xi 3.24.3 Reverse acting (spring-to-extend) [3-142] 3.24.4 Direct acting actuator (spring-to-retract) [3-143] 3.25 ELECTRICAL VALVE ACTUATORS [3-143] 3.25.1 VMD (Valve Motor Drive) [3-144] 3.26 HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS [3-145] 3.26.1 Description and working [3-145] 3.27 DIGITAL POSITIONERS [3-147] 3.27.1 Rotary pneumatic actuators and positioners [3-147] Review questions [3-147] 4 PLC AND HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI) [4-1 to 4-150] 4.1 PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) OVERVIEW [4-1] 4.1.1 PLC advantages [4-2] 4.1.2 PLC system [4-2] 4.1.3 Types of PLCs [4-3] 4.1.3.1 Classification of PLCs [4-3] 4.1.4 CPU and Monitors [4-5] 4.1.5 PLC input and output modules [4-5] 4.1.5.1 Input Module [4-5] 4.1.5.2 Output Module [4-6] 4.1.5.3 Analog I/O Modules [4-7] 4.1.5.4 Bus System [4-8] 4.1.6 PLC operation modes and sequence [4-8] 4.1.6.1 The Input and Output Scans [4-9] 4.1.6.2 The Logic Scan [4-9] 4.1.6.3 The Scan Cycle of a PLC [4-10] 4.1.7 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) [4-10] 4.1.7.1 Solid- state memory [4-11] 4.1.7.2 EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read Only [4-11] 4.1.7.3 EEPROM [4-11] 4.1.7.4 NOVRAM [4-12] 4.1.7.5 Processor architecture [4-12] 4.1.8 PLC Setup procedure [4-12] 4.1.9 PLC Operation example [4-13] 4.1.10 PLC applications [4-14] 4.1.11 Comparison between Relay Logic Control and PLC [4-15] 4.1.12 Comparison between PLC and PC [4-15] 4.1.13 Comparison between PLC and DCS [4-16] 4.1.14 Recording and printing PLC information [4-16] 4.2 TYPES OF I/O MODULES OR INTERFACES [4-16] 4.2.1 Classification of I/0 modules [4-17] 4.2.2 Block diagram of I/O system [4-18] 4.2.3 Practical I/O system and its mapping or assignment [4-18] 4.2.4 Local and expansion I/O addressing [4-19] 4.3 TYPES OF INPUT-OUTPUT SYSTEMS [4-19] 4.3.1 Direct I/O [4-19] 4.3.2 Parallel I/O [4-19] 4.3.3 Serial I/O [4-20] 4.4 SINKING AND SOURCING CIRCUITS [4-21] 4.4.1 Need for sourcing and sinking circuits [4-21] 4.4.2 Sourcing and Sinking in PLC interface [4-22] 4.5 DISCRETE INPUT MODULE [4-22] 4.5.1 Discrete DC Input Module [4-22] 4.5.2 Discrete AC Input Module [4-22] 4.5.3 Rectifier section [4-23]
  12. 12. PLC and Automationxii 4.5.4 Threshold detector circuit [4-23] 4.5.5 Isolation section [4-23] 4.5.6 Logic section [4-23] 4.6 DISCRETE OUTPUT MODULES [4-24] 4.6.1 Advantages and disadvantages of output modules [4-24] 4.7 ANALOG INPUT MODULE [4-25] 4.7.1 Working of analog input module [4-25] 4.7.2 Noise reduction circuits [4-25] 4.8 SPECIAL INPUT/OUTPUT MODULES [4-26] 4.8.1 Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Input Module [4-26] 4.8.2 Thermocouple or millivolt input module [4-26] 4.8.3 High-speed encoder input module [4-26] 4.8.4 Stepper motor control module [4-26] 4.8.5 Self-diagnostic module [4-26] 4.8.6 RS-232C interface module [4-26] 4.8.7 Remote I/0 Sub-scanners [4-26] 4.8.8 Communication modules [4-27] 4.9 ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE [4-27] 4.10 POWER SUPPLY [4-27] 4.11 REGISTER BASICS [4-28] 4.11.1 Holding registers [4-28] 4.11.2 PLC registers [4-28] 4.11.3 Input registers [4-29] 4.11.4 Output registers [4-29] 4.12 PLC TIMER FUNCTION [4-30] 4.12.1 Examples of 9-type of timer function applications [4-30] 4.12.2 PLC counter function [4-31] 4.13 ARITHMETIC FUNCTION [4-31] 4.13.1 Addition [4-31] 4.13.2 PLC subtract function [4-32] 4.13.3 Multiplication [4-33] 4.13.4 Squaring by multiply function [4-33] 4.13.5 Division [4-34] 4.13.6 Square root function [4-34] 4.13.7 Comparison function [4-34] 4.14 THE SKIP FUNCTION [4-35] 4.14.1 SKIP (SK) function [4-36] 4.14.2 Operation [4-36] 4.15 THE MASTER CONTROL RELAY FUNCTION [4-36] 4.15.1 Master control relay function [4-36] 4.15.2 MCR function [4-36] 4.16 THE JUMP FUNCTION [4-37] 4.17 THE MOVE FUNCTION [4-37] 4.17.1 Block transfer function [4-38] 4.17.2 Table and register moves [4-38] 4.17.3 Register to table move system [4-39] 4.18 THE SEQUENCER FUNCTION [4-39] 4.18.1 PLC sequencer function [4-39] 4.19 PROGRAMMING THE PLC [4-39] 4.19.1 Registering instructions into the PLC's memory [4-39] 4.20 BASIC RELAY INSTRUCTIONS [4-40] 4.20.1 Normally open instruction [4-40] 4.20.2 Output instruction [4-40] 4.20.3 Normally Closed Instruction [4-40] 4.20.4 One Shot Instruction [4-41] 4.20.5 The Output Latching Instruction [4-41]
  13. 13. Contents xiii 4.20.6 Internal Bit Type Instruction [4-41] 4.21 PLC TIMER FUNCTIONS [4-42] 4.21.1 ON Delay Timer [4-43] 4.21.2 OFF Delay Timer [4-44] 4.21.3 Retentive Timer [4-45] 4.21.4 Examples on timers [4-46] 4.22 PLC COUNTERS [4-47] 4.22.1 Working of Counters [4-48] 4.22.2 Counter Instructions [4-48] 4.22.3 Down Counter [4-49] 4.22.4 Combined Up and Down counter [4-50] 4.23 SHIFT REGISTERS [4-50] 4.24 ADVANCED INSTRUCTIONS [4-52] 4.24.1 Comparison Instructions [4-52] 4.24.2 Math Instructions [4-52] 4.24.3 Logical and Shift Instructions [4-52] 4.24.4 Control Instructions [4-53] 4.24.5 PID Control [4-53] 4.24.6 I/O Message and Communication Instructions [4-53] 4.24.7 PID Instructions [4-53] 4.24.8 MATH instructions [4-54] 4.25 LOGIC GATES BY PLC [4-54] 4.25.1 OR [4-54] 4.25.2 AND [4-54] 4.25.3 NOT [4-54] 4.26 LADDER DIAGRAMS [4-54] 4.26.1 Logic symbols [4-55] 4.26.2 Physical ladder [4-55] 4.26.3 Programmable ladder [4-55] 4.27 LADDER DIAGRAM EXAMPLES [4-56] 4.28 PLC SYSTEM CONFIGURATION [4-73] 4.28.1 I/O quantity and type [4-73] 4.28.2 I/O removing requirements [4-73] 4.28.3 Memory quantity and type [4-74] 4.28.4 Programmers [4-74] 4.28.5 PLC Installation [4-74] 4.28.6 Safety consideration [4-74] 4.28.7 Enclosure [4-74] 4.28.8 Temperature consideration [4-74] 4.28.9 Noise [4-74] 4.28.10 Hook – up [4-75] 4.28.11 PLC peripherals [4-75] 4.28.12 Selection of PLCs [4-75] 4.28.13 PLC Specifications [4-76] 4.29 PLC COMMUNICATION NETWORKING [4-77] 4.29.1 PLCs and levels of networks [4-79] 4.29.1.1 Information level [4-79] 4.29.1.2 Control level [4-79] 4.29.1.3 Device level [4-79] 4.29.1.4 Polled I/O communication [4-80] 4.29.2 PLC networking in a manufacturing cell [4-80] 4.29.2.1 Manufacturing cell control [4-81] 4.29.3 Network topologies for PLC [4-82] 4.29.3.1 Topology [4-83] 4.30 EXAMPLE OF PLC BASED AUTOMATED SYSTEMS [4-83] 4.30.1 PLC based automatic bottle filling and capping system [4-83]
  14. 14. PLC and Automationxiv 4.30.2 PLC based power conservation automated system [4-85] 4.30.3 PLC based automatic multistoried car parking system [4-88] 4.30.4 PLC based intelligent traffic control system [4-90] 4.30.5 PLC and SCADA based boiler automation system for thermal power plant [4-91] 4.30.6 PLC based Control System in Heat Treatment Plant [4-94] 4.30.7 PLC based automatic liquid filling system [4-95] 4.31 HIGH FREQUENCY INPUTS FOR PLCS [4-96] 4.31.1 High-Speed I/O Circuit [4-97] 4.31.1.1 Wiring Diagrams for each HSIO Mode [4-97] 4.31.2 Block diagram of HSIO circuit [4-98] 4.31.3 Interfacing to Counter Outputs [4-98] 4.31.4 High Speed Counter Inputs [4-99] 4.31.5 High Speed Counter Data Memory usage [4-99] 4.31.6 High speed counter modes [4-101] 4.32 THE IEC 61131 STANDARD [4-102] 4.32.1 Goals and merits of the standard [4-130] 4.32.1.1 Ease for manufacturers of PLC hardware and software [4-103] 4.32.1.2 Ease for Customers [4-103] 4.32.2 Brief History of IEC 61131 standard [4-103] 4.32.3 PLC Standard languages [4-104] 4.32.4 IEC 61131-3 PLC Programming Languages [4-105] 4.32.4.1 Ladder Diagram (LD) [4-105] 4.32.4.2 Function Block Diagram [4-106] 4.32.4.3 Sequential function chart [4-106] 4.32.4.4 Instruction List [4-107] 4.32.4.5 Structured Text [4-108] 4.32.5 Selection of Language [4-109] 4.33 SOFT PLC TECHNIQUES [4-109] 4.33.1 What is PC Based Control? [4-109] 4.33.2 Where the SoftPLCs are being used? [4-109] 4.33.3 PCs at the “Early Adopter” Stage [4-110] 4.33.4 The Place for PCs [4-110] 4.33.5 The longer term [4-110] 4.34 IT INTERFACES FOR PLC [4-111] 4.34.1 Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) [4-112] 4.34.2 Fieldbus Networks [4-112] 4.34.3 Ethernet [4-112] 4.34.4 OLE - Object Linking and Embedding - for Process Control (OPC) [4-113] 4.34.5 Factory Window [4-113] 4.34.6 MIS Integration [4-114] 4.34.7 SP88 Standard [4-114] 4.34.8 PC Based Batching Systems [4-115] 4.34.9 Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) integration [4-115] 4.34.10 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Integration [4-116] 4.34.11 Application Integration [4-116] 4.34.12 PLC AND ERP [4-117] 4.35 RFID SYSTEM INTEGRATION [4-117] 4.35.1 RFID integration advantages [4-118] 4.35.2 RFID integration process [4-118] 4.35.3 Components for RFID integration [4-120] 4.35.3.1 RFID tags [4-120] 4.35.3.2 Tag position and mobility [4-120] 4.35.3.3 RFID reader [4-120] 4.35.3.4 Selection of reader antenna [4-120] 4.35.3.5 Communication module [4-120] 4.35.3.6 Middleware [4-121]
  15. 15. Contents xv 4.35.3.7 Application software for system integration [4-121] 4.35.3.8 Data storage server [4-121] 4.35.3.9 Enterprise management and planning connectivity [4-122] 4.35.3.10 Security [4-122] 4.35.4 Regulatory compliance testing and standards [4-122] 4.35.5 Data transmission in RFID [4-123] 4.35.5.1 Screen display [4-123] 4.35.6 Example: RFID integration with PLC [4-123] 4.35.6.1 RFID interface with PLC [4-124] 4.36 BARCODE READER [4-125] 4.36.1 Barcode basics [4-125] 4.36.2 Data encoding capacity [4-126] 4.36.3 Types of barcode scanners [4-127] 4.36.3.1 Pen-type readers [4-127] 4.36.3.2 Laser scanners [4-127] 4.36.3.3 CCD readers [4-127] 4.36.3.4 Camera-based readers [4-127] 4.36.3.5 Omni-directional barcode scanners [4-128] 4.36.3.6 Cell phone cameras [4-128] 4.36.4 Types of housing of barcode readers [4-129] 4.36.5 Methods of connection [4-129] 4.36.5.1 Early serial interfaces [4-129] 4.36.5.2 Proprietary interfaces [4-129] 4.36.5.3 Keyboard wedge/PS2 [4-129] 4.36.5.4 USB [4-129] 4.36.5.5 Wireless networking [4-130] 4.36.5.6 Resolution [4-130] 4.36.6 Barcode decoder and interface [4-130] 4.36.6.1 Decoders [4-130] 4.36.6.2 Interfaces [4-130] 4.36.7 Interfacing a Barcode Reader to a PC [4-130] 4.36.8 Example of interface with PLC [4-131] 4.37 MACHINE - VISION SYSTEMS [4-132] 4.37.1 Machine vision methods [4-132] 4.37.1.1 Imaging [4-133] 4.37.1.2 Image processing [4-133] 4.37.1.3 Outputs [4-134] 4.37.2 Machine Vision block diagram [4-134] 4.37.2.1 Image acquisition [4-134] 4.37.2.2 Image preprocessing [4-135] 4.37.2.3 Image Analysis and Interpretation [4-135] 4.37.3 Integrating Ethernet-Based Machine Vision and Image-based ID Readers into Factory Networks [4-135] 4.37.3.1 Traditional machine vision interfaces at device level [4-136] 4.37.3.2 Ethernet-based vision systems interface at control level [4-136] 4.37.3.3 Integrating vision with factory networks [4-136] 4.37.4 PLC and Machine Vision Systems integration method [4-137] 4.37.4.1 Basic inspection machine diagram [4-138] 4.37.4.2 PLC programming in machine vision system [4-139] 4.37.5 Example of Machine Vision integration [4-141] 4.37.5.1 Integrating Machine Vision with existing systems [4-141] 4.37.5.2 Case Study: Integrated Vision and Robotics Packaging Line for Cosmetics [4-142] 4.38 HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI) [4-142] 4.38.1 HMI block diagram [4-142] 4.38.2 Basic types of HMIs [4-142] 4.38.3 Physical Properties of a HMI [4-143] 4.38.4 Working of HMI [4-143]
  16. 16. PLC and Automationxvi 4.38.5 Environmental Aspects for an HMI [4-144] 4.38.6 Selection of Programming Software for HMI [4-144] 4.38.7 HMI Applications [4-144] 4.38.8 Advantages of an HMI [4-144] 4.38.8.1 Advantage of an HMI over a PLC alone [4-145] 4.38.8.2 Convenience [4-145] 4.38.8.3 Interface Flexibility [4-145] 4.38.9 HMI/PLC Combination [4-145] 4.38.9.1 PLCs with Integrated Touch Screen HMI [4-145] 4.38.9.2 Wiring [4-146] 4.38.9.3 Troubleshooting [4-146] 4.38.10 History of the HMI [4-146] 4.38.11 Benefits of using both an HMI and PLC [4-147] 4.38.12 Communication protocols applicable to HMI [4-147] 4.38.13 Selection of compatible PLCs [4-147] 4.38.14 HMIs printing capabilities [4-147] 4.38.15 Programming an HMI [4-147] 4.38.16 Example of HMI [4-148] Solved examples [4-148] Review questions [4-150] 5 SCADA AND DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS) [5-1 to 5-50] 5.1 SCADA [5-1] 5.1.1 Architecture of SCADA [5-3] 5.1.2 The block diagram of SCADA [5-4] 5.1.3 SCADA Components [5-4] 5.2 MASTER TERMINAL UNIT [5-4] 5.2.1 Schematic of MTU [5-4] 5.2.2 Single-processor single-computer MTU [5-5] 5.2.3 Multi-processor single-computer MTU [5-6] 5.2.4 Dual-computer MTU [5-6] 5.2.4.1 Primary-backup computer mode [5-7] 5.2.4.2 Parallel-computer mode [5-7] 5.2.5 Master terminal units (MTU) role [5-7] 5.3 REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT (RTU) [5-7] 5.3.1 Inputs and outputs of RTU [5-8] 5.3.2 Architecture of RTU [5-8] 5.3.3 MTU-RTU communication subsystem [5-9] 5.3.3.1 Local Area Network (LAN) [5-9] 5.3.3.2 Wide Area Network (WAN) [5-10] 5.3.3.3 Internet [5-10] 5.3.3.4 Field Devices [5-10] 5.3.4 RTU-FD communication subsystem [5-10] 5.3.4.1 Analog communication [5-10] 5.3.4.2 Digital communication [5-11] 5.3.5 Network technologies and protocols [5-11] 5.3.5.1 Wire network technologies / protocols [5-11] 5.3.5.2 Wireless network technologies / protocols [5-11] 5.4 SCADA HARDWARE [5-11] 5.4.1 SCADA Software [5-12] 5.4.2 SCADA and Local Area Networks [5-12] 5.4.3 Modem use in SCADA systems [5-12] 5.4.4 SCADA system implementation [5-12] 5.5 SCADA SYSTEMS SOFTWARE [5-12] 5.5.1 SCADA key features [5-13] 5.5.2 The SCADA software package [5-15]
  17. 17. Contents xvii 5.5.3 System response times [5-16] 5.5.4 Specialized SCADA protocols [5-16] 5.5.4.1 Introduction to protocols [5-16] 5.5.4.2 Information transfer [5-17] 5.5.4.3 High level data link control (HDLC) protocol [5-17] 5.5.4.4 The CSMA/CD protocol format [5-18] 5.5.5 Distributed network protocol [5-19] 5.5.6 New technologies in SCADA systems [5-19] 5.6 SCADA COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURE [5-19] 5.6.1 First generation: Monolithic [5-19] 5.6.2 Second generation: Distributed [5-20] 5.6.3 Third generation: Networked [5-20] 5.7 SCADA COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS [5-21] 5.7.1 Modbus Protocol [5-21] 5.7.2 DNP3 Protocol [5-21] 5.7.3 IEC 60870-5 Protocol [5-21] 5.7.4 Profibus Protocol [5-22] 5.7.5 Foundation Fieldbus [5-22] 5.7.6 Modbus plus protocol [5-23] 5.7.7 Data Highway Plus/Dh-485 Protocol [5-23] 5.8 POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF SCADA [5-23] 5.8.1 SCADA Application [5-23] 5.8.2 Comparison of SCADA and DCS [5-23] 5.8.3 Considerations and benefits of SCADA system [5-24] 5.9 SCADA FOR CLINKER APPLICATION [5-24] 5.10 SCADA FOR WATER TREATMENT PLANT [5-25] 5.11 SCADA FOR STEEL PLANT [5-25] 5.12 SCADA FOR “FERTILIZER” PLANT [5-26] 5.13 SCADA FOR PAPER AND PULP INDUSTRY WITH POSSIBLE ISO [5-26] 5.14 DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS) [5-27] 5.14.1 Generalized block diagram of DCS [5-27] 5.14.2 DCS functions [5-30] 5.14.3 Advantage and disadvantages of DCS [5-32] 5.14.4 Components of DCS [5-32] 5.14.5 Example of DCS [5-34] 5.14.6 System architecture [5-36] 5.15 EVOLUTION OF HIERARCHICAL SYSTEM STRUCTURE [5-38] 5.15.1 On-Line, open-loop application [5-38] 5.15.2 On-Line, Closed loop control [5-39] 5.15.3 Distributed dedicated computers [5-39] 5.15.4 Two-stage hierarchical or decentralized computer system [5-39] 5.15.5 Centralized computer system [5-40] 5.15.6 Hierarchical structure with intermediate computers [5-41] 5.15.7 Hierarchical computer system of the plant [5-41] 5.15.8 Example: Honeywell TDC 3000 DCS architecture [5-41] 5.15.9 Example: Honeywell – GUS [5-43] 5.15.10 DCS for cement industry [5-45] 5.15.11 DCS for water treatment plant [5-46] 5.15.12 DCS for steel plant [5-48] 5.15.13 DCS for paper and pulp industry [5-48] 5.15.14 DCS for Ammonia Plant: Controls [5-48] 5.15.15 DCS for fertilizer industry [5-49] Review Questions [5-49] 6 AUTOMATION AND CNC MACHINES [6-1 to 6-82] 6.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUMERICAL CONTROL [6-1]
  18. 18. PLC and Automationxviii 6.1.1 Types of NC systems [6-2] 6.1.1.1 Traditional numerical control (NC) [6-2] 6.1.1.2 Computer numerical control (CNC) [6-2] 6.1.1.3 Distributed numerical control (DNC) [6-2] 6.1.2 Controlled axes [6-2] 6.1.2.1 Importance of higher axes machining [6-3] 6.1.3 Point-to-point vs. continuous systems [6-3] 6.1.3.1 Point-to-point (PTP) system [6-3] 6.1.3.2 Contouring system [6-3] 6.2 NC PART PROGRAMMING [6-4] 6.2.1 Tool and fixture design [6-4] 6.2.2 NC machine operation [6-4] 6.2.3 Machine maintenance [6-5] 6.3 COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTROL (CNC) MACHINES [6-5] 6.3.1 Structure of CNC machines [6-6] 6.3.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU) [6-6] 6.3.3 Servo control unit [6-6] 6.3.4 Operator control panel [6-7] 6.3.5 Machine control panel or machine control unit [6-7] 6.3.6 Two sub-units in the machine control unit [6-7] 6.3.6.1 Data Processing Unit (DPU) [6-7] 6.3.6.2 Control Loop Unit (CLU) [6-7] 6.3.7 Other Peripheral Devices [6-8] 6.3.8 Features of CNC machines [6-8] 6.3.9 CNC concept [6-9] 6.3.10 Hardware [6-9] 6.3.11 Software [6-9] 6.3.12 Information [6-9] 6.4 CNC SYSTEM ELEMENTS [6-10] 6.4.1 Part program [6-10] 6.4.2 Steps for CNC programming and machining [6-10] 6.4.3 Program input device [6-11] 6.4.4 Machine Control Unit (MCU) [6-11] 6.4.4.1 Central Processing Unit [6-12] 6.4.4.2 Memory [6-12] 6.4.4.3 Input/Output Interface [6-13] 6.4.4.4 Controls for machine tool axes and spindle speed [6-13] 6.4.4.5 Sequence Controls for other machine tool functions [6-13] 6.4.5 Drive system [6-13] 6.4.6 Machine Tool [6-13] 6.4.7 Feedback system [6-14] 6.5 Classification of CNC machine tools [6-14] 6.5.1 Point-to-Point System [6-14] 6.5.2 Continuous path control systems [6-14] 6.5.2.1 CNC interpolations [6-15] 6.5.3 Open Loop [6-15] 6.5.4 Closed Loop [6-16] 6.5.4.1 Two types of Feedback subsystems [6-16] 6.5.5 2 and 3 axes CNC machines [6-16] 6.5.6 4 and 5 axes CNC machines [6-16] 6.5.6.1 Importance of higher axes machining [6-16] 6.5.7 Electric systems [6-17] 6.5.8 Hydraulic systems [6-17] 6.6 TYPES OF CNC MACHINE CLASSES [6-17] 6.6.1 Product parts made by using CNC machines [6-18] 6.7 ADVANTAGES OF CNC machines [6-18]
  19. 19. Contents xix 6.8 DISADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINES [6-19] 6.9 DIRECT NUMERICAL CONTROL (DNC) MACHINES [6-21] 6.10 INDUSTRIAL COMMUNICATION [6-22] 6.10.1 Capabilities of open network architecture [6-22] 6.10.2 Three levels of networks [6-23] 6.10.3 About EtherNet/IP [6-23] 6.11 DEVICENET [6-23] 6.11.1 DeviceNet description [6-24] 6.11.2 Advantages of DeviceNet [6-25] 6.11.3 Functional design [6-26] 6.11.4 DeviceNet versus other technologies [6-26] 6.11.5 DeviceNet system configuration [6-27] 6.11.6 Typical applications [6-28] 6.11.7 Components needed to build a DeviceNet network [6-28] 6.11.8 DeviceNet physical media [6-28] 6.12 INTERBUS [6-29] 6.12.1 PROFINET [6-29] 6.12.2 Technology [6-29] 6.12.3 PROFINET component model (PROFINET CBA) [6-29] 6.12.4 PROFINET and the peripherals (PROFINET I/O) [6-30] 6.12.4.1 PROFINET I/O system devices [6-30] 6.12.5 PROFINET and real time [6-30] 6.12.6 PROFINET and isochronous communication [6-30] 6.12.7 Additional highlights of the PROFINET concept [6-30] 6.13 CONTROLNET [6-31] 6.13.1 ControlNet features [6-31] 6.13.1.1 ControlNet advantages for manufacturing automation applications [6-32] 6.13.1.2 Producer and Consumer Communication [6-33] 6.13.2 ControlNet in OSI model [6-33] 6.13.2.1 The physical layer flexibility [6-34] 6.13.2.2 Technical specifications of ControlNet [6-34] 6.13.2.3 Vital Statistics [6-36] 6.13.2.4 Key Benefits [6-36] 6.13.3 Physical Layer connections [6-36] 6.13.4 Types of device connections [6-37] 6.13.4.1 Coax trunk segment specifications [6-37] 6.13.4.2 Coax and fiber optic repeaters [6-37] 6.13.5 Industries where ControlNet is installed [6-38] 6.13.6 Comparison of DeviceNet and Ethernet [6-38] 6.14 FOUNDATION FIELDBUS [6-39] 6.14.1 Fieldbus standardization [6-40] 6.14.2 Fieldbus implementation [6-40] 6.14.3 Foundation H1 [6-41] 6.14.3.1 Foundation fieldbus H1 media [6-42] 6.14.3.2 Advantages of foundation H1 [6-42] 6.14.4 Foundation high speed Ethernet (HSE) [6-43] 6.14.5 Function Block Model [6-43] 6.15 PROFIBUS (PROcess FIeld BUS) [6-44] 6.15.1 PROFIBUS Protocol (OSI reference model) [6-46] 6.15.2 Bus access method [6-47] 6.15.3 Data link services [6-47] 6.15.4 Application services [6-47] 6.16 FIP BUS [6-48] 6.16.1 Bus Access Method [6-48] 6.16.2 Other features of FIP BUS [6-48] 6.16.3 Comparison of Buses (MODBUS, PROFIBUS and FIP-BUS) [6-48]
  20. 20. PLC and Automationxx 6.17 INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET [6-49] 6.17.1 10 Mbps Ethernet [6-50] 6.17.2 100 Mbps Ethernet [6-50] 6.17.3 Gigabit Ethernet [6-50] 6.18 TCP/IP [6-51] 6.19 COMPARISON OF NETWORKS [6-52] 6.20 CONTROL PANEL AND CONTROL ROOM ENGINEERING FOR AUTOMATION [6-52] 6.20.1 CONTROL ROOM ENGINEERING [6-54] 6.20.1.1 Electric power systems [6-54] 6.20.1.2 Control room lighting [6-56] 6.20.1.3 Communication systems [6-56] 6.20.1.4 Panel placement [6-57] 6.20.1.5 Electrical classification [6-57] 6.20.1.6 Operators’ comfort [6-57] 6.20.1.7 General considerations [6-57] 6.20.2 Engineering aspects and design criteria [6-57] 6.20.3 Control panel types [6-58] 6.20.3.1 Flat face panels [6-59] 6.20.3.2 Breakfront panels [6-61] 6.20.3.3 Consoles [6-62] 6.20.3.4 Comparison of panel types [6-63] 6.20.4 Panel layout [6-64] 6.20.4.1 Face layout [6-64] 6.20.4.2 Rear Layout [6-64] 6.20.4.3 Auxiliary racks and cabinets [6-65] 6.20.5 Panel piping and tubing [6-65] 6.20.5.1 Air Headers [6-65] 6.20.5.2 Tubing Runs [6-65] 6.20.5.3 Panel wiring [6-67] 6.20.5.4 Nameplate and tags [6-68] 6.20.5.5 Graphic displays [6-68] 6.20.6 Panel bid specifications [6-69] 6.20.6.1 Scope [6-69] 6.20.6.2 Bids [6-69] 6.20.6.3 Drawings [6-70] 6.20.6.4 Codes and Standards [6-70] 6.20.6.5 Panel Construction [6-70] 6.20.6.6 Painting [6-70] 6.20.6.7 Graphic Section (if required) [6-70] 6.20.6.8 Nameplates and Tags [6-70] 6.20.6.9 Piping [6-70] 6.20.6.10 Electrical Systems [6-71] 6.20.6.11 Instrument Equipment [6-71] 6.20.6.12 Testing and Inspection [6-71] 6.20.6.13 Delivery [6-71] 6.20.6.14 Shipping [6-71] 6.20.6.15 Guarantees [6-71] 6.20.7 Panel inspection [6-72] 6.20.8 Significance of control center and its design objectives [6-74] 6.20.8.1 Control center design [6-74] 6.20.8.2 Control room plan, section and detail drawings [6-75] 6.20.8.3 Central control rooms [6-75] 6.20.8.4 Control room one line diagram [6-75] 6.20.8.5 Field mounted control center [6-76] 6.20.8.7 Electronic one line diagram [6-77] 6.20.9 Intelligent operator interface (IOI) [6-78]
  21. 21. Contents xxi 6.20.9.1 Basic principles for operator interface design [6-78] 6.20.9.2 Example of submarine control system for understanding operator interface [6-79] 6.20.9.3 Operator interface data types [6-80] 6.20.9.4 Watch station displays [6-80] Review questions [6-80] Preface The acceptance of my previous titles “Process Instrumentation-1”, “Process Instrumentation-2”, “Industrial automation”, “Process instrumentation systems” and last year’s Process Automation book has affirmed the need for a basic text on the same subject but quite on the different contents for PLC and Automation. In the years since the syllabus changed in the year 2012, a number of instructors and students have requested that the material be created for Electronics Field. This edition is designed to meet that need. Topics in the chapter have also been expanded to enable the student to study in the great detail. Some students insisted too much for the material of PLC and Automation, so earlier I was recommending them my earlier titles. But those contents were too much in details and the need for Electronics and Telecommunication Field students is just introducery text. By this year, I decided to create contents specific for those students. This way the book was itself wanted to come out. Since I passed out as Instrumentation Engineering in 2000, the material availability was very scarce and now in the year 2014, still I haven’t found any book that will cover proper material for controllers, PLC and control valve. It is just indigestible that still there is no proper book for Control system components required in Instrumentation field. This information inspires me to fill the gaps of those contents and make the book milestone. Earlier Instrumentation related titles were also mandated by the need to convey information about new equipment in the field of process control instrumentation. The material here attempts, in a basic way, to meet the needs of the instrumentation engineer or technician who must learn how equipment operates. Mathematics has been kept wherever necessary. Process control technology has demonstrated great advances through the years. The two that stand out most recently are the development of smart sensors, where the controller is embedded directly into the sensor assembly, and the use of local area networks to support distributed plant control systems. These and other innovations have greatly changed how we implement control, but the fundamentals such as the strategy for control, the methods of control feedback, and to a large extent, the sensors for measurement remain the same. This book presents the timeless, fundamental principles of how control systems work, using a rigorous mathematics. Digital devices are having increasing impact on the process control field. While it is beyond the scope of this text to deal with these tech- niques in detail, digital devices are introduced, as are some of the associated terms. While focusing on the fundamentals, this content has been periodically updated and upgraded to reflect current advances in the technology associated with process control. Thus, this edition includes new innovations in process control. The treatment of controllers has also been expanded to reflect how this technology has increased its application base in modern industry. In addition, numerous descriptions have been clarified, figures have been improved, and some new examples have been added. I wish to express my great appreciation to the users who reviewed the previous contents and numerous excellent suggestions for improvements. Not all suggested changes could be included, but many were and all were meritorious. The book is specially written for final year students of Electronics Engineering. However, it should prove suitable for other branches of engineering which include Process control and Automation one of their subjects. This starts with a general review of control systems and its basics in chapter 1, which also includes instrumentation process characteristics, types of automation etc, with various types of process controls systems. Chapter 2 cover signal processing and conditioning in great detail. Transmitters and signal conditioning for RTD, thermocouple and DPT,. Also the smart and intelligent transmitters are introduced. Chapter 3 includes instrument standard signals, PID controller principles, their types, modes and/or actions. This chapter contains numerical and rigorous calculations about PID controllers. It also covers switches and actuator discussion. Chapter 4 describes PLC with greatest details possible. PLC covered with its all associated interfaces and modern day technology. Chapter 5 gives SCADA details and DCS in later part which covered in detail. Finally, Chapter 6 covers introduction to CNC machines and its relevant detailed discussion and then various industrial buses and protocols are covered. It also covers Control panel engineering to the great detail. This book does not promote the use of any specific software packages to supplement course coverage. However, in our classes, teachers strongly urge to use Mathcad, MAT-LAB, PSpice, and Electronics Workbench, Ladder diagram programming and simulation software as powerful tools to enhance the learning. In associated laboratories, LabVIEW provides a computer-based data acquisition and analysis tool. INTENDED READERSHIP The book is specially written for the students of B.E. Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering of University course. It is also seen as being of value to students of MSc, BSc, Electronics and telecommunications, information technology, computer engineering, Electronic Science and Instrumentation Science. It can also be used by senior students and practicing engineers in the broad field of Control Systems and instrumentation technology. - Chinttan N. Dewalia Acknowledgements I am indebted to the many people who assisted with the preparation of this book in previous year. The contents are actually been revised long ago by many professors and students time to time. Even effort has been made to give credit where it is due for the material contained herein. If inadvertently I have omitted giving credit, future publications will give due credit to those that are brought to my attention. I am vastly indebted to many people who have helped and inspired me, in various ways, to start, continue, and complete this book. I
  22. 22. PLC and Automationxxii cannot find words to describe the debt I owe to all of my colleagues at various colleges in Pune and Mumbai University for having created a stimulating atmosphere of academic excellence, the basic element of any long-lasting endeavor. I am also thankful to those people who refused for the help in preparing this book because I myself had to learn, search and survey the topics on my own. In this way, I am becoming more proficient in authoring the books. It gave me strength to become better experienced in writing book and deciding the contents as per the syllabus. A special thanks to Amol Shet for eleventh hour help in providing the solutions for some complicated numericals in the book. Thus, making the book fully covered with updated solutions. My wife Bhaktti and staff of my company typed the original manuscript with great care, artistic taste, skill, and dedication, unparalleled in my own experience. With my ongoing publishing activity after publishing of “Optical Fiber Communication” “Electronic Product Design”, “Process Automation”, another new and challenging subject of “PLC and Automation” for which I have authored this book. As a publisher, whatever I am expecting from the author, I have considered all the points while writing this book. I would like to thank Prof. Gagare (A.C.O.E., Sangamner), for referring me to Prof. Dhananjay Deore (A.C.O.E., Sangamner) for the purpose of book writing. Many thanks to all the faculty members & teachers in various colleges in Mumbai & Pune University & those who supported & encouraged me to publish the various useful & needful books. The books that are bridging the gap of contents & simplification between reference materials & applied curriculum of engineering course in Mumbai & Pune University which will further conform to all the curriculums in Indian Universities. This book is the outcome of 15 years of Publishing experience and own technical background. The suggestions from all side will be very helpful to the future reader and students of this subject because the intention is that to have a standard book for this subject. Thanks to all the students for encouraging me to publish this book. Unfortunately, sources were not always noted or available; hence, it became impractical to provide an accurate acknowledgement. Regardless of the source, I wish to express my gratitude to those who may have contributed to this work, even though anonymously. - Chinttan N. Dewalia D.I.E., B. E. Instrumentation Engg. Typesetting, editing and art: Mrs. Bhaktti C. Dewalia (Dr.D.Y.Patil College of Engg., Pune University) ROADMAP TO THE SYLLABUS (In accordance with the University revised syllabus for B.E. Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering) Unit I: Process Control & Automation: Process control principles, Servomechanisms, Control System Evaluation, Analog control, Digital control, Types of Automation; Architecture of Industrial Automation Systems, Advantages and limitations of Automation, Effects of modern developments in automation on global competitiveness. Go to Chapter 1 Process Control & Automation Unit II: Transmitters and Signal Conditioning: Need of transmitters, Standardization of signals, Current, Voltage and Pneumatic signal standards, 2-Wire & 3-Wire transmitters, Analog and Digital signal conditioning for RTD, Thermocouple, DPT etc , Smart and Intelligent transmitters Go to Chapter 2 Transmitters and Signal Conditioning Unit III: Controllers and Actuators: PID Controller, Cascade PID control, Microprocessor Based control, PAC (Programmable automation controller), Mechanical switches, Solid state switches, Electrical actuators: Solenoids, Relays and Contactors, AC Motor, VFD, energy conservation schemes through VFD, DC Motor, BLDC Motor, Stepper Motor, Servo Motor, Pneumatic and hydraulic actuators. Go to Chapter 3 Controllers and Actuators Unit IV: PLC and Human Machine Interface (HMI): Functions of PLC, Advantages, Architecture, working of PLC, Selection of PLC, Networking of PLCs, Ladder Programming, Interfacing Input and Output devices with PLC, PLC based automated systems. High frequency inputs. PLC programming standard IEC61131, Soft PLC techniques. IT Interfaces required: for ERP, MIS, MES. Supporting Applications interfaces: RFID, Barcode, Vision Systems. HMI: Block Diagram, Types, Advantages, Applications. Go to Chapter 4 PLC and Human Machine Interface (HMI) Unit V: SCADA & Distributed control system: Elements of SCADA, Features of SCADA, MTU- functions of MTU, RTU- Functions of RTU, Applications of SCADA, Communications in SCADA- types & methods used, Mediums used for communication, Introduction to DCS, Architecture of DCS, Input and output modules, communication module, Specifications of DCS. Go to Chapter 5 SCADA & Distributed control system Unit VI: Automation and CNC (Computer Numeric Control) Machines : Introduction of CNC Machines: Basics and need of CNC machines, NC, CNC and DNC (Direct NC) systems, Structure of NC systems, Applications of CNC machines in manufacturing, Advantages of CNC machines. Industrial Communication: Devicenet, Interbus, Device network: Foundation Fieldbus -H1, HART, CAN, PROFIBUS-PA, Control network: Control Net, FF-HSE, PROFIBUS-DP, Ethernet, TCP/IP. Panel Engineering for Automation. Go to Chapter 6 Automation and CNC Machines Please keep checking- www.chinttanpublications.in for more notes, solutions related to PLC and Automation for FREE download. Required notes and solutions will be uploaded time to time.

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