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Industrial Data Communication by Chinttan

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Industrial Data Communication (2009 Edition)
by Chinttan

Size : A4, Pages: 362; Price : Rs. 270
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Industrial Data Communication by Chinttan

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL DATA COMMUNICATIONS Chinttan N. Dewalia 4/8, Anandnagar, Paud Road, Kothrud, Pune-411038.
  2. 2. First Indian Edition, February, 2010 This Book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded resources. Reprinted Material is quoted with permission, and resources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of Chinttan Publications does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from Chinttan Publications for such copying. Direct all enquiries to Chinttan Publications: 91-8888101055, 9226269333 or to the distributors listed in our website www.chinttanpublications.in . The publisher believes that the contents of this book do not violet any existing copyright/intellectual property of others in any manner whatsoever. However, in the event, the author has been unable to track any source and if any copyright has been inadvertently infringed, please notify the publisher in writing for corrective action. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. All export rights for this book vest exclusively with Chinttan Publications. Unauthorised export is a violation of terms of sale and is subject to legal action. Customer Care: 8888101055, 9226269333.(WhatsApp) To receive SMS about the new books published related to your branch time to time : type “class-branch-college” and send to “8888101055’. e.g. “se-comp-dypiet” or “se-etc-bvpcoe”. After final year it will be deleted. Visit our website for extra notes, solutions, new book related to your branch : www.chinttanpublications.in Chinttan N. Dewalia Diploma in Instrumentation and Control Engineering (Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere.) B.E. Instrumentation Engineering ( Dr. D.Y.Patil college of engineering ,Pimpri,Pune.) The Indian Edition: Rs. 270.00 Industrial data communications By Chinttan N. Dewalia © 2010, Chinttan Publications Published by Chinttan Publications, 4/8, Anandnagar, Paud Road, Kothrud , Pune – 411038., Tel.no.: 8888101055, 9226269333. E- mail: chinttanpublications@gmail.com Printed in India
  3. 3. Table of contents iii Contents Preface xv Acknowledgements xvi Dedication xvii Roadmap to the syllabus xviii 1 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL DATA COMMUNICATIONS .....................................................................................................[1-1 to 1-64] 1.1 WHAT IS AN INTERNETWORK?........................................................................ [1-1] 1.1.1 History of internetworking.......................................................................................................[1-1] 1.1.2 Internetworking challenges......................................................................................................[1-2] 1.2 OPEN SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION REFERENCE MODEL ............................. [1-3] 1.2.1 Characteristics of the OSI layers..............................................................................................[1-4] 1.2.2 Protocols.................................................................................................................................[1-4] 1.2.3 OSI model and communication between systems....................................................................[1-5] 1.2.4 Interaction between OSI model layers.....................................................................................[1-5] 1.2.5 OSI layer services ...................................................................................................................[1-5] 1.2.6 OSI model layers and information exchange...........................................................................[1-6] 1.2.7 Information exchange process.................................................................................................[1-7] 1.2.7.1 OSI model physical layer.....................................................................................[1-7] 1.2.7.2 OSI model data link layer....................................................................................[1-8] 1.2.7.3 OSI model network layer.....................................................................................[1-8] 1.2.7.4 OSI model transport layer ...................................................................................[1-9] 1.2.7.5 OSI model session layer ......................................................................................[1-9] 1.2.7.6 OSI model presentation layer ..............................................................................[1-9] 1.2.7.7 OSI model application layer ..............................................................................[1-10] 1.2.8 Information formats ..............................................................................................................[1-10] 1.2.9 ISO hierarchy of networks.....................................................................................................[1-11]
  4. 4. Table of contentsiv 1.2.10 Connection-oriented and Connectionless network services....................................................[1-12] 1.2.10.1 Internetwork addressing.....................................................................................[1-13] 1.2.10.2 Data link layer addresses ...................................................................................[1-13] 1.2.10.3 MAC addresses .................................................................................................[1-13] 1.2.10.4 Mapping addresses............................................................................................[1-14] 1.2.10.5 Network layer addresses....................................................................................[1-15] 1.2.11 Hierarchical versus flat address space....................................................................................[1-16] 1.2.12 Address assignments .............................................................................................................[1-16] 1.2.13 Addresses versus names........................................................................................................[1-16] 1.2.14 Flow control basics................................................................................................................[1-17] 1.2.15 Error-checking basics ............................................................................................................[1-17] 1.2.16 Multiplexing basics................................................................................................................[1-18] 1.3 STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ..................................................................... [1-19] 1.4 ROUTING BASICS .......................................................................................... [1-19] 1.4.1 Routing components.............................................................................................................[1-20] 1.4.2 Path determination ...............................................................................................................[1-20] 1.4.3 Switching..............................................................................................................................[1-21] 1.4.4 Routing algorithms................................................................................................................[1-22] 1.4.5 Design goals .........................................................................................................................[1-22] 1.4.6 Algorithm types.....................................................................................................................[1-23] 1.4.6.1 Static versus dynamic ........................................................................................[1-23] 1.4.6.2 Single-path versus multipath..............................................................................[1-24] 1.4.6.3 Flat versus hierarchical ......................................................................................[1-24] 1.4.6.4 Host-intelligent versus router-intelligent .............................................................[1-24] 1.4.6.5 Intradomain versus interdomain ........................................................................[1-24] 1.4.6.6 Link-state versus distance vector........................................................................[1-25] 1.4.6.7 Routing metrics .................................................................................................[1-25] 1.4.6.8 Network protocols .............................................................................................[1-26] 1.5 NOISE CONSIDERATION OF A TYPICAL SYSTEM......................................... [1-26] 1.5.1 Different types of noises ........................................................................................................[1-27] 1.5.2 Signal to noise ratio (SNR or S/N ratio).................................................................................[1-30] 1.5.3 Noise figure ..........................................................................................................................[1-30] 1.5.4 Noise budget.........................................................................................................................[1-30] 1.6 NOISE IN ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT................................................................... [1-32] 1.6.1 Energy coupling mechanisms................................................................................................[1-32] 1.6.2 Inductive coupling.................................................................................................................[1-33] 1.6.3 Capacitive coupling ..............................................................................................................[1-33] 1.6.4 Electromagnetic coupling ......................................................................................................[1-34]
  5. 5. Table of contents v 1.6.5 Principle of energy coupling..................................................................................................[1-34] 1.7 MEASUREMENT OF NOISE............................................................................. [1-35] 1.7.1 Measuring noise....................................................................................................................[1-35] 1.7.2 Sensitive inputs.....................................................................................................................[1-35] 1.7.3 Clamping suppressors ...........................................................................................................[1-36] 1.8 GROUNDING .................................................................................................. [1-38] 1.8.1 Safety grounds......................................................................................................................[1-38] 1.8.2 Signal grounds......................................................................................................................[1-39] 1.8.3 Use of grounding ..................................................................................................................[1-46] 1.8.4 Grounding operation in electrical distribution network...........................................................[1-46] 1.9 SHIELDING..................................................................................................... [1-46] 1.9.1 Shielding functions................................................................................................................[1-48] 1.9.2 Shielding effectiveness (SE) ..................................................................................................[1-48] 1.9.3 Types of shielding .................................................................................................................[1-50] 1.94 Shielding design guidelines to minimize ESD ........................................................................[1-53] 1.10 GUARDING ..................................................................................................... [1-53] 1.10.1 Guarding techniques.............................................................................................................[1-54] 1.11 ENCLOSURE SIZING AND SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS .................................... [1-54] 1.11.1 Necessity of enclosure...........................................................................................................[1-55] 1.11.2 Indian standards for enclosure...............................................................................................[1-56] 1.11.3 Ingress protection (IP) ...........................................................................................................[1-57] 1.12 SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR ENCLOSURE............................................. [1-59] 1.12.1 Surface treatments ................................................................................................................[1-59] 1.12.2 Finishing of aluminum enclosure...........................................................................................[1-59] 1.12.3 Finishing of mild steel ...........................................................................................................[1-60] 1.13 TESTS CARRIED OUT ON ENCLOSURE......................................................... [1-60] Review Questions............................................................................................................[1-62] 2 COMMUNICATIONS AND CONTROL..........................................[2-1 to 2-20] 2.1 DIGITAL DATA COMMUNICATION................................................................... [2-1] 2.1.1 Data communication system ...................................................................................................[2-2] 2.1.2 Data representation.................................................................................................................[2-2] 2.1.3 Data transmission and transmission modes .............................................................................[2-2] 2.1.4 Parallel communication interface ............................................................................................[2-3] 2.1.5 Comparison with serial links....................................................................................................[2-3] 2.1.6 Parallel transmission ...............................................................................................................[2-4]
  6. 6. Table of contentsvi 2.1.7 Serial communication interface ...............................................................................................[2-4] 2.1.8 Examples of serial communication architectures......................................................................[2-5] 2.1.9 Serial transmission ..................................................................................................................[2-6] 2.1.10 Comparison of serial and parallel transmission........................................................................[2-7] 2.1.11 Types of serial transmission.....................................................................................................[2-7] 2.1.12 Asynchronous transmission.....................................................................................................[2-9] 2.1.13 Synchronous transmission.....................................................................................................[2-10] 2.1.14 Comparison of synchronous and asynchronous transmission ................................................[2-11] 2.2 SIMPLEX COMMUNICATION .......................................................................... [2-11] 2.2.1 Simplex systems....................................................................................................................[2-12] 2.3 DUPLEX (TELECOMMUNICATIONS)............................................................... [2-13] 2.3.1 Half-duplex...........................................................................................................................[2-13] 2.3.2 Full-duplex............................................................................................................................[2-14] 2.3.3 Duplex applications ..............................................................................................................[2-15] 2.3.4 Emulation of full-duplex in shared physical media.................................................................[2-15] 2.4 SYNCHRONIZATION AND TIMING IN COMMUNICATIONS ........................... [2-17] 2.4.1 Transport..............................................................................................................................[2-17] 2.4.2 Communication....................................................................................................................[2-17] 2.4.3 Some uses of synchronization ...............................................................................................[2-18] 2.4.4 Timing Synchronization Function (TSF)................................................................................[2-19] Summary..........................................................................................................................[2-19] Review Questions ............................................................................................................[2-20] 3 INDUSTRIAL NETWORK..............................................................[3-1 to 3-58] 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO LAN PROTOCOLS............................................................ [3-1] 3.1.1 What is a LAN?.......................................................................................................................[3-2] 3.1.2 LAN protocols and the OSI reference model ...........................................................................[3-2] 3.1.3 LAN media-access methods ....................................................................................................[3-2] 3.1.4 LAN transmission methods .....................................................................................................[3-3] 3.1.5 LAN topologies.......................................................................................................................[3-4] 3.1.6 LAN devices ...........................................................................................................................[3-5] 3.1.7 Comparison of LAN and WAN................................................................................................[3-6] 3.2 BRIDGING AND SWITCHING BASICS.............................................................. [3-7] 3.2.1 What are bridges and switches?...............................................................................................[3-7] 3.2.2 Link layer device overview......................................................................................................[3-7] 3.2.3 Types of bridges......................................................................................................................[3-8]
  7. 7. Table of contents vii 3.2.4 Comparison of transparent and source routing bridge ............................................................[3-10] 3.2.5 Types of switches..................................................................................................................[3-10] 3.2.6 ATM switch...........................................................................................................................[3-11] 3.2.7 LAN switch ...........................................................................................................................[3-11] 3.2.8 Comparison of hubs, switches and bridges ............................................................................[3-12] 3.3 ETHERNET TECHNOLOGIES.......................................................................... [3-12] 3.3.1 Ethernet—a brief history .......................................................................................................[3-13] 3.3.2 Ethernet network elements....................................................................................................[3-13] 3.3.3 Ethernet network topologies and structures ...........................................................................[3-13] 3.4 THE IEEE 802.3............................................................................................... [3-15] 3.4.1 The Ethernet MAC sublayer..................................................................................................[3-16] 3.4.2 The basic Ethernet frame format ...........................................................................................[3-16] 3.4.3 Full-duplex transmission—an optional approach to higher network efficiency........................[3-17] 3.4.4 Flow control..........................................................................................................................[3-18] 3.4.5 Half-duplex transmission—the CSMA/CD access method .....................................................[3-19] 3.5 THE 802.3 ....................................................................................................... [3-20] 3.5.1 10-Mbps ethernet—10 Base-T ..............................................................................................[3-21] 3.5.2 100 Mbps—Fast Ethernet .....................................................................................................[3-22] 3.6 ETHERNET: IEEE 802.3 LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) PROTOCOLS.......... [3-22] 3.6.1 Protocol structure - ethernet: IEEE 802.3 Local area network protocols.................................[3-24] 3.6.2 MAC frame with gigabit ethernet carrier extension (IEEE 803.3z)..........................................[3-25] 3.6.3 IEEE 802.4...........................................................................................................................[3-25] 3.7 TRANSMISSION MEDIA: CABLES .................................................................. [3-27] 3.7.1 Cable support .......................................................................................................................[3-29] 3.7.2 Installation considerations .....................................................................................................[3-29] 3.7.3 Conduit ................................................................................................................................[3-30] 3.7.4 Tray......................................................................................................................................[3-30] 3.7.5 Marine cable .........................................................................................................................[3-31] 3.7.6 Input and output cabling.......................................................................................................[3-31] 3.7.7 Comparison between cable and conductor............................................................................[3-33] 3.7.8 Cable layout .........................................................................................................................[3-34] 3.8 CLASSIFICATION OF CABLES ....................................................................... [3-34] 3.8.1 Twisted pair cables................................................................................................................[3-35] 3.8.2 Twinax Cable .......................................................................................................................[3-36] 3.8.3 Coaxial cable........................................................................................................................[3-36] 3.8.4 Tray cables ...........................................................................................................................[3-38] 3.8.5 Fiber-optic Cable ..................................................................................................................[3-38]
  8. 8. Table of contentsviii 3.8.6 Comparison of optical fiber with coaxial and twisted pair cables.............................................[3-40] 3.8.7 Comparison of step index and graded index fibers .................................................................[3-40] 3.8.8 Comparison of single mode and multimode fibers...................................................................[3-41] 3.8.9 Comparison of wired and wireless media ..............................................................................[3-41] 3.9 NETWORKING ................................................................................................ [3-42] 3.9.1 Network topology .................................................................................................................[3-42] 3.9.1.1 Physical topologies............................................................................................[3-42] 3.9.1.2 Logical topologies .............................................................................................[3-46] 3.9.2 Networking protocols ............................................................................................................[3-47] 3.9.3 CAT cables ...........................................................................................................................[3-47] 3.9.4 LAN cards.............................................................................................................................[3-48] 3.9.5 Networking hardware............................................................................................................[3-49] 3.10 MANCHESTER CODE...................................................................................... [3-51] 3.10.1 Manchester encoding as phase-shift keying ...........................................................................[3-52] 3.10.2 Conventions for representation of data..................................................................................[3-53] 3.10.3 Differential Manchester encoding ..........................................................................................[3-53] Review Questions ............................................................................................................[3-54] 4 OPEN CONTROL NETWORK .......................................................[4-1 to 4-36] 4.1 COMMUNICATION LINKS: RS – 232 ................................................................ [4-1] 4.1.1 Standard details......................................................................................................................[4-2] 4.1.1.1 Limitations of the standard ..................................................................................[4-5] 4.1.2 RS – 485 ................................................................................................................................[4-6] 4.1.2.1 Differential signals with RS485: Longer distances and higher bit rates..................[4-7] 4.1.2.2 Characteristics of RS485 compared to RS232, RS422 and RS423 ......................[4-8] 4.1.2.3 Network topology with RS485.............................................................................[4-8] 4.1.2.4 RS485 functionality.............................................................................................[4-9] 4.1.2.5 Comparison of standards...................................................................................[4-10] 4.2 PROTOCOLS MODBUS, ASCII, RTU............................................................... [4-10] 4.2.1 Introducing Modbus Protocol ................................................................................................[4-10] 4.2.2 ASCII....................................................................................................................................[4-16] 4.2.3 RTU......................................................................................................................................[4-16] 4.3 GENERAL PURPOSE INSTRUMENT BUS (IEEE-488) ...................................... [4-16] 4.3.1 History..................................................................................................................................[4-18] 4.3.2 Connectors ...........................................................................................................................[4-19] 4.4 BACnet............................................................................................................ [4-19]
  9. 9. Table of contents ix 4.4.1 History..................................................................................................................................[4-19] 4.4.2 Protocol Overview ................................................................................................................[4-20] 4.4.3 BACnet Objects ....................................................................................................................[4-21] 4.4.4 BACnet Testing.....................................................................................................................[4-22] 4.4.5 BACnet Working Groups ......................................................................................................[4-22] 4.5 DATA HIGHWAY PLUS ................................................................................... [4-23] 4.5.1 Media Access Method / Protocol............................................................................................[4-23] 4.5.2 Data Highway Plus Network Loading....................................................................................[4-24] 4.5.3 Network Tools ......................................................................................................................[4-24] 4.5.3.1 Data Highway Plus Network Analyzer................................................................[4-25] 4.5.3.2 The Data Highway Plus Network Monitor..........................................................[4-26] 4.5.4 Optimizing a DH+ Network..................................................................................................[4-27] 4.5.4.1 Summary of Network Optimization....................................................................[4-27] 4.5.5 Network Performance ...........................................................................................................[4-28] 4.5.6 Transmission Lines ...............................................................................................................[4-28] 4.5.6.1 Transmission Line Examples .............................................................................[4-29] 4.5.6.2 Transmission Line Summary .............................................................................[4-33] 4.5.7 Troubleshooting on a DH+ Network.....................................................................................[4-33] 4.5.7.1 Troubleshooting by Comparing Blue and Clear Phases .....................................[4-34] 4.5.7.2 Summary of DH+ Hardware Troubleshooting ..................................................[4-35] 4.5.8 Glossary................................................................................................................................[4-35] Review Questions ............................................................................................................[4-36]
  10. 10. Table of contentsx 5 NETWORKS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS ..........................................[5-1 to 5-54] 5.1 FIELDBUS ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES............................................. [5-1] 5.2 DEVICENET ...................................................................................................... [5-8] 5.3 PROFIBUS-PA................................................................................................. [5-12] 5.4 CONTROLNET................................................................................................. [5-22] 5.5 AS-I PROTOCOL ............................................................................................. [5-27] 5.6 CAN bus .......................................................................................................... [5-31] 5.6.1 CAN Bus Pin Out..................................................................................................................[5-32] 5.6.2 CAN Bus Standard/Specifications Information .....................................................................[5- 32] 5.6.3 CAN Bus Interface Ics ...........................................................................................................[5-33] 5.7 INTERBUS....................................................................................................... [5-33] 5.7.1 PROFINET ...........................................................................................................................[5-33] 5.7.2 Technology...........................................................................................................................[5-34] 5.7.3 PROFINET component model (PROFINET CBA) .................................................................[5-34] 5.7.4 PROFINET and the peripherals (PROFINET IO) ...................................................................[5-34] 5.7.5 PROFINET and real time ......................................................................................................[5-35] 5.7.6 PROFINET and isochronous communication ........................................................................[5-35] 5.7.7 Additional highlights of the PROFINET concept ....................................................................[5-35] 5.8 LONWORKS.................................................................................................... [5-36] 5.8.1 Origins and uptake................................................................................................................[5-36] 5.8.2 Applications using LonWorks ................................................................................................[5-37] 5.8.3 SNVTs (Standard Network Variable Types)...........................................................................[5-38] 5.9 INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET ................................................................................ [5-38] 5.10 INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP)............................................................................. [5-39] 5.10.1 IP Packet Format ..................................................................................................................[5-40] 5.10.2 IP Addressing........................................................................................................................[5-41] 5.10.3 IP Address Format ................................................................................................................[5-41] 5.10.4 IP Address Classes ................................................................................................................[5-42] 5.10.5 IP Subnet Addressing............................................................................................................[5-43] 5.10.6 IP Subnet Mask.....................................................................................................................[5-44] 5.10.7 Logical AND Operation.........................................................................................................[5-46] 5.11 ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (ARP) OVERVIEW ............................... [5-47] 5.11.1 Internet Routing ....................................................................................................................[5-47] 5.11.2 IP Routing.............................................................................................................................[5-48] 5.12 INTERNET CONTROL MESSAGE PROTOCOL (ICMP) .................................... [5-48]
  11. 11. Table of contents xi 5.12.1 ICMP Messages.....................................................................................................................[5-48] 5.13 ICMP ROUTER-DISCOVERY PROTOCOL (IDRP)............................................ [5-49] 5.14 TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) .............................................. [5-49] 5.14.1 TCP Connection Establishment.............................................................................................[5-50] 5.15 POSITIVE ACKNOWLEDGMENT AND RETRANSMISSION (PAR)................... [5-50] 5.16 TCP SLIDING WINDOW.................................................................................. [5-51] 5.16.1 TCP Packet Format...............................................................................................................[5-51] 5.16.2 TCP Packet Field Descriptions ..............................................................................................[5-52] 5.17 USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP)............................................................ [5-52] 5.18 INTERNET PROTOCOLS APPLICATION-LAYER PROTOCOLS ....................... [5-53] 6 HART PROTOCOL........................................................................[6-1 to 6-20] 6.1 WHAT IS HART?................................................................................................ [6-1] 6.1.1 Communication Modes...........................................................................................................[6-3] 6.2 THE HART MESSAGE STRUCTURE .................................................................. [6-5] 6.2.1 DDL device description...........................................................................................................[6-5] 6.2.2 HART commands ...................................................................................................................[6-7] 6.2.3 Continuous HART Communication Increases Safety Integrity Level (SIL) .............................[6-10] 6.2.3.1 Cost-Saving Applications...................................................................................[6-12] 6.3 OSI MODEL..................................................................................................... [6-13] 6.4 BENEFITS OF HART COMMUNICATIONS ...................................................... [6-16] Review Questions ............................................................................................................[6-19] 7 FOUNDATION FIELDBUS............................................................[7-1 to 7-14] 7.1 OVERVIEW........................................................................................................ [7-1] 7.1.1 FOUNDATION H1 .................................................................................................................[7-1] 7.1.2 FOUNDATION HSE...............................................................................................................[7-2] 7.1.3 Function Block Model .............................................................................................................[7-3] 7.1.4 Flexible Function Blocks enhance control in the field...............................................................[7-5] 7.1.5 How the technology works......................................................................................................[7-5] 7.1.6 Safety Instrumented Functions ................................................................................................[7-7] 7.2 STANDARDS..................................................................................................... [7-8] Glossary...............................................................................................................................................[7-9]
  12. 12. Table of contentsxii 8 WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES .......................................................[8-1 to 8-66] 8.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................. [8-1] 8.1.1 Geostationary satellite ..........................................................................................................[8-2] 8.2 TYPES OF SATELLITES..................................................................................... [8-2] 8.3 ORBITAL ASPECTS........................................................................................... [8-3] 8.3.1 Types of satellite orbits .........................................................................................................[8-4] 8.4 PRINCIPLE OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION ................................................ [8-6] 8.4.1 Block diagram of a satellite communication system...............................................................[8-6] 8.5 GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE.......................................................................... [8-7] 8.6 APPLICATIONS OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS......................... [8-8] 8.7 COMPARISON OF SATELLITE .......................................................................... [8-8] 8.8 STATION KEEPING IN SATELLITE COMMUNICATION .................................... [8-9] 8.9 SATELLITE FREQUENCIES AND ALLOCATIONS ............................................. [8-9] 8.9.1 Uplink Frequency...............................................................................................................[8-10] 8.9.2 Downlink frequency ...........................................................................................................[8-10] 8.9.3 Satellite altitude..................................................................................................................[8-11] 8.9.4 Block diagram of Satellite transponder ...............................................................................[8-12] 8.9.5 Frequency reuse and polarization .......................................................................................[8-12] 8.10 EARTH STATION OR GROUND STATION....................................................... [8-15] 8.11 DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE (DBS)........................................................ [8-16] 8.12 TVRO............................................................................................................... [8-17] 8.12.1 TVRO satellite bands ..........................................................................................................[8-17] 8.13 GPS................................................................................................................. [8-17] 8.13.1 GPS Tracking.....................................................................................................................[8-18] 8.13.2 GPS Works ........................................................................................................................[8-18] 8.13.3 Types of GPS tracking units ...............................................................................................[8-18] 8.13.4 Counter Measures to GPS tracking.....................................................................................[8-19] 8.14 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS ..................................................................... [8-19] 8.14.1 History ...............................................................................................................................[8-21] 8.14.2 Applications of wireless technology.....................................................................................[8-22] 8.15 WIRELESS LAN............................................................................................... [8-23] 8.15.1 54 MBit/s WLAN PCI Card (802.11g).................................................................................[8-23] 8.15.2 Architecture........................................................................................................................[8-24] 8.15.3 Types of wireless LANs.......................................................................................................[8-24] 8.15.4 Wireless distribution system ................................................................................................[8-25]
  13. 13. Table of contents xiii 8.15.5 Wireless bridge...................................................................................................................[8-26] 8.15.6 Wireless router ...................................................................................................................[8-27] 8.16 RADIO COMMUNICATION.............................................................................. [8-28] 8.16.1 Etymology..........................................................................................................................[8-28] 8.16.2 Processes ...........................................................................................................................[8-28] 8.16.3 Audio.................................................................................................................................[8-30] 8.16.4 Video .................................................................................................................................[8-31] 8.16.5 Navigation .........................................................................................................................[8-31] 8.16.6 Radar.................................................................................................................................[8-32] 8.16.7 Data (digital radio) .............................................................................................................[8-32] 8.16.8 Modern GPS receivers .......................................................................................................[8-33] 8.16.9 Amateur radio service.........................................................................................................[8-34] 8.16.10 Unlicensed radio services....................................................................................................[8-34] 8.16.11 Types of radio ....................................................................................................................[8-34] 8.16.12 Satellite radio .....................................................................................................................[8-35] 8.16.13 Satellite Internet .................................................................................................................[8-35] 8.16.13.1 Dial Return Satellite Internet ...........................................................................[8-36] 8.16.13.2 DVB-RCS Satellite Internet .............................................................................[8-36] 8.16.13.3 IPoS Satellite Internet .....................................................................................[8-36] 8.16.13.4 S-DOCSIS Satellite Internet............................................................................[8-36] 8.17 WI-FI ............................................................................................................... [8-36] 8.17.1 Uses...................................................................................................................................[8-37] 8.17.2 Direct computer-to-computer communications ...................................................................[8-38] 8.17.3 Wi-Fi certification ...............................................................................................................[8-39] 8.17.4 Advantages and challenges.................................................................................................[8-40] 8.17.5 Limitations .........................................................................................................................[8-40] 8.17.6 Reach.................................................................................................................................[8-40] 8.17.7 Mobility..............................................................................................................................[8-41] 8.17.8 Data security risks...............................................................................................................[8-41] 8.17.9 Population .........................................................................................................................[8-41] 8.17.10 Channel pollution...............................................................................................................[8-42] 8.17.11 Hardware...........................................................................................................................[8-42] 8.17.12 Embedded systems.............................................................................................................[8-43] 8.17.13 Network security.................................................................................................................[8-44] 8.17.14 Piggybacking......................................................................................................................[8-45] 8.17.15 Wi-Fi (802.11)....................................................................................................................[8-46] 8.17.16 Wi-Fi channel: 2.4 GHz (802.11b/g/n)................................................................................[8-47] 8.17.17 WiFi channel: 3.6 GHz (802.11y).......................................................................................[8-48] 8.17.18 WiFi channel: 5 GHz (802.11a/h/j/n) ..................................................................................[8-48]
  14. 14. Table of contentsxiv 8.17.19 Wi-Fi software tools............................................................................................................[8-50] 8.17.20 Wi-Fi Software tools for windows........................................................................................[8-51] 8.18 EAP, LEAP, PEAP AND EAP-TLS AND EAP-TTLS........................................... [8-52] 8.18.1 PEAP, EAP-TTLS and a world without certificates..............................................................[8-52] 8.19 PPP ................................................................................................................. [8-53] 8.19.1 PPP LCP............................................................................................................................[8-53] 8.19.2 PPP NCP’s.........................................................................................................................[8-54] 8.20 GSM ................................................................................................................ [8-54] 8.20.1 The future of GSM .............................................................................................................[8-55] 8.20.2 GSM Network Operators....................................................................................................[8-55] 8.20.3 GSM Security.....................................................................................................................[8-55] 8.20.4 GSM system architecture....................................................................................................[8-56] 8.20.5 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) ...............................................................................[8-58] 8.20.6 The future of GPRS............................................................................................................[8-58] 8.20.7 GSM and GPRS security functions.....................................................................................[8-58] 8.21 IS-54 AND IS-136: TDMA................................................................................ [8-61] 8.21.1 IS-54 and IS-136: TDMA Security......................................................................................[8-62] 8.22 EDGE .............................................................................................................. [8-62] 8.22.1 EDGE Compact .................................................................................................................[8-62] 8.23 VSAT ............................................................................................................... [8-62] 8.23.1 Implementations of VSAT...................................................................................................[8-63] 8.23.2 VSAT Configurations..........................................................................................................[8-63] 8.23.3 VSAT’s Strengths ...............................................................................................................[8-64] 8.23.4 VSAT Drawbacks ...............................................................................................................[8-64] Summary...........................................................................................................................................[8-64] Review Questions...........................................................................................................................[8-65] 
  15. 15. xv Preface Application of communication systems in every field has got the importance day by day. Going for communication system design in the real time environment is really a great challenge. For this purpose some essentials of Industrial Communications related thing, different types of communication devices, their appropriate applications with examples should be part of the general knowledge. This book gives the basics of those communications and networks useful for the applications and designing the Industrial data and distributed control systems. For the students of Instrumentation engineering, the simplified contents in any subject are scarce. As ongoing stages of publishing after Project Engineering, planning and management, I have first time authored this book with very great care. Hope this book will be of great use to students and practicing engineers in various universities. As its title suggests, this is an introductory text to the theory and practice of Industrial data communications. It is intended to cover the needs, as these pertain to the scope of S. E. Instrumentation and control engineering education. This book is the outcome of notes collected since the graduation. Lot of changes took place from 1997 course to 2009 course. I have noted the changes and rewritten the articles as per the syllabus. A considerable effort has been made to make the book clear and easy to read and understand, without sacrificing details. The theory has been suitably highlighted and reinforced with the help of diagrams. The book is specially written for second year students of Instrumentation and control engineering. However, it should prove suitable for other branches of engineering which include Data communications and networks as one of their subjects. The book has been divided into 8 chapters as per university syllabus of Industrial data communications. An attempt has been made to cover whole syllabus as per university’s curriculum. The book begins with…… Chapter-1 describes the basic of communication models and its different layers. Also, it covers Noise and cable engineering. Chapter-2 explains different communication modes used from the transmission to reception. Chapter-3 covers almost all the communication networks, their structures, transmission media, data encoding techniques. Chapter-4 gives standards for communication between remote systems and different networks developed by international organization to integrate all system used in throughout the world. Chapter-5 describes the DCS Engineering and Designs that include industrial networking. Chapter-6 teaches Application development of Automation using HART communication protocols and continuous process application. Chapter-7 gives all the details of Foundation fieldbus and its functionality. Chapter-8 introduces the distant wireless technologies like WLAN and satellite systems upcoming mobile communication system like GSM ,CDMA etc. INTENDED READERSHIP The book is specially written for the students of S.E. Instrumentation Engineering university course. It is also seen as being of value to students of MSc, BSc, Electronics and telecommunications, information technology, computer engineering, Electronic Science and Instrumentation Science. It can also be used by senior students and practicing engineers in the broad field of Control Systems and instrumentation technology. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ASSUMED A prerequisite for using this book is basic knowledge of electronics covered in the previous curriculum in the Instrumentation Engineering course. A basic knowledge of science and mathematics has been assumed. The science required is basic physical science. Key elements of science are developed in appropriate chapters. The mathematics required is just the ability to handle the numbers, integration, summation, interpret graphs and in a few instances, handle simple algebraic equation. Knowledge of the subject of biology at Xth and XIIth class level would be very useful, although not absolutely essential. - Chinttan N. Dewalia
  16. 16. xvi Acknowledgements Even effort has been made to give credit where it is due for the material contained herein. If inadvertently we have omitted giving credit, future publications will give due credit to those that are brought to the author’s attention. I am vastly indebted to many people who have helped and inspired me, in various ways, to start, continue, and complete this book. I cannot find words to describe the debt I owe to all of my colleagues at various colleges in Pune and Mumbai University for having created a stimulating atmosphere of academic excellence, the basic element of any long- lasting endeavor. My wife Bhaktti and staff of my company typed the original manuscript with great care, artistic taste, skill, and dedication, unparalleled in my own experience. Many thanks to Mrs. Vidya Kamankar (R.G.I.T., Andheri, Mumbai) for the constant encouragement and for ongoing publishing activity with another new and challenging subject for which I have, for the first time, authored the whole book in my eight years of publishing career. As a publisher, whatever I am expecting from the author, I have considered all the points while writing the book. Many thanks to all the faculty members & teachers in various colleges in Mumbai & Pune University & those who supported & encouraged me to publish the various useful & needful books. The books that are bridging the gap of contents & simplification between reference materials & applied curriculum of engineering course in Mumbai & Pune University which will further conform to all the curriculums in Indian Universities. This book is the outcome of eight years of of Publishing experience and own technical background. The suggestions from all side will be very helpful to the future reader and students of this subject because the intention is that to have a standard book for this subject. Thanks to all the students for encouraging me to publish this book. Unfortunately, sources were not always noted or available; hence, it became impractical to provide an accurate acknowledgement. Regardless of the source, I wish to express my gratitude to those who may have contributed to this work, even though anonymously. - Mr.Chinttan N. Dewalia D.I.E., B. E. Instrumentation Engg. (Dr.D.Y.Patil College of Engg., Pune University) Typesetting, editing and art: Mrs. Bhaktti C. Dewalia
  17. 17. xvii To my wife Bhaktti
  18. 18. xviii ROADMAP TO THE SYLLABUS (In accordance with the university revised syllabus for S.E. Instrumentation and control Engineering) 1. Introduction: OSI reference model ,Systems engineering approach, State transition structure, Detailed design , Media, Physical connections, Protocols , Noise ,Cable spacing, Ingress protection. Go to Chapter 1 Introduction to Industrial Data Communications 2. Communications and control: Introduction, Evolution of industrial control process, communication interface- serial and parallel, communication mode-simplex, half duplex and full duplex, synchronization and timing. Go to Chapter 2 Communications and control 3. Industrial network: network requirements, OSI implementation, Enterprise network: types of networks, LAN – architecture, topology, transmission media: Cable characteristics, Cable selection, unshielded twisted-pair cable , shielded twisted-pair cable, Coaxial cables , Fiber optics, wireless media. physical and logical media access and arbitration methods – token passing, ring, bus master-slave, peer-peer, network and transport layer services, real time implications, Session, presentation, and application layers. LAN standards for open LAN, bridges, routers and gateways, Manchester coding. Go to Chapter 3 Industrial networks 4. Open control network: RS232, RS422, EIA 485, Ethernet- MODBUS – structure, function codes and implementation, General Purpose Instrument Bus, specifications. Proprietary control network: MODBUS plus, data highway plus. Go to Chapter 4 Open control network 5 Networks at different levels: Sensor level network: AS-i, CAN, Devicenet, Interbus and LON, Device network: Foundation Fieldbus –H1, HART, PROFIBUS-PA, Control network: BACnet, ControlNet, FF-HSE, PROFIBUS- DP, Ethernet, TCP/IP. Go to Chapter 5 Networks at different levels 6 HART: Architecture – physical, data link, application layer, communication technique, normal and burst mode of communication, troubleshooting, benefits of HART. Go to Chapter 6 HART 7 Foundation fieldbus: Fieldbus requirement, features, advantages, fieldbus components, types, architecture–physical, data link, application layer, system and network management, wiring, segment functionality checking, installation in safe and hazardous area and troubleshooting, function block application process. Go to Chapter 7 Foundation fieldbus 8 Wireless technologies: Satellite systems , Wireless LANs (WLANs) , Radio and wireless communication, WiFi , GSM, GPRS and VSAT – their comparison, limitations and characteristics. Go to Chapter 8 Wireless technologies

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