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Industrial Automation 2009 Edition

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Industrial Automation (Paperback)
By Chinttan
Size : B5, Pages: 368; Price : Rs. 190.00
Buy this book from : www.chinttanpublications.in

Published in: Engineering
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Industrial Automation 2009 Edition

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION Pritesh B. Shah B. E. Instrumentation Engineering, (Govt. Engg. College, Gandhinagar , Gujarat M.Tech,College of Engg., Pune) Presently Lecturer at Dr. D.Y. Patil College of Engineering Pimpri,Pune. Chinttan N. Dewalia Diploma in Instrumentation and Control Engineering (Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere.) B.E. Instrumentation Engineering ( Dr. D.Y.Patil college of engineering ,Pune.) 4/8, Anandnagar, Paud Road, Kothrud, Pune-411038.
  2. 2. First Indian Edition, May 2009 This Book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded resources. Reprinted Material is quoted with permission, and resources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of Chinttan Publications does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from Chinttan Publications for such copying. Direct all enquiries to Chinttan Publications: 91-9226269333 or to the distributors listed in our catalogue. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. Customer Care: 8888101055 , 9226269333 To receive SMS/whatsapp about the new books published related to your branch time to time : type “class-branch-college” and send to “8888101055’. e.g. “se-ic-rait” or “se-ic-bvpcoe”. After final year it will be deleted. FREE download table of contents of this book from : www.chinttanpublications.in Visit for more books and PDFs related to your course on our website. The Indian Edition: Rs. 190.00 Industrial Automation By Pritesh B. Shah and Chinttan N. Dewalia © 2009, Chinttan Publications Published by Chinttan Publications, 4/8, Anandnagar, Paud Road, Kothrud , Pune – 411038., Tel.no.: 9226269333,8888101055. E- mail: chinttanpublications@gmail.com and Printed in Pune.
  3. 3. PR E F A C E I am glad to publish my very first book Industrial Automation for Instrumentation Engineering. The prime objective of the present edition is to represent the Automation and related things. Accordingly, the underlying principles and factors for each unit process are organized in a systematic manner with most of the emphasis on fundamental scientific principles. A sincere effort has been made after referring many prescribed books and information available from the internet. I hope this book will definitely help students and teachers while studying and implementing this curriculum. The book has been divided into 6 units as per university syllabus of Industrial Automation. An attempt has been made to cover whole syllabus as per university’s structure. The book begins with…… Chapter-1 describes the basic of automation and its different tools. Also, it covers Control System Audit. Chapter-2 explains PLC programming methods, selection of PLC and various communication protocols like MODBUS and links (RS 232 and RS 485). Chapter-3 covers standard protocol like HART, Foundation Fieldbus with their benefits and various applications in industries. Also, the As-I, Profibus and ControlNet etc are covered. Chapter-4 gives basics of Distributed Control System (DCS) with its block diagram, architecture, application and trends. Chapter-5 describes the DCS Engineering and Designs that include detail engineering, configuration, advanced process control, OPC and Data Management etc. Ultimately, Chapter-6 teaches Application development of Automation including various batch processes and continuous process application. This book is specially designed for the students of B.E. Instrumentation engineering in such a way, so as to provide a simple, smooth and readable account of all the topics. Hope this book will accomplish all the information as per the university curriculum of B.E. Instrumentation Engineering. INTENDED READERSHIP The book is specially written for the students of B.E. Instrumentation Engineering university course. It is also seen as being of value to students of MSc, BSc, Electronics, Electronic Science and Instrumentation Science. It can also be used by senior students and practicing engineers in the broad field of Control Systems and instrumentation technology. BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE ASSUMED A prerequisite for using this book is basic knowledge of electronics covered in the previous curriculum in the Instrumentation Engineering course. A basic knowledge of science and mathematics has been assumed. The science required is basic physical science. Key elements of science are developed in appropriate chapters. The mathematics required is just the ability to handle the numbers, integration, summation, interpret graphs and in a few instances, handle simple algebraic equation. Knowledge of the subject of biology at Xth and XIIth class level would be very useful, although not absolutely essential. -Pritesh B. Shah
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am thankful to my colleagues and friends who have helped, inspired and given moral support and encouragement in various ways in completing this task. I also acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestion given by publisher Chinttan Dewalia. I owe a special debt to Dr. R.K.Jain (Principal, Dr. D.Y.P.C.O.E.,Pimpri), Prof. V.S.Rane (Head of the department),Prof. Mukesh and Prof. Hajare for giving moral support. Also, I thank to my friends Ravi, Shekhar, Prashant, Swapnil and Chandresh for encouraging and motivating during my work. I express my deep sense of gratitude to my parents for their love, support , and understanding. My thanks are also due to the publishers, editor and back office team to publish this book within minimum time. I welcome suggestion and feedback for further improvement from the students and teachers. Pritesh B. Shah pritesh.dyp@gmail.com Pune, India I would like to thank Prof. Mukesh Ghogare (D.Y.P.C.O.E., Pimpri, Pune) for encouraging and helping me to publish this book. I am glad to have an authoring of Mr. Pritesh B. Shah (D.Y.P.C.O.E., Pimpri, Pune) with careful editing of contents and completing the whole activity with minimum time & great efforts. Many thanks to all the faculty members & teachers in Mumbai & Pune University & those who supported & encouraged me to publish the various useful & needful books. The books that are bridging the gap of contents & simplification between reference materials & applied curriculum of engineering course in Mumbai & Pune University which will further conform to all the curriculums in Indian Universities. I would like to have suggestions for the improvement of the contents of this book from all the concerned teachers, professors and readers. Thanks to all the students for encouraging me to publish this book. Chinttan Dewalia D.I.E. (Institute of Polytechnic Engg, Lonere, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar University) B. E. Instrumentation Engg. (Dr. D.Y. Patil College of Engg., Pune) Editing: Mr. Chinttan Dewalia D.I.E. (Institute of Polytechnic Engg, Lonere, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar University) B. E. Instrumentation Engg. (Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Engg., Pune) Typesetting and Art: Mr. Jay Dewalia
  5. 5. Dedicated to … My parents and My friends Prashant, Swapnil, Ravi and Chandresh
  6. 6. i - Table of Contents IN DUSTRIAL AUTO MATIO N - CO N TEN TS Preface ii Acknowledgement iii Dedication iv 1 BASIC EVOLUTION OF INSTRUMENTS & CONTROL.........................................1-26 1.1 INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION BASIC AND TYPES OF AUTOMATION.................................................................. 1-1 1.1.1 Types of Automation Systems.................................................................................................................. 1-2 1.2 ROLE OF AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY ............................................................................................................... 1-2 1.3 BENEFITS OF AUTOMATION ............................................................................................................................... 1-4 1.3.1 Aims of plant automation.......................................................................................................................... 1-4 1.4 PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER............................................................................................................ 1-6 1.4.1 Distributed control system ........................................................................................................................ 1-7 1.4.2 SCADA ..................................................................................................................................................... 1-8 1.4.2.1 SCADA Components.............................................................................................................. 1-9 1.4.2.2 Potential benefits of SCADA................................................................................................. 1-10 1.4.2.3 SCADA Application............................................................................................................... 1-10 1.4.2.4 SCADA Vs DCS.................................................................................................................... 1-10 1.4.2.5 Considerations and benefits of SCADA system.................................................................... 1-11 1.4.3 Hybrid Control: Emerging Solution ......................................................................................................... 1-11 1.4.3.1 PC based Automation........................................................................................................... 1-11 1.5 THE ARCHITECTURE OF ELEMENTS: THE AUTOMATION PYRAMID OR AUTOMATION LEVELS IN A PLANT............................................................................................................................................ 1-12 1.5.1 Automation Strategy............................................................................................................................... 1-13 1.6 AUDITING EXISTING PLANTS FOR UPGRADING............................................................................................. 1-14 1.7 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA ................................................................................................................................ 1-21 1.8 USR (USER REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION) FOR PROCESS AUTOMATION ............................................. 1-21 1.8.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 1-21 1.8.2 Overview ................................................................................................................................................ 1-21 1.8.3 Operational Requirements...................................................................................................................... 1-21 1.8.4 Constrains .............................................................................................................................................. 1-22 1.8.5 Life Cycle................................................................................................................................................ 1-23 1.9 FUNCTIONAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION............................................................................................................ 1-23 1.9.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 1-24 1.9.2 Client Summary...................................................................................................................................... 1-24 1.9.3 Assumptions........................................................................................................................................... 1-24 1.9.4 Constraints ............................................................................................................................................. 1-25 1.9.5 Implementation Implications ................................................................................................................... 1-25 1.9.6 Functional Overview............................................................................................................................... 1-25 1.9.7 Design Summary.................................................................................................................................... 1-25 1.9.8 Function Design...................................................................................................................................... 1-26 1.9.9 Issues and Questions ............................................................................................................................. 1-26  Review Questions .................................................................................................................................................. 1-26 2 PLC PROGRAMMING METHODS AS PER IEC 61131 .........................................2-26 2.1 IEC 61131............................................................................................................................................................... 2-1 2.1.1 IEC 61131-3 ............................................................................................................................................. 2-1 2.1.1.1 Main Features of IEC 1131-3.................................................................................................. 2-2 2.1.1.2 IEC 1131-3 Programming Languages .................................................................................... 2-2
  7. 7. ii – Industrial Automation 2.1.1.3 Function Block Diagram (FBD) ............................................................................................... 2-2 2.1.1.4 Structured Text (ST) ............................................................................................................... 2-3 2.1.1.5 Instruction List (IL) .................................................................................................................. 2-3 2.1.1.6 Sequential Function Chart (SFC)............................................................................................ 2-4 2.2 PLC APPLICATION FOR BATCH PROCESS USING SFC.................................................................................... 2-4 2.2.1 Basic Control Structures........................................................................................................................... 2-6 2.2.2 Sequential Function Chart Example ......................................................................................................... 2-8 2.3 ROLE OF PLC IN PROCESS CONTROL (SCADA)............................................................................................. 2-10 2.4 PLC INTERFACE TO SCADA-DCS USING COMMUNICATION LINKS: RS-232................................................ 2-12 2.4.1 Standard details...................................................................................................................................... 2-12 2.4.1.1 Limitations of the standard.................................................................................................... 2-15 2.4.2 PLC Interface to SCADA-DCS using communication links_RS-485....................................................... 2-16 2.4.2.1 Differential signals with RS485: Longer distances and higher bit rates ................................ 2-17 2.4.2.2 Characteristics of RS485 compared to RS232, RS422 and RS423...................................... 2-18 2.4.2.3 Network topology with RS485............................................................................................... 2-19 2.4.2.3 RS485 functionality............................................................................................................... 2-19 2.5 PROTOCOLS MODBUS, ASCII, RTU.................................................................................................................. 2-20 2.5.1 Introducing Modbus Protocol.................................................................................................................. 2-20 2.5.1 ASCII...................................................................................................................................................... 2-25 2.5.2 RTU ........................................................................................................................................................ 2-26  Review Questions .................................................................................................................................................. 2-26 3 HART PROTOCOL .................................................................................................3-56 3.1 WHAT IS HART? .................................................................................................................................................... 3-1 3.1.1 Communication Modes............................................................................................................................. 3-3 3.2 THE HART MESSAGE STRUCTURE .................................................................................................................... 3-4 3.2.1 DDL device description............................................................................................................................. 3-5 3.2.2 HART Commands .................................................................................................................................... 3-7 3.2.3 Continuous HART Communication Increases Safety Integrity Level (SIL) ............................................... 3-9 3.2.3.1 Cost-Saving Applications...................................................................................................... 3-12 3.4 OSI MODEL.......................................................................................................................................................... 3-13 3.5 BENEFITS OF HART COMMUNICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 3-16 3.6 FOUNDATION FIELDBUS INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 3-19 3.7 FIELDBUS MESSAGE SPECIFICATION (FMS) .................................................................................................. 3-21 3.8 FOUNDATION DEVICE DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (DDL)............................................................................... 3-21 3.9 H1 FIELDBUS MODEL......................................................................................................................................... 3-22 3.10 IMPLEMENTATION EXAMPLES.......................................................................................................................... 3-24 3.11 BENEFITS ............................................................................................................................................................ 3-24 3.12 FIELDBUS ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES ............................................................................................. 3-27 3.13 DEVICENET ......................................................................................................................................................... 3-34 3.14 PROFIBUS-PA ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-38 3.15 CONTROLNET ..................................................................................................................................................... 3-48 3.16 AS-I PROTOCOL.................................................................................................................................................. 3-52 3.17 INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET .................................................................................................................................... 3-56  Review Questions .................................................................................................................................................. 3-56 4 DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS BASICS .....................................................4-32 4.1 DCS INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................ 4-1 4.2 DCS FUNCTIONS .................................................................................................................................................. 4-3 4.3 ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES OF DCS ................................................................................................... 4-5
  8. 8. iii - Table of Contents 4.4 COMPONENTS OF DCS........................................................................................................................................ 4-5 4.5 EXAMPLE OF DCS ................................................................................................................................................ 4-8 4.6 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE .................................................................................................................................. 4-10 4.6.1 Evolution of hierarchical system structure .............................................................................................. 4-13 4.6.2 On-Line, open-loop application............................................................................................................... 4-14 4.6.3 On-Line, Closed loop control .................................................................................................................. 4-14 4.6.4 Distributed dedicated computers ............................................................................................................ 4-14 4.6.5 Two-stage hierarchical or decentralized computer system..................................................................... 4-15 4.6.6 Centralized computer system ................................................................................................................. 4-15 4.6.7 Hierarchical structure with intermediate computers (three stage hierarchical computer)........................ 4-16 4.6.8 Hierarchical computer system of the company....................................................................................... 4-17 4.6.9 Honeywell TDC 3000 DCS Architecture ................................................................................................. 4-17 4.6.10 Honeywell – Gus .................................................................................................................................... 4-19 4.7 DCS ENGINEERING, DESIGN/ SPECIFICATIONS & PROJECT ENGINEERING.............................................. 4-21 4.7.1 Design / Specifications and Selection..................................................................................................... 4-21 4.7.2 Control Systems Engineering ................................................................................................................. 4-23 4.7.3 Performance Criteria .............................................................................................................................. 4-24 4.7.4 Detail Engineering .................................................................................................................................. 4-24 4.7.5 Automation Strategy............................................................................................................................... 4-25 4.7.6 DCS Specification................................................................................................................................... 4-25 4.8 LATEST SCENARIO – PLC, SCADA & DCS BASED AUTOMATION ................................................................. 4-30 4.9 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA ................................................................................................................................ 4-31  Review Questions .................................................................................................................................................. 4-32 5 DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING & DESIGN........................5-24 5.1 DCS ENGINEERING .............................................................................................................................................. 5-1 5.2 CONFIGURATION AND PROGRAMMING OF DCS.............................................................................................. 5-2 5.3 DATABASE ORGANIZATION ................................................................................................................................ 5-6 5.4 REPORTS .............................................................................................................................................................. 5-9 5.5 AN ALARM MANAGEMENT................................................................................................................................... 5-9 5.6 MONITORING AND COMMAND FACILITIES...................................................................................................... 5-14 5.6.1 Display Organization .............................................................................................................................. 5-15 5.6.2 Standard display..................................................................................................................................... 5-15 5.6.2.1 Plant overview display .......................................................................................................... 5-15 5.6.2.2 Unit or area overview display................................................................................................ 5-16 5.6.2.3 Group Display....................................................................................................................... 5-17 5.6.2.4 Loop Display......................................................................................................................... 5-17 5.6.2.5 Detailed display .................................................................................................................... 5-18 5.6.2.6 Alarm survey......................................................................................................................... 5-18 5.6.2.7 Trend display ........................................................................................................................ 5-18 5.6.3 User Defined Displays ............................................................................................................................ 5-19 5.6.3.1 Plant Mimic diagram ............................................................................................................. 5-19 5.6.3.2 Batch control diagrams......................................................................................................... 5-19 5.7 THIRD PARTY INTERFACE & OPC..................................................................................................................... 5-20 5.8 ADVANCE PROCESS CONTROL ....................................................................................................................... 5-22 5.9 SECURITY & USER ACCESS CONTROL ........................................................................................................... 5-23  Review Questions .................................................................................................................................................. 5-24 6 OTHER AUTOMATION TOOLS..............................................................................6-73 6.1 OTHER AUTOMATION TOOLS ............................................................................................................................. 6-1
  9. 9. iv – Industrial Automation 6.1.1 Artificial neural network ............................................................................................................................ 6-1 6.1.2 Human Machine Interface ........................................................................................................................ 6-2 6.1.3 Manufacturing Execution System ............................................................................................................. 6-2 6.1.4 Programmable automation controller........................................................................................................ 6-3 6.2 PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................... 6-3 6.3 SCADA APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT............................................................................................................. 6-21 6.4 BATCH PROCESS ............................................................................................................................................... 6-21 6.5 APPLICATIONS.................................................................................................................................................... 6-34 6.5.1 Power Plants .......................................................................................................................................... 6-34 6.5.2 Semi-automatic System.......................................................................................................................... 6-36 6.5.3 Power Plant Process .............................................................................................................................. 6-38 6.5.4 Application of DCCS in Power Plants..................................................................................................... 6-40 6.5.5 Advanced Control Algorithms ................................................................................................................. 6-45 6.6 SCADA ................................................................................................................................................................. 6-46 6.6.1 Architecture of SCADA ........................................................................................................................... 6-46 6.6.2 The block diagram of SCADA................................................................................................................. 6-47 6.7 CEMENT INDUSTRY ........................................................................................................................................... 6-48 6.7.1 Rotary kiln and cement grinding unit ...................................................................................................... 6-48 6.7.2 Rotary kiln and cement grinding unit ...................................................................................................... 6-49 6.7.3 Controlled variable.................................................................................................................................. 6-50 6.7.4 PLC for Cement industry ........................................................................................................................ 6-51 6.7.5 Blend processes control ......................................................................................................................... 6-52 6.7.6 SCADA for clinker application................................................................................................................. 6-53 6.7.7 DCS for cement...................................................................................................................................... 6-54 6.8 WATER TREATMENT PLANT ............................................................................................................................. 6-55 6.8.1 Theory: The process of treatment for portable water is described in fig. ................................................ 6-55 6.8.2 Automation strategy................................................................................................................................ 6-56 6.8.3 Pre-chlorination control........................................................................................................................... 6-57 6.8.4 Chemical dosage control ........................................................................................................................ 6-57 6.8.5 Sludge level Control ............................................................................................................................... 6-57 6.8.6 Filter back washing control ..................................................................................................................... 6-57 6.8.7 Post chlorination control ......................................................................................................................... 6-58 6.8.8 Water distribution control........................................................................................................................ 6-59 6.8.9 DCS for water treatment plant ................................................................................................................ 6-59 6.8.10 SCADA for water treatment plant ........................................................................................................... 6-61 6.9 STEEL PLANT...................................................................................................................................................... 6-61 6.9.1 Theory .................................................................................................................................................... 6-61 6.9.2 Automation strategy................................................................................................................................ 6-62 6.9.3 Iron Zone ................................................................................................................................................ 6-64 6.9.4 Steel Zone .............................................................................................................................................. 6-64 6.9.5 Hot rolling mill......................................................................................................................................... 6-64 6.9.6 DCS for steel plant (Only major controls shown).................................................................................... 6-65 6.9.7 SCADA for steel plant............................................................................................................................. 6-67 6.10 SCADA FOR PAPER & PULP INDUSTRY WITH POSSIBLE ISO....................................................................... 6-67 6.10.1 DCS for paper & pulp industry............................................................................................................... 6-68 6.11 FERTILIZER INDUSTRY...................................................................................................................................... 6-69 6.11.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 6-69 6.11.2 Products ................................................................................................................................................. 6-69 6.11.3 DCS for Fertiliser.................................................................................................................................... 6-69 6.11.4 SCADA for “Fertiliser”............................................................................................................................. 6-70 6.11.5 Ammonia plant [NH3].............................................................................................................................. 6-70 6.11.6 DCS for Ammonia Plant: Controls .......................................................................................................... 6-71 6.11.7 Ammonia sulphate (NH4) SO4 ................................................................................................................ 6-72  Review Questions .................................................................................................................................................. 6-73 

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