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Broadband Communications systems 2015 (B.E. E & TC)

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Broadband Communications systems 2015 (B.E. E & TC) table of contents.
Download Full PDF containing First Three Units of BCS subject from www.chinttanpublications.in

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Broadband Communications systems 2015 (B.E. E & TC)

  1. 1. Contents i UNIT I: Light wave System Components [1-1 to 1-32] 1.1 INTRODUCTION [1-1] 1.1.1 Electromagnetic spectrum and optical spectral bands [1-10] 1.1.2 Key elements of fiber optic communication systems [1-10] 1.1.3 Comparison of optical fiber communication and other communication systems [1-12] 1.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC MODE THEORY FOR OPTICAL PROPAGATION [1-12] 1.2.1 Phase and group velocity [1-12] 1.2.2 Cut off wavelength and group delay [1-14] 1.2.3 Propagation modes and modes in the fiber [1-15] 1.2.3.1 Mode coupling (mode transfer) in fiber [1-21] 1.2.3.2 Modal Noise [1-21] 1.3 FIBER TYPES [1-23] 1.4 COMPARISON TABLES [1-27] Solved Examples [1-28] Drill Problems [1-29] Review Questions [1-30] [2-1 to 2-23] 2.1 ATTENUATION OR SIGNAL DEGRADATION IN OPTICAL FIBER [2-1] 2.1.1 Absorption [2-2] 2.1.2 Rayleigh scattering [2-3] 2.1.3 Radiative losses [2-4] 2.1.4 Scattering losses [2-5] 2.1.4.1 Raman scattering or the Raman Effect [2-8] 2.1.4.2 Brillouin scattering [2-9] 2.1.5 Attenuation or loss characteristics for all glass optical fiber [2-9] 2.2 SIGNAL DISTORTION OR DISPERSION IN OPTICAL FIBERS [2-11] 2.2.1 Intermodal dispersion [2-14] 2.2.2 Intramodal dispersion or chromatic dispersion [2-17] 2.3 COMPARISON TABLES [2-18] Review Questions [2-20] [3-1 to 3-55]
  2. 2. ii Broadband Communication Systems 3.1 INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL SOURCES [3-1] 3.2 LEDS STRUCTURES [3-2] 3.2.1 PN junction light emitting diode (Homo-junction LED) [3-3] 3.2.2 Double hetero structure LED sources [3-5] 3.2.3 Surface emitting LED (SLED) [3-6] 3.2.4 Edge-emitting LED [3-7] 3.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF LED DEVICES [3-8] 3.3.1 LED power versus forward current [3-8] 3.3.2 LED spectral width [3-10] 3.3.3 Output spectrum [3-10] 3.3.4 Internal Quantum efficiency [3-10] 3.3.5 External power efficiency [3-11] 3.3.6 Fresnel reflection and transmission coefficients [3-11] 3.3.7 Bandwidth and beamwidth [3-12] 3.3.8 3-dB bandwidths [3-12] 3.3.9 Modulation bandwidth [3-12] 3.3.10 Electrical bandwidth [3-13] 3.3.11 Optical bandwidth [3-13] 3.4 LED DRIVE CIRCUITS [3-14] 3.4.1 Digital transmission [3-14] 3.4.2 Analog transmission [3-15] 3.5 LASERs [3-16] 3.5.1 Fundamental lasing operation [3-17] 3.5.2 Stimulated emission [3-17] 3.5.3 Multimode LASER output spectrum center wavelength [3-19] 3.5.4 Threshold condition for lasing [3-19] 3.5.5 Single mode operation [3-21] 3.5.6 Types of LASERs [3-21] 3.6 SEMICONDUCTOR LASER [3-24] 3.6.1 Threshold current density for semiconductor lasers [3-26] 3.6.2 DFB (Distributed Feedback) Lasers [3-27] 3.6.3 Performance comparison of DFB and DBR [3-28] 3.6.4 Gain guided lasers [3-29] 3.6.5 Index guided lasers [3-30] 3.6.6 Quantum well lasers [3-30] 3.6.7 Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) [3-31] 3.6.8 LASER Characteristics [3-34]
  3. 3. Contents iii 3.6.8.1 Threshold current temperature dependence [3-35] 3.6.8.2 Dynamic response [3-36] 3.6.8.3 Frequency chirp [3-36] 3.6.8.4 Mode hopping [3-36] 3.6.8.5 Reliability [3-37] 3.6.9 Laser drive circuits [3-37] 3.7 MODULATION OF OPTICAL SOURCES [3-38] 3.7.1 Types of optical modulation [3-39] 3.7.2 Line coding [3-40] 3.7.3 Most popular line codes [3-41] 3.7.4 Properties of line codes [3-42] 3.7.5 Applications of Line codes for LAN (Local Area Network) [3-42] 3.7.6 Block codes [3-44] 3.8 POWER LAUNCHING AND COUPLING [3-44] 3.8.1 Lensing schemes for coupling improvements [3-46] 3.8.1.1 GaAs/AlGaAs spherical ended fiber coupled LED [3-46] 3.8.1.2 A truncated spherical micro lens [3-47] 3.8.1.3 Integral lens structure [3-47] 3.8.2 LASER diode to fiber coupling [3-48] 3.8.3 Equilibrium NA [3-49] 3.8.4 Coupling efficiency of source and fiber [3-49] 3.9 COMPARISON TABLES [3-49] Review Questions [3-51] [4-1 to 4-28] 4.1 INTRODUCTION [4-1] 4.2 OPTICAL DETECTORS [4-2] 4.2.1 Optical communication bands [4-4] 4.2.2 Characteristics of photodetectors [4-4] 4.3 PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBES (PMT) [4-6] 4.3.1 Working of PMT [4-7] 4.4 SEMICONDUCTOR PHOTODETECTORS [4-10] 4.4.1 The PIN diode [4-11] 4.4.2 Avalanche Photodiode (APD) [4-12] 4.4.3 Reach through diode (RAPD) [4-14] 4.4.4 III-V alloys photodiodes (SAM-APD) [4-18]
  4. 4. iv Broadband Communication Systems 4.4.5 Selection and design criteria for photodetection [4-18] 4.4.6 Relative advantages and disadvantages of photodiodes [4-19] 4.5 PHOTO TRANSISTORS [4-20] 4.5.1 Phototransistor structure [4-20] 4.5.2 Phototransistor characteristics [4-21] 4.5.3 Characteristics of photo-transistor under different light intensities [4-22] 4.5.4 Modes of operation of phototransistor [4-22] 4.6 OTHER PHOTODETECTION SCHEMES (METHODS) [4-23] 4.6.1 Photovoltaic effect [4-23] 4.6.2 Photo resistive effect [4-24] 4.7 STATE OF ART: PHOTODETECTORS [4-24] 4.8 COMPARISON TABLES [4-25] Review Questions [4-26] UNIT II: Lightwave Systems [5-1 to 5-33] 5.0 INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES [5-1] 5.1 POINT TO POINT OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION LINKS [5-4] 5.1.1 General design considerations in point-to-point optical link [5-4] 5.1.2 Choices of components in point-to-point optical fiber link design [5-4] 5.1.3 Simplex point-to-point optical link [5-5] 5.1.4 Power loss model for point-to-point fiber optic link [5-6] 5.2 OPTICAL LINK POWER BUDGET [5-7] 5.2.1 Optical source selection criteria for power budget and rise time budget [5-8] 5.2.2 Optical detector selection criteria for power budget and rise time budget [5-9] 5.2.3 Power penalty in link power budget [5-11] 5.2.4 Sources of power penalty [5-12] 5.2.5 Optical link power budget examples [5-13] 5.3 RISE TIME BUDGET [5-19] 5.4 LONG-HAUL SYSTEMS [5-22] 5.5 COMPARISON TABLE [5-24] Solved Examples [5-25] Drill Problems [5-29] Review Questions [5-32]
  5. 5. Contents v UNIT III: Multichannel Systems [6-1 to 6-86] 6.1 INTRODUCTION TO WDM [6-1] 6.1.1 Fiber bandwidth considerations [6-2] 6.2 WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (WDM) [6-2] 6.2.1 Operation of simple WDM systems [6-3] 6.2.1.1 Demultiplexing of WDM channel [6-4] 6.2.1.2 Tasks in a WDM Network [6-4] 6.2.1.3 Typical specifications of WDM [6-5] 6.2.1.4 Design parameters of WDM systems [6-5] 6.2.1.5 Parameters to be considered for WDM system design [6-5] 6.2.2 Examples of WDM [6-6] 6.2.3 Types of WDM [6-6] 6.2.3.1 Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing (CWDM) [6-8] 6.2.3.2 Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) [6-9] 6.2.3.3 Comparison of WDM, CWDM and DWDM [6-11] 6.2.4 WDM or DWDM Standards [6-12] 6.2.4.1 O and L band in optical domain [6-13] 6.2.4.2 ITU-T standard for transmission of DWDM [6-13] 6.2.5 Key components for WDM systems [6-14] 6.2.5.1 Tunable DBR Laser [6-15] 6.2.5.2 Tunable optical filter [6-16] 6.2.5.3 Dielectric thin film filter [6-17] 6.2.5.4 Optical ADD/DROP multiplexer (ADM) [6-17] 6.2.5.5 Optical cross connect (OXC) [6-18] 6.2.5.6 Optical gateway [6-18] 6.2.5.7 Variable optical attenuator (VOA) [6-18] 6.3 FIBER OPTIC COUPLERS [6-20] 6.3.1 Important characteristics of fiber optic coupler [6-21] 6.3.2 Classification of coupler [6-22] 6.3.3 Basic star coupler [6-23] 6.3.4 Fused star coupler or 2 2 coupler [6-23] 6.3.4.1 Tap coupler [6-26] 6.3.4.2 Ladder coupler or tree coupler [6-29]
  6. 6. vi Broadband Communication Systems 6.3.5 Diffusion couplers [6-29] 6.3.5.1 Evanescent (short-lived or temporary) wave coupler [6-30] 6.3.5.2 Radiative coupler or fused biconical taper coupler [6-30] 6.3.6 Area-splitting coupler [6-31] 6.3.7 Beam-splitter coupler [6-32] 6.3.8 Wavelength-selective coupler [6-32] 6.3.9 Variable coupler [6-33] 6.3.10 Circulators [6-33] 6.3.10.1 Three port circulator [6-33] 6.3.10.2 Four port circulator [6-34] 6.3.10.3 Circulators with FBG (an extended ADD/DROP multiplexer) [6-34] 6.3.11 Grating [6-35] 6.3.11.1 Grating profiles [6-36] 6.3.11.2 Characteristics of In-fiber Bragg grating [6-36] 6.3.11.3 Basic parameters of the grating [6-37] 6.3.11.4 Types of gratings according to multiplexing and demultiplexing requirements [6-37] 6.3.11.5 Applications of In-fiber Bragg grating [6-38] 6.3.12 Isolator [6-38] 6.3.12.1 Faraday Effect [6-39] 6.3.12.2 Simple Isolator [6-39] 6.3.12.3 Polarisation independent isolator [6-40] 6.3.13 Splitter [6-41] 6.3.13.1 Beam splitter [6-41] 6.3.13.2 Active beam splitter or Y junction switch or Y junction beam splitter [6-41] 6.3.14 Wavelength converter [6-42] 6.3.14.1 Amplitude gain crosstalk in SOAs [6-43] 6.3.14.2 Cross-phase modulation in SOAs [6-43] 6.3.14.3 Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) in SOAs [6-44] 6.3.14.4 Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) [6-44] 6.3.14.5 Frequency shifting with acousto-optic modulators [6-44] 6.3.14.6 Optoelectronic regenerator [6-44] 6.3.15 Wavelength Router [6-45] 6.3.15.1 Wavelength router design using an AWG demultiplexer [6-45] 6.3.16 Passive linear bus [6-47] 6.3.17 WDM architectures [6-48] 6.3.18 Wavelength shifting and wavelength reuse [6-51] 6.3.18.1 Passive wavelength routing [6-51]
  7. 7. Contents vii 6.3.18.2 Active wavelength shifting [6-52] 6.3.18.3 Switching [6-53] 6.3.18.4 Buffering in optical switching [6-53] 6.3.19 Data-format conversion methods [6-53] 6.3.20 Protocols for optical networks [6-53] 6.3.21 Modes and response in WDM or DWDM [6-54] 6.3.22 Popular multiplexing methods [6-55] 6.3.22.1 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) [6-55] 6.3.22.2 Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) [6-56] 6.3.22.3 Code-division multiplexing (CDM) [6-56] 6.3.22.4 Space-division multiplexing (SDM) [6-57] 6.3.23 Multiple access schemes [6-57] 6.3.24 State of art: WDM components [6-58] 6.4 OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS [6-58] 6.4.1 Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) [6-61] 6.4.1.1 Simple SOAs [6-61] 6.4.1.2 Travelling wave amplifier (TWA or TWSLA) [6-62] 6.4.2 Gain saturation power of SOA [6-64] 6.4.2.1 Gain profiles of various SOAs [6-64] 6.4.2.2 Measurement of optical amplifier gain using optical spectrum analyzer [6-65] 6.4.3 Gain and bandwidth calculations of FPA and SOA [6-65] 6.4.4 Optical amplifier noise [6-66] 6.4.5 Advantages and disadvantages of SOA [6-68] 6.4.6 Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) [6-69] 6.4.6.1 EDFA designs [6-69] 6.4.6.2 Gain in EDFA [6-71] 6.4.6.3 EDFA power conversion efficiency and gain [6-71] 6.4.6.4 Comparison between doped fiber and conventional repeater [6-72] 6.4.7 Raman Fiber amplifiers (RFAs) [6-72] 6.5 SWITCHES AND MODULATORS [6-73] 6.5.1 Modulator based on Mach Zehnder interferometer [6-74] 6.5.2 Photonic switching [6-75] 6.5.2.1 Properties of photonic switching [6-75] 6.5.2.2 Characteristics of photonic switching [6-75] 6.5.2.3 Types of photonic switches [6-75] Solved Examples [6-76] Drill Problems [6-77]
  8. 8. viii Broadband Communication Systems Review Questions [6-77] FREE Download this table of contents from www.chinttanpublications.in Download Full contents first three Units of Broadband communication Systems from : www.chinttanpublications.in

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